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Java Renaissance Pack (Early Islamic Sultanates) 2016-10-05

Early Islamic Sultanates Info:
Spoiler :
From the early 1500s, Islamic sultanates would grow to dominate the island of Java. Islam had already had a long history in South-East Asia and there is evidence of missionaries arriving in the region since the death of the Prophet Muhammad. However it wasn't until the 12th century that the religion began to grow in the archipelago. By the 14th century it was the dominate religion in the port cities on the northern coast of Java.
As Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit waned, these coastal cities became more and more independent. During this period Islam would become the religion of the ruling class in Java. This pack covers the period of the Early Islamic Sultanates, between the funding of Demak in 1475 to the surrender of the Banten Sultan Tirtayasa in 1683.

The era is marked for it's constant warfare. Political hegemony did not last long and was always contested in Java as sultanates vied for control. The first powerful sultanate, Demak would not last and by the 1590s, Java was divided into many independent kingdoms and city states. However, there were four main powerful sultanates who held most of the political power and prestige. Western Java was divided between two, the Sultanate of Banten and the Sultanate of Cirebon. Fertile central Java housed the Sultanate of Mataram. Finally, eastern Java was under the hegemony of the Sultanate of Surabaya. But Islamic states weren't the only political powers. In West Java the remnants of the Sunda kingdom in the highlands probably still practiced Hinduism and even Sunda Wiwitan and were fiercely independent. On the eastern tip of Java there was the Hindu Kingdom of Blambangan and off the tip the island kingdoms of Bali.

While powerful Sultanates like Mataram and Banten would arise, during this era the Dutch would gain control of Batavia and began to grow in power. Mataram, under Sultan Agung would besiage Dutch Batavia (1628 and 1629) and fail both times. While Mataram's armies were not suspect, the Dutch's naval power always insured that they could supply their besieged city while attacking Mataram's own supply ships.
In the later half of the seventh century, the Sultanate of Banten would attempt to contend with Batavia economically with some success. However, Banten Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa would be betrayed to the Dutch by his own son, Abu Nasr Abdul Kahhar in 1680. Tirtayasa and his loyalist were forced into the highlands of Western Java were they held out for a time but finally surrendered in 1683.
After this Batavia power would grow without a serious rival. In the next century various warlords would harass the Dutch in Java and some, like Untung Surapatim, would ascend into legend. However, while heroic, none would truly endanger the economic interest of the VOC. After 1683, Batavia was the major power of Java and would often play kingmaker with the sultanates. During the 17th and 18th centuries the VOC couldn't mange the everyday running of the native population and often relied on tribute of wealth and labor of their native vassals, protectorates and "allies". In a strange way, enough though headed by Dutch, during the early period Batavia followed the kingship model of the earlier Javanese states, having only a loose control over the territory far from their base at Batavia.

Spoiler :
Unlike earlier periods, there are many sources available for the Javanese military during this era. Most of the large invasion armies seemed to have been around 10,000. The most common numbers given for the first Mataram siege of Batavia is 10,000, and the second, a combination of Mataram and Sunda armies, is 14,000. There are larger figures given for some of the invasions but it is doubtful that the armies were ever larger then 20,000 or 30,000. The smaller figures are probably more accurate. Mercenaries were widely employed during this period. Balinese, Bugis, Madurese and Makassar troops would have been employed by many sultanates and the VOC as well. The VOC also used mercenaries of many European nationalities as well as Japanese.
Mataram supplied their forces with clothing and food and other sultanates may have as well. It is not really known if their was a uniform or at least common soldier dress during this period however. During the early seventeenth century Banten's royal guard were clothed in red coats but it is unknown what the common soldiers wore.
The Javanese did not develop gunpowder as fast as the Malays, Vietnamese or the Burmese, however production increased during this period. The Javanese probably knew of gunpowder from the Chinese and Indians before the sixteenth century, however, it was not manufactured. In 1596 the sultanate of Banten relied on Melaka for gunpowder. However, by 1620s Mataram was using Portuguese techniques to make gunpowder and in the 1650s their production impressed Dutch observers. There is evidence that cannon was used by Mataram against Batavia and in the 1650s Mataram could make 800 muskets in a month.
The Javanese used armor during this time. The Dutch record that the Javanese used buffalo hide armor and chain mail armor with square metal plates. Armored cavalry is also reported. Doubtlessly the chainmail armor would have been rarer, however, the buffalo hide armor was probably more common. However, the majority of soldiers were probably unarmored. By 16th century guns were already in use even if gunpowder had to be imported, armor would probably start to be abandoned as the era dragged on.

Spoiler :
There are many records from the early days of colonialism for this period of Javanese history. Most of them are in Dutch and Javanese and have not been translated to English. However, as a secondary source, Micheal W. Charney's "Southeast Asian Warfare, 1300-1900" is invaluable and includes information and quotes on Javanese warfare and weapon use during this period. Pictorial sources are a bit harder, Javanese Muslims did not fill their mosques with reliefs like the earlier Hindu-Buddhist temples. While there was probably illustrative books, Wayang Beber scrolls as well as puppets, I have not found any that survived from this period. Most European woodblocks dealing with Java seem to be based off of second-hand accounts and it is doubtful that they show anything more then the most basic idea of fashion or weapon use. The only real useful pictorial source for the archipelago during this period is Peter Mundy's sketches and descriptions of Aech and Malacca. I combined this with later 18th and 19th century Javanese and colonial art. By combining historical records with later 18th and 19th century art I believe I got close to how Javanese soldiers probably dressed during the early Islamic sultanates.

Unit Info:

Spoiler :
Javanese Islamic Bowman,

Java has a long archery tradition which continued under the Islamic period. Dutch sources show it's prominence on the battlefield and it was probably effective. The bow is based off of these images, (1), (2). Javanese soldiers were said to use armor made out of buffalo hide, but known survive from this period. This soldier's is based off of a example of hide armor from Sulawesi, (3). It is known that before the widespread use of the caplike blangkon all Javanese groups wore various headwraps in a variety of different styles. For instance, Radeh Saleh's painting of Javanese peasants in a flood shows them clearly wearing loose cloth headwraps, (4). However, in English it is hard to find information on such things as the difference between Sunda, Balinese, Central and Eastern Javanese styles, so I went with a general look for all of the units. This pack is meant to service a general Java or Indonesian civilization after all.

Javanese Light Infantry (Bugis),

The Bugis from Sulawesi were well known as mercenaries throughout the archipelago. Serving in Java and Malaysia for both native and Dutch they were also pirates and raiders. They were known for their use of armor and many chainmail armors in Malaysia and Indonesian museums were collected from old Bugis families. The Bugis were used by both the Dutch and the Javanese as mercenaries during this period and this unit reflects this with a mixture of native and European armor. Copper, tin or bronze morion helmets were given as gifts by the VOC to many Sulawesi states and others were natively made, a late 18th example (1), undated examples (2), 19th or early 20th examples of the helmets being worn for size reference, (3). The armor is based on this Javanese type, (4). Javanese mail armor was said to be made of square pieces of metal with chainmail, there will be more on this in the Heavy Infantry unit info. Many Sulawesian and Philippine keris are as long as short swords and used in a similar manner, this one is based on this Bugis piece, (5).
It uses modified scout animations which are included in the pack. Nothing fancy, the animations just get rid of the scout's crouching down fidget.

Javanese Islamic Pencak Warrior,

Silat is the general term for martial arts in Indonesia and Malaysia. Pencak Silat is the term given to Indonesian martial arts in particular and Pencak is the term used in central and east Java. Doubtless, like martial systems all throughout the world it was practiced by warriors with varying levels of mastery. The styles cover both weapon and unarmored combat.
This warrior is based off of a Javanese bodyguard, (1), whose dress can be cross-referenced with this image of a Javanese and Sundanese sword dancing, (2). The keris in Javanese art is often used in a stabbing motion and its grip is centered around that motion, (3), (4). The last image is from Donn F. Raeger's "The Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia". Draeger also mentions that the blade may have been poisoned sometimes but it was probably more often used without poison (pg. 96). A poison blade was probably only prepared if the fight called for it or in the case of a assassination. (3) is interesting as it shows a warrior who has been put in a hold from the back, nonetheless he has grabbed his attacker's blade and is pulling his enemy's companion toward him by the belt, preparing to skewer him on the blade. And some people think over the top martial art scenes are a modern invention.
Many Javanese warriors are shown in a variety of unique black caps. I have no idea if they are made from felt, leather, rattan or some other material. It's hard to find information in English about stuff like this.

Javanese Islamic Guard,

This unit is based off of this 19th century example of a guard of a Javanese Chief, (1). Royal guard units are recorded as to having been used by Banten and other sultanates may have used them as well. Their appearance may have been as flashy as this example.

Javanese Islamic Heavy Spearman,

It is known that large shields were used on Java, however, it seems very little of this type still exists. From what I could gather the type is called Tameng, (1), (2). However the only physical example I could find is here, (3) Once again, there is no surviving example of Javanese hide armor, though the Dutch say they used it, the spearman's armor is based off of a Moro piece, (4).

Javanese Islamic Heavy Infantry,

The Javanese's use of chainmail is recorded by the Dutch in around 1600 and it was composed of square metal plates linked together with chain, (1). It can be cross-referenced with this fragment of Javanese plate and chain, (2). This chain and plate style seems to have been derived from Indian and Middle Eastern forms, but it may have mirrored older armor made out of plates of bronze or bone, like in this Moro example, (3). How widespread the armor was in the Javanese armies of the period isn't known, but it was probably only worn by the elite fighters. People either noble or rich themselves or professional fighters, either mercenaries or apart of a lord's retinue. This unit's sword and shield combination are based off of many old plates of archipelago fighters wielding a short sword with large shield, like this one showing a fighter from Ambon (4). Javanese may have used their it in a similar manner. The blade is from Raffles', (5). The headwrap style is based off of this Sunda Iket style, (6), as well as this picture of a person from Semarang on the northern coast of Java, (7).

Javanese Islamic Heavy Infantry (Elite),

This is a very heavily armored Javanese nobleman. The helmet is based off of an ottoman-derived Bugis helmet, (1). I don't know whether this example is a Ottoman import or natively made. Regardless, during this period there were many Ottoman mercenaries operating in the archipelago and there would have been many examples of western Islamic arms and armor in use. The chainmail type is the most common style used by Malay, Bugis and the Moros. I have read that knee length mail did exist and was in use. But I only know of one example that may have had plates reaching down in to the mid knee when worn, (2). The bottom plates are extra long and trailing on the floor of the display. Metal shields were in use, this on is based off of a19th century example, (3), owned by the Sultan of Banjar, but the sun symbol on it was common throughout the archipelago especially Java were it was one of the symbols of Majapahit. The sword is based on a combination of these two, (4), (5).
Infantry this decorated would have been extremely rare, this unit is only included in the pack as some civ4 mods have multiple heavy infantry units for the medieval period.

Javanese Islamic Light Cavalry,

Java was a horse breeding center. According to one Dutch source, they (probably the elite) were good horsemen, better then the Dutch themselves. Javanese horsemen were found of targeting the supply or baggage train with lightening raids and ambushes. While some were armored, most were probably unarmored. There is a long tradition in the archipelago of light horsemanship fighting with various sizes of spears and javelins. Swords and daggers may have also been used. The basic look of the cavalryman is from this 19th century painting of a Maduraese noble, (1), and an image of a figure from the 19th century, (2). The horse and saddle is from a combination of these images, (3), (4). This saddle type is common in Javanese art.

Javanese Islamic Heavy Cavalry,

Javanese Islamic Heavy Cavalry (Unarmored Horse)

While it may be shocking, the Javanese did employ heavy cavalry during this period. To quote "Southeast Asian Warfare, "Javanese warrior elite... made frequent use of chainmail, especially amongst the cavalry. In 1678, for example, hundreds of Javanese horsemen were encountered wearing armor and most of Trunajaya's cavalry at Kediri wore chainmail."(Michael W. Charney pg 41) This cavalryman's armor is based off of this Bugis' example but with sleeves, (1). Similar armor was made in India, Persia, and the Ottoman empire so armor may have been imported or made locally. The helmet is based off of an example from the Ternate sultanate, (2). This is based off of a Turkish Chichak or a European Lobster Pot. Both types would have been used among European and Middle eastern forces serving in the archipelago and the helmets saw widespread use amongst cavalry forces. The chainmail armguards are from this Malay example, (3). The Ming used chainmail armguards and this concept may have been a import from China.
The armored horse's cloth covering is from a Javanese chess set's knight piece, (4). I don't know if the Javanese protected their horses but it is possible. I have read here and there that they did, but I couldn't dig up any concrete sources. The unarmored horse saddle is a saddle commonly found in Javanese art. I don't know if the Javanese used shields while on horseback either, however, there is at least one popular image of Indonesian cavalry with them using it, (6). The shield design is based off of the shields on this Balinese Wayang Beber scroll from the 19th century, (7). However, most of the Javanese cavalry that I have seen use spears in a two handed manner that would call for new animations to be made. So for now, the Javanese Heavy Cavalry must use a shield.

Javanese Islamic Cuirassier,

The Cuirassier's armor is based off of the same source as the Heavy Infantry is. The cap and red jacket are made from a old Wayang Beber picture from Bali (1). The guards of Banten were said to have worn red jackets so I wanted to at least have one unit wear similar. There is no evidence that the Javanese used guns on horseback like this during this period. But the unit was needed to finish the vanilla line-up so here it is.

Javanese Islamic Musketman,

The general appearance of the musketman is from this picture of a Javanese commoner, (1). As already noted, by at least the beginnings of the seventh century muskets were in wide-use if not common and by mid 1600s Mataram was producing 800 a month. I couldn't find any good sources for what form these muskets took. However, we know that the European style snap matchlock was popular in the greater region, from Ethiopia and India to the Philippines and Japan. These guns were produced in Portuguese Goa in India and widely traded. The Dutch and the Spaniards would also used and traded the snap matchlock in the region. These are the type of gun which inspired the Japanese to begin making their own guns and the Boxer codex shows native Filipino and Malay soldiers using it (2), (3). European woodcuts show the Javanese soldiers using a similar gun as well, (4). While this isn't hard evidence, it is likely that the Javanese, like the Japanese, made their guns following a similar model.

Javanese Islamic Early Cannon (Siege)

Javanese Islamic Early Cannon (Lantaka)

The cannon guy is based off of this picture from this image (1) from the "Romance of Damar Wulan" (1770-1795), one of the oldest native Javanese books known.

Mataram used cannon during the second siege of Batavia in 1629. However, cannon was not used during the first siege and it seems that large cannons were rare in Java until then. Smaller cannons, called Lantaka, were in wide use though usually on board ships. The seige cannon itself is based off of a later Javanese example, it is said that the third cannon from the bottom (2) is a Javanese cannon. I couldn't find the date for it but it isn't too different from cannons casted in Siam from the 1623, (3), so we can be sure that the technology did exist in South-East Asia during this period to make bronze cannons like this. The cannon's carriage is based off of a Mughal Indian example the Akbar Nama (1590s) (4). It isn't known how the siege cannons were transported, but they may have used a similar type of transport wagon.

The second cannon is a common shape for a Lantaka, the carriage is based off of a late Filipino Moro example, (5), it isn't known if the Javanese used carriages like this, but it is possible.

Bali was not a Islamic sultanate, however, many Balinese served as mercenaries in Java. Bali was home to powerful Hindu states during this era and these units can also be used for the Hindu states in Java during this time period. But the units are generic enough that they can be used for Islamic and Hindu warriors in Java, Bali or elsewhere in the archipelago. For the sake of saving time, these units are included in the Islamic Sultanates pack.

Balinese Light Infantry,
Balinese Spearman,

These two units are both based off of the same image from the 1880s, (1). Balinese keris are similar to examples from Sulawesi and the Philippines and are longer on average then keris from Java, Sumatra or the Malay peninsula. The Balinese keris can be wielded in a short sword/dirk manner. The spearman's shield is based off of these common leather and rattan shields which can be seen in modern Bali, (2). Even though modern, simple shields like this were probably used in the past as well.

Balinese Spearman (Headband)
Balinese Bowman

These units are based off of these warriors from Bali, (1). There are many examples of people from Java, Bali and Lombok wearing vests in later centuries and they may have worn them during this era as well. Spears with wavy keris-like heads are common in Java and Bali. The composite bow is based off of an example from the Majapahit reliefs, (2). This type of bow was probably never used during this period, but it's inclusion is mostly because at least one awesome civ4 mod has included a composite bowman unit class and more flavor units are needed.

Animations directions are in the zip.

Please leave comments in the thread.

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