View Full Version : Cumulative General Science/Technology Quiz


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Catharsis
Feb 04, 2008, 02:30 PM
Who knows, this might work. Might not. :hmm: This will use similar rules to the History Quiz, and those rules are copied below, along with Knight-Dragon's questionable formatting. :mischief: I've added a bit, too - the bits in bold are new.

Procedures :-
1) A asks a question, the rest will try to answer.
2) A must confirm which answer is correct.
3) Person (say B) with confirmed correct answer then asks the next question.
4) A cannot play again until B's turn is over (to prevent the thread turning into a 2 person spam party).
5) Repeat.
6) If person asking question doesn't login to confirm answers within 72 hrs of his question being posted, any one can ask a new question.
7) If no one can answer question within 72 hrs or can't get the right one, questioner can ask again.
8) Definitely no Net or book searches. The answers would be too easy to find if you were allowed to use Google and the like.
9) If answer has been confirmed and the new questioner hasn't set a question in 72 hours, anyone can ask the new question.
10) You can ask questions on any aspect of science (including the history of science and scientists) but let's try not to resort to 'm=3kg a=2ms-2 please work out F'. Come on, guys. ;) Technology questions are also allowed and encouraged.
11) Mathematics is also allowed, but take heed of rule 10).

Right, first question. Match the fundamental force to its relevant mediating elementary particle.

Gravitation W and Z bosons
Electromagnetic photon
Strong graviton (hypothetical particle, I know)
Weak gluon

Falcon02
Feb 04, 2008, 02:37 PM
Gravitation
graviton

Electromagnetic
photon

Strong
W and Z bosons

Weak
gluon

Niklas
Feb 04, 2008, 02:39 PM
Alright, lemme see how good I manage without Google on this one. ;)

Gravitation - graviton
Electromagnetic - photon
Strong - gluon
Weak - W and Z bosons

Catharsis
Feb 04, 2008, 02:40 PM
Not quite.

EDIT: That was to Falcon. Niklas is correct. You're up.

Niklas
Feb 04, 2008, 02:44 PM
:woohoo:

Alright, name the five nucleobases, and specify which of them that doesn't appear in DNA and RNA respectively.

Falcon02
Feb 04, 2008, 02:45 PM
Not quite.

EDIT: That was to Falcon. Niklas is correct. You're up.

Thought I might have strong and weak reversed, never really took any quantum physics.

Speedo
Feb 04, 2008, 02:49 PM
Edit: Answering Niklas' question.

A G C T U (don't remember the names, dammit)

T appears in DNA, U in RNA.

Niklas
Feb 04, 2008, 02:51 PM
Since I specifically asked for names though... :mischief:

Catharsis
Feb 04, 2008, 03:22 PM
I can name A, C, T and G (I think! Only a vague recollection), but not U.

But I'm not allowed to answer this question. :coffee:

Niklas
Feb 04, 2008, 03:23 PM
For comic relief, for some reason I keep thinking C should be Cyanide. :crazyeye:

Abaddon
Feb 04, 2008, 04:04 PM
Spelling counts?


Uracile, Adenine, Cystine, Thyamin, Guanine?

U is the RNA one

A-G
A-T
A-U

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 04, 2008, 04:32 PM
U for Uracil, A for Adenine, C for Cystine, T for Thymine, and G for Guanine

Uracil is found in RNA, while Thymine (?) is its counterpart in DNA.

Niklas
Feb 04, 2008, 04:39 PM
Cloooooose but not quite. Abbadon has the right idea, though SS-18 ICBM has corrected his mis-naming of Thymine. However, both give the same incorrect answer for C. It's not just a matter of spelling either.

Also Abbadon, good work on the pairings, though you've made an error that I think is a simple miswrite. It should be C-G on the first line, which I think you were aware.

Whoever first posts the correct name for C gets to go!

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 04, 2008, 04:40 PM
Now I remember. It's Cytosine.

Niklas
Feb 04, 2008, 05:06 PM
Yup, your go! :goodjob:

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 04, 2008, 06:03 PM
Name the steps of cellular respiration.

Brighteye
Feb 04, 2008, 06:10 PM
As in, all the steps of the Krebs cycle? Gylcolysis? Or just the electron transport chain?

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 04, 2008, 06:11 PM
All the major steps of cellular respiration, not including the individual steps of each part.

Brighteye
Feb 04, 2008, 06:29 PM
Nope, don't remember all of it.

Aramazd
Feb 04, 2008, 06:40 PM
All the major steps of cellular respiration, not including the individual steps of each part.
Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and electron transport chain? or more specific?

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 04, 2008, 07:05 PM
Yes, that would be the major groups of events in cellular respiration. It's your turn.

Aramazd
Feb 04, 2008, 07:52 PM
Yes, that would be the major groups of events in cellular respiration. It's your turn.
All Right, I'll think of one.

Aramazd
Feb 04, 2008, 08:13 PM
What are the sturctural differences between cell walls in Plants, Fungi, and Bacteria?

Genocidicbunny
Feb 04, 2008, 08:28 PM
Cell walls in plants are rigid, in bacteria they're not. And if I remember correctly, fungal cell walls do not have cellulose in them?

Aramazd
Feb 04, 2008, 08:33 PM
Cell walls in plants are rigid, in bacteria they're not. And if I remember correctly, fungal cell walls do not have cellulose in them?
Yes, but I was also looking for what both fungal and bacterial cell walls were made out of.

Genocidicbunny
Feb 04, 2008, 08:49 PM
Fungal cell walls are made of chitin. And bacterial cell walls are made from...uhhm, a lot of polysaccharides?

Aramazd
Feb 04, 2008, 08:57 PM
Fungal cell walls are made of chitin. And bacterial cell walls are made from...uhhm, a lot of polysaccharides?
Archaea have cell walls made of polysaccharides. Bacteria don't.

Genocidicbunny
Feb 04, 2008, 09:13 PM
Well, unless you wish to say that I got it, I'm out of ideas. I dont remember much else from basic bio 2 yeas ago.

Aramazd
Feb 04, 2008, 09:27 PM
Well, unless you wish to say that I got it, I'm out of ideas. I dont remember much else from basic bio 2 yeas ago.
Well, I don't know if I can say it 'til 72 hours, but if you guys want I could say the answer and open the floor.

Aramazd
Feb 05, 2008, 12:24 AM
If anyone wants, they can ask a question, I don't think anyone is going to get mine:(

Abaddon
Feb 05, 2008, 01:48 AM
As in, all the steps of the Krebs cycle? Gylcolysis? Or just the electron transport chain?

Ooh, i'd managed to repress those memorys!

Abaddon
Feb 05, 2008, 01:50 AM
Do bacteria even have cell walls? I thought only plants had walls, bacteria have membranes? a phospholipid bi-layer..

Serutan
Feb 05, 2008, 08:41 AM
Ok, why does -40 degrees not have to be annotated with a system abbreviation?

StarWorms
Feb 05, 2008, 08:57 AM
Bacteria use peptidoglycan, fungi use chitin, plants use cellulose.

Genocidicbunny
Feb 05, 2008, 10:17 AM
Ok, why does -40 degrees not have to be annotated with a system abbreviation?

both Fahrenheit and Celsius are the same at -40.

Niklas
Feb 05, 2008, 10:32 AM
... and Kelvin doesn't allow for negative values. But I don't think it was Serutan's turn to go. :p

Genocidicbunny
Feb 05, 2008, 11:16 AM
If anyone wants, they can ask a question, I don't think anyone is going to get mine:(

... and Kelvin doesn't allow for negative values. But I don't think it was Serutan's turn to go. :p


Maybe it was ;)

Abaddon
Feb 05, 2008, 11:46 AM
wasn't there a 72 hour wait?

Catharsis
Feb 05, 2008, 11:47 AM
Abgar technically opened the floor in post #30, so Serutan was fully justified in asking his question.

Abaddon
Feb 05, 2008, 11:49 AM
No worries.. why is this called cumulative tho, unless the OP counts up the winners?

Serutan
Feb 05, 2008, 01:09 PM
Niklas is right. His question.

@Abaddon - I think it's just because it's one thread for all the questions.

Niklas
Feb 05, 2008, 01:43 PM
Alright, time to switch science discipline:

What does it mean for a problem to be NP complete?

dutchfire
Feb 05, 2008, 02:26 PM
Something with the amount of time it takes to solve or something. NP complete means that it's linear IIRC. I once read about it, but forgot :blush:

Niklas
Feb 05, 2008, 02:53 PM
At least you got the general area of the question right. But your answer is more or less as wrong as it could be. ;)

Mise
Feb 05, 2008, 03:05 PM
Guess based on vague memory of a wiki article on sorting algorithms I once read... "NP complete means that it's a problem that can't be solved in polynomial time"? i.e. time taken ~ not O(n^a), but O(a^n), where n is the number of "units" to be computed (e.g. number of items to be sorted) and a is some arbitrary constant?

Niklas
Feb 05, 2008, 03:35 PM
Now you've got the NP part (NP = non-polynomial), but not the NP complete part. Though that might be a bit too difficult, so if no one gets it soon I'll give you the floor.

Mise
Feb 05, 2008, 03:53 PM
(don't give me the floor if no-one else gets it -- I'm rubbish at question setting! Erik Mesoy should get this one though... He seems up on all this NP crap.)

Niklas
Feb 05, 2008, 04:09 PM
Yeah, if Erik reads this he's going to know for sure.

Aramazd
Feb 05, 2008, 08:05 PM
Bacteria use peptidoglycan, fungi use chitin, plants use cellulose.
Correct:goodjob: , but I passed the floor a while ago.

StarWorms
Feb 06, 2008, 06:15 AM
Correct:goodjob: , but I passed the floor a while ago.Next time leave it open a bit longer; in my timezone the question was open from 2am to 6am.

Niklas
Feb 06, 2008, 06:20 AM
Well, if no one gets my quiz correctly, and since Mise doesn't want the floor, I can always give it to StarWorms for managing Abgar's quiz correctly. Though I'll wait at least 24 hours from posting my quiz.

dutchfire
Feb 06, 2008, 06:58 AM
Well, if no one gets my quiz correctly, and since Mise doesn't want the floor, I can always give it to StarWorms for managing Abgar's quiz correctly. Though I'll wait at least 24 hours from posting my quiz.

I vaguely remember something about this in a wiki-article as well, I believe it's one of 7 great problems in math.

Is it that if you have the answer, it's "easy" to check if it's correct, but it's very hard to find the answer?

Niklas
Feb 06, 2008, 07:35 AM
You're getting closer.

It is one of the 7 great problems in math (well, 6 now that one has been solved), or rather, P=NP is. I.e. can NP problems actually be solved in polynomial time, thereby equating the two categories? Most everyone "knows" it isn't so, but no one has been able to prove it.

More formally, NP is the set of problems for which an answer can be verfied (as opposed to found) in polynomial time. P is the set of problems for which and answer can be found in polynomial time.

Meh, I can just as well give the answer since there seems to be no immediate takers:

An NP complete problem is one that all other NP problems can be expressed in terms of. That means that if one could prove the existance of a polynomial-time solution to one NP complete problem, all other NP problems could be expressed and thus solved in terms of that, proving that P=NP. Conversely, and more likely, if it could be proven for any one NP complete problem that there cannot exist a polynomial-time solution, that would also prove that P=/=NP.

dutchfire, Mise or StarWorms can go, whoever gets there first. ;)

StarWorms
Feb 06, 2008, 02:00 PM
Which is the largest gene in the human genome?

ori
Feb 06, 2008, 02:04 PM
dystrophin

StarWorms
Feb 06, 2008, 02:13 PM
Correct, next question!

ori
Feb 06, 2008, 03:05 PM
:hmm: I wanted to switch fields - but since I am pressed for time today, I go with my Avatar's job:

What was the first DNA Repair mechanism that was discovered?

StarWorms
Feb 06, 2008, 03:32 PM
Mismatch ?

Niklas
Feb 06, 2008, 03:49 PM
StarWorms, you have to wait one round before you may answer again...

As for the question, I have no idea.

ori
Feb 06, 2008, 03:59 PM
Mismatch ?
N o

Aramazd
Feb 06, 2008, 07:26 PM
Thymine Dimers?

Next time leave it open a bit longer; in my timezone the question was open from 2am to 6am.
All right, will do.

Serutan
Feb 06, 2008, 10:25 PM
Yes, IMO you should wait at least 24 hours before opening the floor.

ori
Feb 07, 2008, 05:24 AM
Thymine Dimers?

Thymine Dimers are a form of Damage - and one of a few repair mechanisms that repair them is indeed the one I am looking for :mischief:
In fact both the first and second mechanism found were characterized in part by showing repair of them :)

xienwolf
Feb 07, 2008, 11:39 AM
Hells, I know almost nothing about Genetics, but have a fun question I want to ask. So I'll guess...

RNA?

I highly doubt that is the case though. If you want specificity, I mean the fact that there is massive repetition through the DNA strand and the RNA does sort of a comparison check deal, and overwrites/replaces the sections that don't match up properly.

ori
Feb 07, 2008, 12:00 PM
Hells, I know almost nothing about Genetics, but have a fun question I want to ask. So I'll guess...

RNA?

I highly doubt that is the case though. If you want specificity, I mean the fact that there is massive repetition through the DNA strand and the RNA does sort of a comparison check deal, and overwrites/replaces the sections that don't match up properly.

never heard of RNA being used for repair (there are not many RNA reading DNA synthesizing enzymes out there - and none is a genuine repair enzyme) - though what you describe is (very) roughly mismatch repair (just using old vs. new DNA strands for the check) - which StarWorms already guessed. So no.

ori
Feb 09, 2008, 06:48 AM
its not quite 72 hours, but close enough I think. There don't seem to be any more takers.
The answer is Enzymatic Photoreactivation. For anyone interested: have a look at A brief history of the DNA repair field (http://www.nature.com/cr/journal/v18/n1/full/cr2007113a.html).

So to keep this going: something more recent :mischief:
What is Giant Magnetoresistance? I'd also be content with naming the product of everyday use that utilizes it :)

Niklas
Feb 09, 2008, 06:54 AM
What is Giant Magnetoresistance?
Couldn't say, but...
I'd also be content with naming the product of everyday use that utilizes it :)
... this I know. But I'll wait for a while, don't want to answer too fast, and I'd feel slightly cheating since I don't really have a clue about the physics behind it. :crazyeye:

Genocidicbunny
Feb 09, 2008, 01:08 PM
I also know the answer, and just like Niklas ill wait. Im curious to know how it actually works, not where its used.

dutchfire
Feb 09, 2008, 01:11 PM
its not quite 72 hours, but close enough I think. There don't seem to be any more takers.
The answer is Enzymatic Photoreactivation. For anyone interested: have a look at A brief history of the DNA repair field (http://www.nature.com/cr/journal/v18/n1/full/cr2007113a.html).

So to keep this going: something more recent :mischief:
What is Giant Magnetoresistance? I'd also be content with naming the product of everyday use that utilizes it :)

Isn't that this year's Noble Prize winning thing? I believe it's used in computer hard-drives.

Genocidicbunny
Feb 09, 2008, 01:13 PM
Guess Im not gonna be waiting much longer. I do know that its used in Hard Drives and that it was one of the Nobel Prizes last year.

SO now can someone explain it in laymans terms? Or at least close to them?

ori
Feb 09, 2008, 01:36 PM
Giant Magnetoresistance: Often abbreviated to GMR, the giant magnetoresistance is the large drop in resistance in a magnetic multilayer

For a more detailed, but still pretty readable description have a look at
Scientific Background (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2007/sci.html)
and
Information for the Public (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2007/info.html)
compiled by the Nobel Foundation.

Congrats y'all - now who was first :hmm: Niklas who first said he knew or dutchfire who was the first to post the answer - anyway go ahead post your question :p
:goodjob:

dutchfire
Feb 10, 2008, 04:53 AM
Okay, what's an RLC circuit, what are it's main components, and what is it's main use?

Genocidicbunny
Feb 10, 2008, 05:02 AM
Ive heard it before in conjunction with radio, so im gonna guess that they're used for radio? I have no idea what they are though..

dutchfire
Feb 10, 2008, 05:06 AM
Ive heard it before in conjunction with radio, so im gonna guess that they're used for radio? I have no idea what they are though..

That's correct, but I'm going to wait for someone to give a more complete answer. :)

Mise
Feb 10, 2008, 06:02 AM
I forget the details, but basically, it consists of a Resistor, Capacitor and Inductor in series or in parallel (depending on what you want to use it for -- again, I forget the details of what's used when...). The resistor has the same impedence regardless of frequency (of the AC supply). The capacitor acts as a perfect resistor under low frequencies, but as a perfect conductor under high frequencies. The Inductor does the opposite.

So in that way, you can "tune" the circuit to only select a narrow band of frequencies.

Not exactly a complete answer I admit.... I'm hazy on the details.

dutchfire
Feb 10, 2008, 10:44 AM
I forget the details, but basically, it consists of a Resistor, Capacitor and Inductor in series or in parallel (depending on what you want to use it for -- again, I forget the details of what's used when...). The resistor has the same impedence regardless of frequency (of the AC supply). The capacitor acts as a perfect resistor under low frequencies, but as a perfect conductor under high frequencies. The Inductor does the opposite.

So in that way, you can "tune" the circuit to only select a narrow band of frequencies.

Not exactly a complete answer I admit.... I'm hazy on the details.

:goodjob:
I was referring to a Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor in series. They are used in radio's to tune in to one specific frequency. This is done by changing the capacity of the Capacitor.

Wiki (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RLC_circuit)

Mise
Feb 11, 2008, 07:06 AM
I suck at question setting... I hereby open the floor! *opens*

Brighteye
Feb 11, 2008, 07:22 AM
What is the rationale behind prescribing certain people antibiotics when they have a bad cold or 'flu?

I would say which group of people, but that'd make it even easier. And no, I'm not talking about people who happen to have an infection when they get the cold, and therefore would have been taking antibiotics anyway.

Catharsis
Feb 11, 2008, 07:57 AM
Are you referring to children, and the rationale is that they would be expecting to get antibiotics for any disease, and so it acts as a sort of placebo to make them 'better' (i.e. able to go to school)?

Niklas
Feb 11, 2008, 08:03 AM
Yikes, I certainly hope not! Giving extraneous antibiotics to kids to make them resistant early in life, ugh... My thought was the elderly, with the rationale that if they get an infection as complication, it could be fatal.

Then again, it's not people that become resistant, its the bacteriae, and in that regard it shouldn't be better to give it to elderly than to kids. Same bacteriae, same resistances... But giving antibiotics for the placebo effect, that's just scary.

Falcon02
Feb 11, 2008, 08:16 AM
But giving antibiotics for the placebo effect, that's just scary.

That's why they have sugar pills and what not (ie. real placebos), but agreed.

Also, I think I'd expand it from just the eldarly to anyone with a weakened immune system, for whatever reason (ie. infant, just fought off the plague, whatnot). Since their more likely to have their immune system overwhelmed by the cold/flu AND something else.

peter grimes
Feb 11, 2008, 08:27 AM
Maybe it's only for people with severely weakened immune systems - people undergoing cancer treatments, for example.

I was also thinking it may have to do with pregnancy, but I can't imagine a scenario (other than severely compromised immune system) where that would be the lesser of all evils :hmm:

Brighteye
Feb 11, 2008, 09:44 AM
That's why they have sugar pills and what not (ie. real placebos), but agreed.

Also, I think I'd expand it from just the eldarly to anyone with a weakened immune system, for whatever reason (ie. infant, just fought off the plague, whatnot). Since their more likely to have their immune system overwhelmed by the cold/flu AND something else.

I'll give it here. I was actually thinking of severe asthmatics, who are peculiarly susceptible to lung infections, and for whom the antibiotics are a sensible prophylactic. I've known asthmatics be prescribed antibiotics for a cold for this reason, but the same will of course apply to cancer patients and so on, who will also be susceptible to opportunistic infections.

StarWorms
Feb 11, 2008, 12:33 PM
I don't fully understand the question, but flu jabs are given to high risk people which include the elderly, those with weak immune systems and people who have contact with a lot of people (eg GPs). The idea of prescribing them the antiviral drugs are obviously to prevent the influenza virus from functioning within the body often by blocking neurominidase and haemogluttinin activity.

Falcon02
Feb 11, 2008, 01:03 PM
I'll give it here. I was actually thinking of severe asthmatics, who are peculiarly susceptible to lung infections, and for whom the antibiotics are a sensible prophylactic. I've known asthmatics be prescribed antibiotics for a cold for this reason, but the same will of course apply to cancer patients and so on, who will also be susceptible to opportunistic infections.

I'll take that as a it's my turn to ask a question.


What are Quaternions as they relate to spacecraft navigation, and what mathematical problem makes them so important?

Dann
Feb 12, 2008, 07:13 AM
I have absolutely no idea. :ack:

Falcon02
Feb 12, 2008, 07:59 AM
Was hoping at least Niklas would have some insight into this, given it's mathmatical basis.

Niklas
Feb 12, 2008, 08:33 AM
Sorry, I've never heard of Quaternions. :crazyeye:

Serutan
Feb 12, 2008, 12:44 PM
They're needed because you have to do vector math for all the forces involved?

Truronian
Feb 12, 2008, 04:44 PM
I've heard of them... they're like a 4D version of the complex numbers IIR. Not sure how they're used though...

Niklas
Feb 12, 2008, 05:09 PM
I've heard of them... they're like a 4D version of the complex numbers IIR. Not sure how they're used though...
Ah right, that does ring a bell. Aren't they used in computer graphics in
some way..? But for space faring? No idea. :)

Was hoping at least Niklas would have some insight into this, given it's mathmatical basis.
I should note that I'm not really a mathematician, I'm a computer scientist, so unless some particular maths has its uses in CS I probably haven't heard of it. That's why I know about P=NP, and GMR in HDDs, and have a vague idea that quaternions have something to do with computer graphics. :cool:

Falcon02
Feb 12, 2008, 07:51 PM
Truronian got the closest.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quaternion

Yes they are a 4 dimensional extension of complex numbers. As such in general you can use Quaternions to translate 3 dimensional space into 4 dimensional space.

In Satellites quaternions are often used for attitude (directional pointing) control. Traditional 3 dimensional angles (ie. Euler Angles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euler_angles)) have a problem with them. Think about Azimuth, on just about any location on the earth I can tell you exactly the direction I'm facing by giving my angle away from true north in the clockwise direction. However if I'm at the north pole what direction am I facing? No matter what direction I face I'm pointing south (180). The direction I'm pointing is undefined (which can cause a control system to fail). This is more or less "Gimbal Lock" (see movie Apollo 13) where one dimension becomes undefined because of the orientation one or more of the others.

Use of Quaternions for attitude propagation help eliminate the likelihood of this happening. On a side note, I've seen some sources say it eliminates the chances for such a lock up, and other say it only reduces the probability of it occurring. I'm not sure which is actually true.

Truronian your turn.

Truronian
Feb 13, 2008, 02:13 AM
Ok, sticking with maths...

Annulus is to torus as Mobius strip is to _ _ _ _ _ _?

Niklas
Feb 13, 2008, 07:16 AM
Donut? :p

Mirc
Feb 13, 2008, 07:30 AM
Klein bottle?

(oh and really sorry if this is a totally wrong answer, I'm a music student after all. :p)

brennan
Feb 13, 2008, 11:16 AM
Still a torus? A mobius strip is essentially a twisted annulus.

peter grimes
Feb 13, 2008, 12:16 PM
as Mobius strip is to a plane?

I suppose it would help if I actually knew what an annulus is :crazyeye:

Mirc
Feb 13, 2008, 12:21 PM
Annulus - Latin for "ring" (also the root word for the word for "ring" in all Romance languages today).

Hence the mathematical term meaning an object of the shape of a ring. :)

peter grimes
Feb 13, 2008, 12:42 PM
I'm aware of the word's etymology (i had 12 years of latin), but I didn't know what it specifically referred to in a mathematical or geometric context.

I suppose I'd have answered something different, but I still don't have any idea :)

Mirc
Feb 13, 2008, 12:46 PM
Sorry then. :) I just assumed you don't know. :D Great to find more people that still study Latin. ;)

brennan
Feb 13, 2008, 12:46 PM
I looked up 'annulus' on wiki. :p

Mise
Feb 13, 2008, 02:05 PM
Well, if an annulus is a 2D ring and a Torus is a 3D ring, then the answer is a 3D Mobius strip? Is a Klein Bottle a 3D Mobius strip?

Truronian
Feb 13, 2008, 02:10 PM
Klein bottle?

(oh and really sorry if this is a totally wrong answer, I'm a music student after all. :p)

This is what I was going for... gluing together two mobius strips (on their edges) in 4-D space will yield a Klien bottle in the same way that gluing together two annuli (annuluses?) will yield a torus-doughnut thing.

Mirc's up...

Well, if an annulus is a 2D ring and a Torus is a 3D ring, then the answer is a 3D Mobius strip? Is a Klein Bottle a 3D Mobius strip?

Pretty much, although mobius strips require at least 3 dimensions and klien bottles at least 4.

Mirc
Feb 14, 2008, 12:30 PM
Great! :D :D Can't believe I got it right.

Sorry for being late, going to ask a question in a few minutes (1 hour at most). :)

Niklas
Feb 14, 2008, 02:56 PM
2.5 hours later... :coffee:

xienwolf
Feb 14, 2008, 03:09 PM
So maybe his question should be: How fast was I traveling to have posted this question in time, in my frame of reference? ;p

Niklas
Feb 14, 2008, 03:13 PM
So maybe his question should be: How fast was I traveling to have posted this question in time, in my frame of reference? ;p
:rotfl: :goodjob:

Mirc
Feb 14, 2008, 03:28 PM
Sorry.

Let's take something from a field where I know more about - Acoustics! :D

Might be a bit too hard or a bit too easy. Don't know.

The traditional piano (musical instrument) always hits a string at exactly 1/7 of the length of the string, the more accurate the better. Hitting a string at exactly this point makes the 7th .......... of any vibrating string inaudible.

What is [..........]?

xienwolf
Feb 14, 2008, 03:36 PM
Harmonic? Pretty sure on that one.

EDIT: Going to study for a test tomorrow, doubt I'll be back online tonight. So if I am right, then my question will be:

Name the 6 Flavors of quarks according to the Standard Model, and also provide the alternative names for the final pair (which were actually proposed first).

Niklas
Feb 14, 2008, 03:44 PM
I would say overtone, though the difference is little. I believe the harmonic is the frequency of the overtone, which would make it the overtone that is inaudible when the harmonic is removed. I could be wrong about the difference though since I learnt all of this, in Swedish, well over 10 years ago.

Mirc
Feb 14, 2008, 04:06 PM
I would say overtone, though the difference is little. I believe the harmonic is the frequency of the overtone, which would make it the overtone that is inaudible when the harmonic is removed. I could be wrong about the difference though since I learnt all of this, in Swedish, well over 10 years ago.

Yep, that's exactly where the trap was. The difference is very slight between harmonic and overtone, and in this case, overtone is what I was looking for. :) Niklas is up.

Catharsis
Feb 14, 2008, 04:14 PM
May as well answer xienwolf's question, even though it doesn't count, seeing as it's one I actually know for once: up, down, charm, strange, top, bottom, and the alternative names were truth and beauty.

Niklas
Feb 14, 2008, 04:27 PM
Alright, xienwolf will have to save his quarks for another day (I don't know it ;)).

A simple question from me (simple in structure at least): What is a Lutra Lutra?

dutchfire
Feb 15, 2008, 10:35 AM
I don't have the slightest idea.

peter grimes
Feb 15, 2008, 11:13 AM
I also have no idea... If I had to guess I'd say it's some sort of animal or plant. That guess is, of course, based on nothing :p

Niklas
Feb 15, 2008, 11:52 AM
A hint: it is a mammal. What, no experts on taxonomy around? :p

Brighteye
Feb 15, 2008, 02:44 PM
I had no idea at all. I looked it up because I was impatient.

GoodGame
Feb 15, 2008, 06:56 PM
Actually the fact that it was italicized in the question implied it was some kind of species, but I didn't catch on to that detail myself at the time.
Although the second word should have been all lower case for that to be true.

I also have no idea... If I had to guess I'd say it's some sort of animal or plant. That guess is, of course, based on nothing :p

Aramazd
Feb 15, 2008, 07:47 PM
A simple question from me (simple in structure at least): What is a Lutra Lutra?
A river otter?

ggganz
Feb 15, 2008, 07:48 PM
Well I looked it up earlier and he's right. :clap:

Niklas
Feb 15, 2008, 07:52 PM
It is indeed an Otter, though European otter or Eurasian otter (or simply Common otter) would have been more correct. The river otters are in the Lontra genus. But it's certainly close enough. :goodjob:

Aramazd
Feb 15, 2008, 09:47 PM
All right,
What are the 3 types of Carbon fixation, what are they and what are the advantages of the 2 that evolved later?

StarWorms
Feb 16, 2008, 06:56 AM
C3, C4 and CAM

Rubisco is very inefficient and is inhibited by oxygen. Plants need to take in CO2 but in many cases, this would also mean losing water.

C3 can exchange water and CO2 all the time
C4 is separated in time by opening stomata during night to take in CO2 without losing water rapidly (hot environments eg cacti)
CAM is separated spatially, concentrating the CO2 in a certain nearby cell (I forget its name)

They are less efficient for producing energy than C3, but they are necessary because they can afford to discard that in place for a method of keeping moisture.

Aramazd
Feb 16, 2008, 09:40 AM
C3, C4 and CAM

Rubisco is very inefficient and is inhibited by oxygen. Plants need to take in CO2 but in many cases, this would also mean losing water.

C3 can exchange water and CO2 all the time
C4 is separated in time by opening stomata during night to take in CO2 without losing water rapidly (hot environments eg cacti)
CAM is separated spatially, concentrating the CO2 in a certain nearby cell (I forget its name)

They are less efficient for producing energy than C3, but they are necessary because they can afford to discard that in place for a method of keeping moisture.
Correct:goodjob:
The cell's name you forgot is bundle-sheath.

sirdanilot
Feb 16, 2008, 10:32 AM
Looking it up gives an Eurasian river otter, so I guess Abgar is up for the next question.

edit: Whoops, crossposted with all the posts on the seventh page...

ggganz
Feb 16, 2008, 03:10 PM
zomfgroflmfao StarWorms' turn now.

StarWorms
Feb 16, 2008, 03:18 PM
How many genes does each human mitochondrion have in its DNA?

Mise
Feb 16, 2008, 03:48 PM
All of them!

ggganz
Feb 16, 2008, 03:55 PM
Doesn't it vary from person to person? A human can have between 60,000 and 90,000 genes, I think.

StarWorms
Feb 16, 2008, 04:01 PM
Doesn't it vary from person to person? A human can have between 60,000 and 90,000 genes, I think.It may vary slightly, but I'm talking about the general picture. I'm talking about the genes in the mitochondrion, not the nuclear DNA. Humans have roughly 24,000 genes. 60,000-90,000 is an old estimate.

ggganz
Feb 16, 2008, 04:03 PM
Stupid cheap science teachers who can't get new material!! :mad:

Brighteye
Feb 16, 2008, 05:14 PM
30?
I really can't remember the answer, but it's lying on my desk at work.

StarWorms
Feb 17, 2008, 08:47 PM
If non-one guesses correctly in 21 hours, then the nearest gets to ask the next question.

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 17, 2008, 08:49 PM
I say around 6000.

Brighteye
Feb 18, 2008, 04:06 AM
Having got to work, I now say 37.

StarWorms
Feb 18, 2008, 10:43 AM
Correct, Brighteye gets to ask the next one.

Human mitochondria have 37 genes, 24 of those are tRNAs and rRNAs, and another 13 are polypeptides (to make things like ATP synthase). They used to be free living alpha-proteobacteria, but were engulfed by an early eukaryotic cell. Most of their genes have now been absorbed by our nuclear DNA, so many proteins that they require for function are transported to the mitochondria.

Brighteye
Feb 18, 2008, 04:34 PM
Hmm. I'm having trouble thinking of a question that's not too esoteric but also isn't ridiculously easy for all you scientific minds. I don't know at what level to pitch it. Is anyone a doctor, rather than cell biologist?
What is the direct cause of hypertension (that's chronically high blood pressure)?
I don't want the initiating cause, which is being fat in most patients, but the step in the chain that causes hypertension as the next step.

StarWorms
Feb 18, 2008, 09:01 PM
Oops forgot about the rule. Ignore this post.

Aramazd
Feb 19, 2008, 12:09 AM
Hmm. I'm having trouble thinking of a question that's not too esoteric but also isn't ridiculously easy for all you scientific minds. I don't know at what level to pitch it. Is anyone a doctor, rather than cell biologist?
What is the direct cause of hypertension (that's chronically high blood pressure)?
I don't want the initiating cause, which is being fat in most patients, but the step in the chain that causes hypertension as the next step.
The blood vessels thin?

Brighteye
Feb 19, 2008, 07:34 AM
Nope. Peripheral resistance has nothing to do with chronic blood pressure control.

peter grimes
Feb 19, 2008, 12:00 PM
Marriage :lol:

I honestly don't have a guess. Sorry :)

ori
Feb 19, 2008, 12:20 PM
Peripheral resistance has nothing to do with chronic blood pressure control.
I wouldn't accept this statement as exact - peripheral resistance changes can lead to chronic high blood pressure without the need for other central changes (though both usually exist side by side)
are you talking about the renin-angiotensin system? It is a major player in blood pressure control and affected in many (though not all) cases of chronic hypertension. I can list more specifics if needed...

Brighteye
Feb 19, 2008, 02:47 PM
Peripheral vasoconstriction is central to acute blood pressure control. It's not important at all in chronic control, although things that change it are. The RAS contributes, but I'm looking for a step in between the RAS (or RAAS, if you like) and hypertension.

Brighteye
Feb 20, 2008, 12:33 PM
Well, it hasn't been 72 hours, but it's time for a new question anyway.
The answer to the old one was altered pressure natriuresis in the kidney, or tubular reabsorption, depending on how accurate you wanted to be.

Niklas
Feb 20, 2008, 01:49 PM
Since the only people who are interested are cell biologists, here's one for you:
What makes you think that? There's plenty of us here who are not biologists of any kind, which is why we don't even try to answer things like what you posted. That doesn't make us uninterested. We're just waiting for the right questions. :p

xienwolf
Feb 20, 2008, 01:56 PM
Yeah, Physics only for me :) Or random guesses. But in this case I don't even know the name of a single protien, so I can't guess at all.

Brighteye
Feb 20, 2008, 03:45 PM
Sorry, I should have been more specific, and said 'of those who know much about biology, the only ones who are interested are cell biologists'.
I hadn't forgotten about the rest of you.

In fact, I'll change the question to something that people might know:

How many mmHg to one KPa?

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 20, 2008, 04:49 PM
About 101 point something.

Genocidicbunny
Feb 20, 2008, 04:57 PM
About 101 point something.

quite a bit off actually. 760mmHg ~ 101 kPa.

So in this case, 1 kPa = ~7.5mmHg

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 20, 2008, 04:58 PM
quite a bit off actually. 760mmHg ~ 101 kPa.

So in this case, 1 kPa = ~7.5mmHg
Oh. Other way.

Brighteye
Feb 21, 2008, 10:45 AM
quite a bit off actually. 760mmHg ~ 101 kPa.

So in this case, 1 kPa = ~7.5mmHg

That's it. You're up.

Genocidicbunny
Feb 21, 2008, 02:32 PM
if you remember basic high school chem, you oughta know this one:

What is a ketone, what is its structural formula, and give an example of one.

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 21, 2008, 02:39 PM
A ketone is an organic compound with a carbonyl functional group, of the form R'COR. An example would be acetone.

Genocidicbunny
Feb 21, 2008, 02:51 PM
A ketone is an organic compound with a carbonyl functional group, of the form R'COR. An example would be acetone.

Well, thats pretty damned spot-on. Its actually almost like the wiki article...

Did you wiki that? ~.~

Anyways, if you didn't, you're up.

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 21, 2008, 03:34 PM
Well, thats pretty damned spot-on. Its actually almost like the wiki article...

Did you wiki that? ~.~

Anyways, if you didn't, you're up.

Nah, I remember my chemistry textbook.


Why is the arbitrary constant of integration necessary?

Brighteye
Feb 21, 2008, 03:43 PM
Because if you differentiate a constant you get nothing, since a constant has a gradient of 0; i.e it's unchanging.

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 21, 2008, 03:56 PM
Because if you differentiate a constant you get nothing, since a constant has a gradient of 0; i.e it's unchanging.

I need a fuller explanation.

Genocidicbunny
Feb 21, 2008, 04:02 PM
Its there to represent the infinite number of antiderivatives, and also to make sure that you cannot prove for instance, that 1 = 0.

Niklas
Feb 21, 2008, 04:08 PM
To put it in (perhaps) simpler words you could say that since any constant factor becomes 0 when you differentiate a term, all terms that only differ in their constant factor will be mapped to the same derivative. When you then integrate that derivative to find the term it originated from, there's no way of knowing which of all those terms with different constant factors is the correct one - it could be any of them. Thus the arbitrary constant factor introduced.

... which is what stickciv said much more succinctly. ;)

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 21, 2008, 04:10 PM
To put it in (perhaps) simpler words you could say that since any constant factor becomes 0 when you differentiate a term, all terms that only differ in their constant factor will be mapped to the same derivative. When you then integrate that derivative to find the term it originated from, there's no way of knowing which of all those terms with different constant factors is the correct one - it could be any of them. Thus the arbitrary constant factor introduced.

... which is what stickciv said much more succinctly. ;)
Stickciv was right, but the rules are a harsh mistress. It's your turn. :)

Niklas
Feb 21, 2008, 04:21 PM
Alright, back to computing science then. :D

Give simple, naturally occuring examples of the following:
A) A countable infinite set
B) An uncountable infinite set
C) A countable finite set
D) An uncountable finite set

warpus
Feb 21, 2008, 06:31 PM
Alright, back to computing science then. :D

Give simple, naturally occuring examples of the following:
A) A countable infinite set
B) An uncountable infinite set
C) A countable finite set
D) An uncountable finite set

C) Humans
D) Intelligent lifeforms in the universe

What's infinite that occurs in nature? We don't know if the universe is infinite or not..

Niklas
Feb 21, 2008, 06:35 PM
Well, maybe I phrased it a bit too ambiguous. By naturally occuring I don't really mean occuring in nature. I'm expecting mathematical answers, just not contrived ones.

raketooy
Feb 21, 2008, 06:55 PM
A) Integers
B) Real numbers
C) {1, 2}
D) Aren't all finite sets countable? Thus, no can do.

Niklas
Feb 21, 2008, 06:57 PM
:goodjob: Correct, D was a trick question. Uncountable implies infinite. Your go. :)

raketooy
Feb 21, 2008, 07:12 PM
For what merits and in which category was Albert Einstein awarded the Nobel Prize?

Abaddon
Feb 21, 2008, 07:59 PM
dang, not a clue! I suck at this game ;)

Genocidicbunny
Feb 21, 2008, 08:06 PM
He got the 1921 nobel prize in Physics, especially for the photoelectric effect.

raketooy
Feb 22, 2008, 11:39 AM
Correct, stickciv's go.

Genocidicbunny
Feb 22, 2008, 03:04 PM
Anybody else that wants it can take it.

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 22, 2008, 04:00 PM
What is the basic principle that allows a quantum computer to be much faster than a normal computer?

xienwolf
Feb 22, 2008, 06:20 PM
Superposition allows for a 3rd state, allowing it to be base 3 instead of the standard binary base 2?

Well, technically it isn't a full 3rd basis set, since it is an uncertainty term. But I REALLY didn't understand all the math theory about it, and this is based off a theory paper from about 10 years ago, so could be far off by today.

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 22, 2008, 06:38 PM
Superposition allows for a 3rd state, allowing it to be base 3 instead of the standard binary base 2?

The key is superpositions, however the goal is not to create a 3rd state.

Niklas
Feb 22, 2008, 07:42 PM
Superposition allows a quantum "qubit" to assume both states at the same time, or rather any possible combination of states. This allows far more states to be represented with only a few qubits - it takes 2n normal registers to represent a value held by n qubits. I've had it explained to me several times, but I never really understood it. :crazyeye:

Brighteye
Feb 22, 2008, 07:43 PM
Isn't the goal also instant information transfer through superposition?

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 22, 2008, 09:50 PM
Superposition allows a quantum "qubit" to assume both states at the same time, or rather any possible combination of states. This allows far more states to be represented with only a few qubits - it takes 2n normal registers to represent a value held by n qubits. I've had it explained to me several times, but I never really understood it. :crazyeye:

That's it. Your turn.

Niklas
Feb 23, 2008, 05:52 AM
Ok, haven't had time to think of a really good question, so we'll try this:

Give integer solutions for a, b and c such that a3 + b3 = c3 .

I know this is close to what Catharsis posted we shouldn't post, but this question is a bit special. :mischief:

Catharsis
Feb 23, 2008, 05:58 AM
a=0
b=0
c=0

Other than that, I don't think there are any. Fermat's Last Theorem and all that.

Niklas
Feb 23, 2008, 06:00 AM
Bah, I was hoping someone wouldn't think of the 0's solution, so I could stump them a bit by saying there was a solution. But yeah, you're right, your go. :)

Catharsis
Feb 23, 2008, 06:43 AM
EDIT: Actually, my answer to Niklas's question isn't really a full one. It should probably be:

a or b must = 0
If a = 0, b must = c
If b = 0, a must = c

---

Alright, I don't know much about this topic but let's see how it goes. Which is the odd one out, and why:

Mercalli scale
Shindo scale
MSK-64 scale
Rossi-Forel scale
Moment magnitude scale

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 23, 2008, 07:01 AM
I'm guessing the MSK-64 scale since it isn't used for gauging the intensity of an earthquake.

Catharsis
Feb 23, 2008, 07:13 AM
Your reason why the odd one out is so is correct, but the MSK-64 isn't it.

Falcon02
Feb 23, 2008, 07:59 AM
EDIT: Actually, my answer to Niklas's question isn't really a full one. It should probably be:

a or b must = 0
If a = 0, b must = c
If b = 0, a must = c

13 + (-1)3 = 0 3 would also work

in fact wouldn't


x3 + (-x)3 = 0 3 also work?


if a = -b and c=0 it should work.

Catharsis
Feb 23, 2008, 08:08 AM
I didn't know negatives were integers. Something new every day...

ggganz
Feb 23, 2008, 12:25 PM
O_O 4th freakin' grade, dude. Integer=ANY REAL NUMBER WITHOUT A FRACTION. :p

Catharsis
Feb 23, 2008, 01:41 PM
Remember, I'm in Britain. The quality of our mathematics teaching is waaaay behind yours. ;)

Anyone willing to guess the answer? SS18 was right in that one of those five is not used to measure the intensity of an earthquake.

StarWorms
Feb 23, 2008, 02:36 PM
The MSK-64 scale does not have an 'i' in and is therefore the odd one out :smug:

Mirc
Feb 23, 2008, 03:33 PM
Remember, I'm in Britain. The quality of our mathematics teaching is waaaay behind yours. ;)

I have to agree. :p I've visited a school in England a while ago and they were exactly in the year that corresponded to my year, here in Romania, and they were learning about "Pythagoras". I was wondering what "Pythagoras" they are talking about and I couldn't believe it when I found out it was his theorem about triangles! :lol: I had learned about that (in school, knew it before that though) something like 5 years before then!!

(and believe me, when you're something like 14, 5 years matter a lot ;))

Genocidicbunny
Feb 23, 2008, 04:04 PM
O_O 4th freakin' grade, dude. Integer=ANY REAL NUMBER WITHOUT A FRACTION. :p

Id say this is quite uncalled for, dude.

As for the actual topic:

Is the Moment Magnitude scale the odd one out? Cus all the other ones are based on basically squaring the power of the earthquake between the steps while the Moment Magnitude is only going up by the power of 1.5?

I'm probably wrong as last I discussed this was over a year ago.

Catharsis
Feb 24, 2008, 04:19 AM
Stickciv has the right odd one out, but the wrong reason. The Moment Magnitude scale is the odd one out as it is used to measure the magnitude of an earthquake, whereas all the others are used to measure intensity.

Stickciv's up.

Genocidicbunny
Feb 24, 2008, 06:04 AM
Again ill hand it off to anyone that wants it.

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 24, 2008, 08:13 PM
What functional groups are involved in ester linkage?

Genocidicbunny
Feb 24, 2008, 08:15 PM
The COOH and OH groups are ( acid and alcohol). The two combine to form the COO group which bind the ester as such: R-COO-R'

SS-18 ICBM
Feb 24, 2008, 09:09 PM
Yes. Your turn.

Genocidicbunny
Feb 24, 2008, 10:48 PM
A simple one then: What is a Lewis acid?

GoodGame
Feb 25, 2008, 11:37 AM
Oooh I know I know :twitch:, except I probably have it confused with a Bronsted acid.

I'll venture a Lewis acid is any molecule that donates a proton to another molecule.

A simple one then: What is a Lewis acid?

dutchfire
Feb 25, 2008, 11:46 AM
I believe that's a Bronsted acid.

GoodGame
Feb 25, 2008, 05:09 PM
I believe you are correct.

I believe that's a Bronsted acid.

uppi
Feb 25, 2008, 06:44 PM
I think, a Lewis acid is a molecule that accepts (donate? - no I think the acid accepts) an electron pair from another molecule.

Genocidicbunny
Feb 25, 2008, 08:10 PM
I think, a Lewis acid is a molecule that accepts (donate? - no I think the acid accepts) an electron pair from another molecule.

you are correct. It is any element or molecule that accepts an electron pair. Its why metals can act as acids!

Oh yes, your turn.

uppi
Feb 26, 2008, 06:32 AM
what is a fermion?

Mise
Feb 26, 2008, 06:40 AM
A particle with spin 1/2, and follows Fermi-Dirac statistics for energy states.

uppi
Feb 26, 2008, 02:45 PM
close, but not entirely correct.

raketooy
Feb 26, 2008, 03:29 PM
EDIT: Forget this message.

brennan
Feb 27, 2008, 06:48 AM
close, but not entirely correct.
Looked pretty good to me.

Mise
Feb 27, 2008, 07:19 AM
Hmm, maybe it's half-integer spin (i.e. spin 1/2 or 3/2 or 5/2 etc).

uppi
Feb 27, 2008, 07:25 AM
Hmm, maybe it's half-integer spin (i.e. spin 1/2 or 3/2 or 5/2 etc).

Yes. Spin 1/2 is the usual example, but all particles with half-integer spin are also fermions.

Your turn.

Mise
Feb 28, 2008, 10:45 AM
What is the main impurity in diamond that causes them to become coloured?

brennan
Feb 28, 2008, 12:34 PM
It's oxygen isn't it?

Genocidicbunny
Feb 28, 2008, 06:25 PM
Actually I think you're one off. According to my chemistry teacher ( hey, didnt say we couldnt ask other people ) its Nitrogen.

Perfection
Feb 29, 2008, 01:10 AM
I hope it's not urine :cringe:

Mise
Feb 29, 2008, 05:10 AM
Actually I think you're one off. According to my chemistry teacher ( hey, didnt say we couldnt ask other people ) its Nitrogen.
Yup, it's Nitrogen. Ask away!

Genocidicbunny
Feb 29, 2008, 09:13 AM
Since it technically wasnt me who got the answer, Ill give the floor up again ( Plus I dont have a question to ask )

Brighteye
Feb 29, 2008, 09:57 AM
Here's an easy one:
Name a tissue in which I might find dendritic cells.

Person who says the tissue with the most gets the next question if I have multiple answers when I next check.

peter grimes
Feb 29, 2008, 10:16 AM
The Brain.

dutchfire
Feb 29, 2008, 10:37 AM
:hmm: Perhaps the spine?

ori
Feb 29, 2008, 11:00 AM
if you ask for total cell numbers:
the mucosa and skin - if you ask for density probably spleen and lymph nodes

Brighteye
Feb 29, 2008, 11:36 AM
if you ask for total cell numbers:
the mucosa and skin - if you ask for density probably spleen and lymph nodes
You win. Mucosa or lymph nodes will do just fine.

ori
Feb 29, 2008, 01:51 PM
I am currently reading too much about the application of this method on proteins - so here is a bit of a Science trivia question:
For what did Sir Lawrence Bragg receive the Nobel Prize and (just for bonus points :p) how old was he when he shared this prize with his father in 1915 :mischief:

Mise
Feb 29, 2008, 04:07 PM
Bragg's law of diffraction? X-ray diffraction... Crystal structures and the like...

As for age, my guess is....... 24!

P.S. Sorry for that completely incoherent brain-dump. I don't really remember what he did, and I only vaguely remember Bragg's law.

ori
Feb 29, 2008, 04:09 PM
Bragg's law of diffraction? X-ray diffraction... Crystal structures and the like...

As for age, my guess is....... 24!
25 - but yes you are up :)

Mise
Feb 29, 2008, 04:10 PM
Oooh close! Nobel Prize winners from that era were incredibly young. It's depressing.

Anyway, I can't think of a question that doesn't involve diamonds, so someone else can ask.

Genocidicbunny
Feb 29, 2008, 05:34 PM
Alrighty, more of a tech one:

When was the first version of the Linux kernel released? ( Im fine with year and month)

Catharsis
Feb 29, 2008, 05:44 PM
I'd wager it was sometime after the invention of the computer.

Genocidicbunny
Feb 29, 2008, 05:47 PM
I'd wager it was sometime after the invention of the computer.
Id wager that you're right. But still damned far off.

Aramazd
Feb 29, 2008, 09:25 PM
1992? I have no clue at all about the month.

Genocidicbunny
Feb 29, 2008, 09:47 PM
1992? I have no clue at all about the month.

Quite a bit closer than Catharsis, but still off.

ainwood
Feb 29, 2008, 11:58 PM
1991 - when I was just starting university, IIRC.

Genocidicbunny
Mar 01, 2008, 12:17 AM
1991 - when I was just starting university, IIRC.

ooh, so close! Now what month? (Im pretty sure its the same month as when you started uni ;) )

ainwood
Mar 01, 2008, 12:29 AM
ooh, so close! Now what month? (Im pretty sure its the same month as when you started uni ;) )
Well, I started in February. Given that I'm from the southern hemisphere, and given that it was after, I'll guess august.

Genocidicbunny
Mar 01, 2008, 01:00 AM
Nope. but so far you're closest.

Brighteye
Mar 01, 2008, 08:21 AM
September 1991?

Genocidicbunny
Mar 01, 2008, 09:11 AM
September 1991?
Correct. You're up.

Brighteye
Mar 01, 2008, 09:23 AM
Theobromine is a toxin found (most notably) in what common foodstuff?

Bonus points for explaining why we eat it anyway.

GoodGame
Mar 01, 2008, 09:33 AM
I'm going to take wild donkey guesses on this one, then google it for myself:

1. Plant-toxin from some common food we eat, I'll guess a legume, and I'll guess "What is The Peanut?", Mr. Trabek.
I'll guess we eat it anyway, because we can develop an immune response to it over time that lessens any discomfort it causes.

2. My other wild donkey guess is that it's a by-product from chemical processing of some common meat, that is only present in minute amounts.

Off to Google for the truth.:cool:

Theobromine is a toxin found (most notably) in what common foodstuff?

Bonus points for explaining why we eat it anyway.

EDIT: This is funny example of a toxin. I'm terrified that Wikipedia says it is from one of my favorite food and may correlate to an increase in prostate cancer.

ori
Mar 01, 2008, 09:41 AM
https://store.bird-in-hand.com/templates/images/choco-design.jpg

First off its just as addictive as caffeine - so there are junkies out there :rolleyes: not me :mischief:

Of course it has stimulatory effects just like caffeine (on a molar level its much more potent), it does increase serotonin levels which is usually a good way to feel good - up to a point. Need more info?

Brighteye
Mar 01, 2008, 10:04 AM
Well, I was thinking more of the fact that we can break it down, whereas our pets, such as cats and dogs, can't.
You got the answer anyway.

ori
Mar 01, 2008, 10:40 AM
Actually I was under the impression that most of its clearance is unmetabolized anyway - but now that you mentioned it I read a bit on it and the difference is striking - chocolate poisoning in pets :eek: - I shudder when thinking of a life without my drug ;)

ok lets have an evolution question:
how does evolution work according to Lamarck - and is there any evidence for mechanisms that follow his proposed process of inheritance?

Aramazd
Mar 01, 2008, 11:17 AM
ok lets have an evolution question:
how does evolution work according to Lamarck - and is there any evidence for mechanisms that follow his proposed process of inheritance?
Animals adapt during their lifetime and pass down those changes that occured during their lifetime. I have no idea about the second question, so I'll take a shot in the dark. Does it have to do with bacteria and their acquiring plasmids during their lifetime, which are passed down to offspring?

GoodGame
Mar 01, 2008, 11:24 AM
Lamarckian evolution was mostly disproved in favor of Darwin's system. Though I think I've seen in passing some ideas that intraspecies DNA transfer by viruses (and I guess accessory DNA) resembles Lamarck's view (I'll have to verify that).

Lamarckian 'evolution' was an attempt to keep with the biblical idea that all species existed at the same time of creation. That is, it contradicts the view that species evolved/diverged from earlier species, more complex life evolving from simpler life. The putative mechanicism of Lamarckian
'evolution' was that genetic inheritance was transfered directly and statically from parent to offspring, and I believe involved picking up some factors from the environment (basically a 'you are what you eat' arguement with what is learned into the species being statically transmitted to the next generation).

Strictly, genetic recombination during reproduction is observed on the molecular level, and mostly discovered in recording mating patterns by Gregor Mendel. "Blending" style inheritance patterns (i.e. white + red flower breeding pink) gave some hope to the Lamarck followers, I believe, but that is actually a special case of inheritance, with the main pattern being Mendel's.



ok lets have an evolution question:
how does evolution work according to Lamarck - and is there any evidence for mechanisms that follow his proposed process of inheritance?

EDIT: I see there's a pretty good arguemental analysis of Lamarck's ideas in Wikipedia, way better than my fuzzy recollection.

StarWorms
Mar 01, 2008, 11:35 AM
Lamarkian evolution was about the phenotype being passed on to the next generation. Darwinian was about the genotype (although they didn't know about that then).

For an example, I would guess at prions, which cause correctly folded proteins to fold incorrectly into beta sheets with each other to prevent degradation by the proteosome, causing disease. If they can pass to the offspring (not sure if they can) then the disease phenotype would be passed on, unrelated to the genotype.

ori
Mar 01, 2008, 11:50 AM
ok three right answers on Lamarck :)
I did not think about the plasmids (that is what you get from focussing too much on mammalian organisms ;)) - but that might actually fit.
The virus theory actually has been shown to be somewhat true - there are gene segments in mammalian genomes that resemble viruses extremely well and there is compelling reason to suspect that those where acquired by some ancestor and passed on to his/her offspring.
Prion inheritance has as far as I know not been shown - and would most likely be lethal early on - but I might be mistaken.
What I was thinking about is something that happens far more often and at least potentially allows for transmission of acquired traits through the generations: DNA-methylation which is part of the genetic imprinting mechanism is passed on and there is quite a lot of speculation that changes in methylation patterns caused by external forces could be inherited....

I'd say Abgar is up

Aramazd
Mar 01, 2008, 11:36 PM
Someone else can ask, I can't think of anything right now.

GoodGame
Mar 02, 2008, 08:44 PM
Ok,

When is a worm really a fungus?

Hint: I can't stand music, I have a tin ear.

ainwood
Mar 02, 2008, 10:31 PM
When its ringworm.

GoodGame
Mar 03, 2008, 06:23 PM
"Survey Says: You're right!!"

The medical name for the infection is Tinea, with specific names usually being named for where they infect (scalp, beard, etc..).

In all cases they are some species of fungus that infects dermal (skin) tissue, known as a dermatophyte.

There is at least 3 known genera of dermatophytes.
Trichophyton
Microsporum
Epidermophyton.

Because the red, raised infection looks like a worm burrowing in the skin, it got the nickname "ringworm".

Your turn.

When its ringworm.

Aramazd
Mar 06, 2008, 07:40 PM
It's been 72 hours, so I'll ask one:

Echinodermata and Chordata belong to seperate group from other animals, what is it, and what distinguishes that group from other animals?

Brighteye
Mar 07, 2008, 05:07 AM
Skeletons?

StarWorms
Mar 07, 2008, 06:27 AM
Chordata are vertebrates. Echinodermata aren't. I don't know what universal features that group has, but I the group contains jellyfish and sea urchins.

Brighteye
Mar 07, 2008, 07:04 AM
Maybe they're the multicellular organisms then.