View Full Version : Navajo and Maya Cities, Leader Names and Pedia Entry


Gromit
Oct 05, 2002, 03:11 AM
I'm working on a mod and I thought I'd share this with the wonderful people at CFC


MAYA CIVILIZATION


LEADER NAME:-

??????????????

GREAT LEADERS:-

Lady Rabbit
Merneith
Semerkhet
Snfrka
Hotepsekhemwy
Nebra
Ninetjer
Wngsekhemwy
Sekhemib
Peribsen
Khasekhemwy
Sanakht
Netjerykhet
Sekhemhet
Chaan Maan
Nebkara
Qa Hedjet
Huni

CITIES:-

Chichen Itza
Palenque
Uxmal
Tikal
Piedras Negras
Copan
Qirigua
Naranjo
Coba
Kabah
Sayil
Labna
Mayapan
Caracol
Ixkun
Huaymil
Chocola
Izapa
Chalchuapa
Naco
Tzimin Kax
Seibal
Uaxactun
El Meco
El Baul

CIVILOPEDIA:-

#RACE_MAYA
^The Maya are $LINK<religious and commercial=GCON_Strengths>.They start the game with
$LINK<Ceremonial Burial=TECH_Ceremonial_Burial> and $LINK<Alphabet=TECH_Alphabet> and build
$LINK<Plumed Archers=PRTO_Plumed_Archer> instead of $LINK<Longbowmen=PRTO_Longbowman>.
^
^ The ancient Maya civilization occupied the eastern third of Mesoamerica, primarily the Yucatan Peninsula. The topography of the area greatly varied from volcanic mountains, which comprised the highlands in the South, to a porous limestone shelf, known as the Lowlands, in the central and northern regions. The southern portion of the Lowlands were covered by a rain forest with an average height of about 150 feet. Scattered savannas and swamps, or bajos, appeared sporadically, interrupting the dense forests. The northern Lowlands were also comprised of forests but they were drier than their southern counterparts, mainly growing small thorny trees. February to May was the dry season characterized by air that was intensely hot and uncomfortable. At this time of year, the fields had recently been cut and had to be burned in accordance with their slash and burn form of agriculture. The skies filled with a smoky grit, making the air even more unbearable until the rains came in late May to clear the murky atmosphere.
^
^Many dangerous animals occupied this region of the peninsula including the jaguar, the caiman (a fierce crocodile), the bull shark, and many species of poisonous snakes. These animals had to be avoided as the Maya scavenged the forest for foods including deer turkey, peccaries, tapirs, rabbits, and large rodents such as the peca and the agouti. Many varieties of monkeys and quetzal also occupied the upper canopy. The climate of the Highlands greatly contrasted with that of the Lowlands as it was much cooler and drier.
^
^Both the Highlands and the Lowlands were important to the presence of trade within the Mayan civilization. The lowlands primarily produced crops which were used for their own personal consumption, the principle cultigen being maize. They also grew squash, beans, chili peppers, amaranth, manioc, cacao, cotton for light cloth, and sisal for heavy cloth and rope.
^
^The volcanic highlands, however, were the source of obsidian, jade, and other precious metals like cinnabar and hematite that the Mayans used to develop a lively trade. Although the lowlands were not the source of any of these commodities, they still played an important role as the origin of the transportation routes. The rainfall was as high as 160 inches per year in the Lowlands and the water that collected drained towards the Caribbean or the Gulf of Mexico in great river systems. These rivers, of which the Usumacinta and the Grijalva were of primary importance, were vital to the civilization as the form of transportation for both people and materials.
#DESC_RACE_MAYA
^
^
^Contrary to popular beleif, the Mayan civilization was not one unified empire, but rather a multitude of separate entities with a common cultural background. Similar to the Greeks, they were religiously and artistically a nation, but politically sovereign states. As many as twenty such states existed on the Yucatan Peninsula, but although a woman has, on rare occasions, ascended to the ruling position, she has never acquired the title of 'mah kina'.
^An elaborate system of writing was developed to record the transition of power through the generations. Maya writing was composed of recorded inscriptions on stone and wood and used within architecture. Folding tree books were made from fig tree bark and placed in royal tombs. Unfortunately, many of these books did not survive the humidity of the tropics or the invasion of the Spanish, who regarded the symbolic writing as the work of the devil.
^
^ Four books are known today:
^
^ The Dresden Codex
^ The Madud Codex
^ The Paris Codex
^ The Grolier Codex.
^
^The priests followed the ruling class in importance and were instrumental in the recordings of history through the heiroglyphs. The two classes were closely linked and held a monopoly on learning, including writing. The heiroglyphs were formed through a combination of different signs which represented either whole words or single syllables. The information could be conveyed through inscriptions alone, but it was usually combined with pictures showing action to facilitate comprehension.
^
^In both the priesthood and the ruling class, nepotism was apparently the prevailing system under which new members were chosen. Primogeniture was the form under which new kings were chosen as the king passed down his position to his son. After the birth of a heir, the kings performed a blood sacrifice by drawing blood from his own body as an offering to his ancestors. A human sacrifice was then offered at the time of a new king's installation in office. To be a king, one must have taken a captive in a war and that person is then used as the victim in his accession ceremony. This ritual is the most important of a king's life as it is the point at which he inherits the position as head of the lineage and leader of the city. The religious explanation that upheld the institution of kingship asserted that Maya rulers were necessary for continuance of the Universe.


NAVAJO CIVILIZATION


LEADER:-

Barboncito (led them back to their homeland after the 'long walk'

GREAT LEADERS:-

Nsdzáán Nádleehé
Nilch'i Biyázhí
Jóhonaa'éí

CITIES:-

Polacca
Moenkopi
Tolani Lake
Bird Springs
Dilkon
Mazlini
Klagetoh
Chinle
Red Lake
Nakaibito
Wide Run
Pine Springs
Cedar Point
Houck
Crystal
Fort Defiance
Black Rock
Wheatfields
Standing Rock
Coyote Canyon
Window Rock
Tohatchi
Twin Lakes
Chaparral
Hunter's Point
Kinlichee
Cross Canyon
Rainbow Bridge
Kayenta
Oljato
Sweetwater
Lukachukai
Round Forest
Circular Grove

CIVILOPEDIA:-

#RACE_NAVAJO
^The Navajo are $LINK<?????? and ???????=GCON_Strengths>.They start the game with
$LINK<????????=TECH_?????????> and$LINK<????????=TECH_?????????> and build
$LINK<??????????=PRTO_????????> instead of $LINK<??????????=PRTO_????????>
^
^The Navajo were given the name Ni’hookaa Diyan Diné by their creators. It means "Holy Earth People" or "Lords of the Earth". Navajos today simply call themselves "Diné", meaning "The People". The Tewa Indians were the first to call them "Navahu", which means "the large area of cultivated land". The Mexicans knew them as "Apaches Du Nabahu" (Apaches of the Cultivated Fields), where "Apache" (Enemy) was picked up from the Zuni Indian language. The "Apaches Du Nabahu" were known as a special group somewhat distinct from the rest of the Apaches. Alonso de Benavides changed the name to "Navaho" in a book written in 1630. The English name the Diné officially use for themselves is "Navajo". Recently, Navajos have been referring to call themselves by their original name, "Diné".
^
^According to the Diné, they emerged from three previous underworlds into this, the fourth, or "Glittering World", through a magic reed. The first people from the other three worlds were not like the people of today. They were animals, insects or masked spirits as depicted in Navajo ceremonies. First Man ('Altsé Hastiin), and First Woman ('Altsé 'Asdzáá), were two of the beings from the First or Black World. First Man was made in the east from the meeting of the white and black clouds. First Woman was made in the west from the joining of the yellow and blue clouds. Spider Woman (Na ashje’ii 'Asdzáá), who taught Navajo women how to weave, was also from the first world.
^
^Once in the Glittering World, the first thing the people did was build a sweat house and sing the Blessing Song. Then they met in the first house (hogan) made exactly as Talking God (Haashch’eelti’i) had prescribed. In this hogan, the people began to arrange their world, naming the four sacred mountains surrounding the land and designating the four sacred stones that would become the boundaries of their homeland. In actuality, these mountains do not contain the symbolic sacred stones. The San Francisco Peaks (Dook’o’oslííd), represents the Abalone and Coral stones. It is located just north of Flagstaff, and is the Navajo’s religious western boundary. Mt. Blanco (Tsisnaasjini'), in Colorado, represents the White Shell stone, and represents the Navajo’s religious eastern boundary. Mt. Taylor (Tsoodzil), east of Grants, New Mexico, represents the Turquoise stone, and represents the Navajo’s religious southern boundary. Mt. Hesperus (Dibé Nitsaa), in Colorado, represents the Black Jet stone, and represents the Navajo’s religious northern boundary.
#DESC_RACE_NAVAJO
^
^
^The Dineh, or "The People," as the Navajo call themselves, migrated to the Southwest from the North around the 15th century. They were first noticed by other peoples between the 14th and 15th century, between the Champa and upper San Juan rivers. The Spaniards brought sheep and horses which the Navajo adapted to their nomadic lifestyle. It is thought that the Navajo originally consisted of four clans and today has expanded to include over 60.
^The introduction of Anglo Americans soon led to a treaty between Navajos and the United States Government. The army held all Navajos responsible for all treaty promises, instead of recognizing them as distinct tribal units who made differing decisions. Finally the army decided to gather all the Navajo people and send them to Fort Sumner. Kit Carson rounded up the Navajos, though many hid near such locations as Canyon de Chelly and Navajo Mountain. The Dineh refused to surrender, despite Carson destroying their crops and sheep, burning their villages, and killing their families.
^Those who survived were sent to Fort Sumner on the "Long Walk," during which approximately 200 Navajos died due to starvation and cruel treatment. Fort Sumner was bitterly disliked by the Navajos who were unable to grow food in the barren land. They felt betrayed by the white man who forced them to leave the area between their four sacred mountains, area which today comprises the Navajo reservation. The Peace Commission and the Treaty of 1868 allowed the Navajo to return to their land after four terrible years. The Navajo were still tormented, but slowly began to make progress as an individual people, and today carry on their traditions and unique way of life.
^
^The Navajo culture today encompasses over 200,000 people, spanning more than 14 million acres of reservation land and nearby cities. Many Navajo children are fluent in both Navajo and English. The navajo language has not only helped to preserve the Navajo culture but was also utilized as a U.S. Army code to disguise transmissions from the Japenese during World War II. Navajo arts continue to be passed on, as daughters and granddaughters learn weaving, basketmaking, pottery making, and jewelry making. Many Navajo children raised on the reservation continue to herd sheep and livestock. Schools are accessible to most families, but sometimes it is necessary that a family living many difficult miles away send the children to boarding school.
^
^Different types of religion are practiced among the Navajo, a truly spiritual people. There are the traditional Navajos who rely on medicine men, herbalists, ceremonies and other traditions to facilitate their practice. Also, the Native American Church is chosen by some Navajos and is especially known for the ceremonial use of peyote for visions and cleansing. Sweathouses are utilized by Navajos and other American Indian tribes, and Christianity is practiced by some Navajos who incorporate the Western religion with their native teachings.
^
^The Navajo today are not a pueblo people; rather they dwell a good distance apart from each other in separate houses, though often in close proximity to family. The Navajo appreciate and respect their culture as an equal way of life to suburban America, and are proud of the simplistic ways they cling to.

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Also, if anyone fancies doing leader.flcs , that would be cool as I am completely talentless in that area.

W.i.n.t.e.r
Oct 05, 2002, 07:39 AM
Hmmm, difficult to name a Mayan leader, since the Mayan culture was based on rival city states, they had emperors though- might find sth interesting for that.

A striking King would be Pakal (Palenque) but only because he was the first King to be found in his burrial chambers in his Pyramid..

pesoloco
Oct 06, 2002, 10:55 PM
I may be wrong but I think Xochimilco and Oaxaca were also Mayan cities.

OmniMower
Oct 07, 2002, 03:17 AM
:goodjob: Great work Gromit! Sure come to some use! :D

Gromit
Oct 07, 2002, 05:16 AM
I thought they were Olmec cities

W.i.n.t.e.r
Oct 07, 2002, 11:36 AM
Originally posted by Gromit
I thought they were Olmec cities

I think that goes into the right direction- not Mayan... :p

pesoloco
Oct 07, 2002, 12:00 PM
ok, i wasn't really sure if they were mayan or not. Just trying to help...;)

Gromit
Oct 08, 2002, 12:00 AM
Appreciated... :)

Nahuixtelotzin
Oct 08, 2002, 03:46 PM
If it helps you: Here's my Mayan city list and pedia-entry:

RULER: Pacal (Title: Bacab)

LEADERS:
Nachi Cocom
Cecilio Chi
Hunak Ke’el_
Acaxaual
Hobtoh

CITIES:
Tikal
Chichen Itza
Palenque
Mayapan
Uxmal
Tulum
Yaxchilan
Izamal
Copan
Bonampak
Labna
Seibal
Koba
Kaminaljuyu
Izapa
Uaxactun
Qumaar Kah
Altun Ha
Lamanai
Kabah
Edzna
Becan
Ake
Xcaret
Loltun
Tayasal
Xpuhil
Balankanche
Dzibilchaltun
Hochob
Ekbalam
Cozumel
Culuba
Iximche
Kalakmul
Tazumal
Lubaantun
Dzibilnocac
Xunantunich
Yaxche Xlapbak
Ikil
Sayil
Xcavil de Yaxche
Tonina
Pok Ta Pok
Oxkintok
Chincultic
Chicanna
Chacmultun
Yaxuna
Nakum
Muyil
Axanceh
Chinkultic
Chacalal
Nohmul
Abaj Takalik
Tohkok
Mul Chic
Tankah
Kuhunlich
Corozal
Quelepa
Nakbe
Yaxha
Topoxte
Zaculeu
Ulua

#RACE_Mayas
^The Mayas are $LINK<religious and scientific=GCON_Strengths>.They start the game with
$LINK<Bronze Working=TECH_Bronze_Working> and $LINK<Ceremonial Burial=TECH_Ceremonial_Burial> and build
$LINK<Balam Warriors=PRTO_Balam_Warrior> instead of $LINK<Warriors=PRTO_Warrior>.
^
^The cultural roots of the Mayans, as those of all mesoamerican civilization goes back to the Olmecs, a culture that developed in the late
2nd millenium BC and vanished about 400AD. Their religion and architecture provided the substrate for all religions of Mesoamerica.
The heirs of the Olmecs in Guatemala were the "Highland Mayas". They formed new cities or built upon old olmec settlements, so it's
impossible for us to say, when the Olmecs vanished and the Mayas formed. In the third century, peoples from the highlands of
Guatemala and El Salvador migrated to the Yucatan lowlands. Those peoples are subsumated under the term "Lowland Mayas". In that
time, the Mayas started to construct the first of their pyramids for which they became famous, but also they developed a very accurate
calendar and a hieroglyphical scripture. The Mayas of that time were ruled by aristocratic dynasties with significant theocratic elements
and organized in City-States and minor principalities. This characteristic of the Mayans never changed, they were never empire-builders
like the Aztecs or Incas.
For some centuries, parts of the Mayan area was under the influence of Teotihuacan, a huge urban center near today's Mexico City.
When Teotihuacan tumbled, the Mayas faced severe crisis, but the time after this period of foreign domination should become known
as the Mayan "Golden Age", marked by great architectural feats and the construction of a huge road-network linking the cities. We can
also note a surprising continuity in Mayan dynasties. Most of the cities were ruled by the same dynasty during the Golden Age.
From the late 8th century on, groups from central Mexico started to migrate to Yucatan and Guatemala and destroyed the old Mayan
dynasties and lead to a decline of Mayan achievements. Culturally the Mayans never fully recovered from this set-back. In the south the
most important invaders were the Quiché. They conquered the Mayan highlands of Guatemala and mixed up with the native population,
adapting to a high degree to Mayan culture. In the north, the major conquerors were the Toltecs. Different from the south, the cultural
set-back in Yucatan was less severe, but cultural influence of the Toltecs was certainly bigger: Human sacrifices became a more central
element and the military was organized in "warrior orders", like
#DESC_RACE_Mayas
^
^
^in the Aztec societyThe Toltec city Chichen Itzá was probably the largest
state in the Maya region before the arrival of the Spanish. Chichen Itzá was destroyed by the people of Mayapán. Mayapán was the
dominant political center until 1445, but it already showed the decline of culture and knowledge. After ist fall, Yucatan lacked a political
center and was divided into several states, none of which could show up with great cultural achievements - decline was everywhere.
^ This was about the situation the Spanish encountered when making contact with the Mayans. Until 1549, many Mayan communities
were conquered and Christianity was forcefully imposed on them. Yet the Mayan resistance was strong and the beliefs persisted and
the conquest of Yucatan was not complete. The city of Tayasal (Peten Itzá) in the heart of Yucatan was a place of retreat for the Mayans
and it was not before 1697 that the Spanish destroyed this last independent Maya-states.
^ Mayan identity did not completely vanish though. In the middle of the 19th century, there was a huge Mayan uprising. Their resistance
went on for half a century in the so called "caste-war". Even today, there's a significant Mayan minority in Mexico.