The Golden Spurs bonus is applied at the end of the turn, yes. You could say it is thematic, since the Flemish victory at Courtrais was thanks to considerable planning and field preparation beforehand. *shrugs* impossible. Defense can't be manipulated like culture or gold. It's static on a building. So unless you want to have 10 buildings visible in the UI called WAAG_DUMMY, which each give 1, then you'll have to settle. The market is a prerequisite. The OP was wrong. It's thematic, since the weigh house was always placed next to the market so people could have their goods weighed and guaranteed before proceeding to set up shop.