Intro The United States of America has been a constant in the global community since 1776. The roles it has played have altered over time and now it continues to stand dominant despite widespread belief of lost supremacy. However, America’s rise to power and notoriety was never an assured one. The American Revolution was nearly lost several times due to an incompetent leader who barely kept his army together. This NES starts as a greater American victory than in our Revolution. The British Empire, destitute of funds, takes a harder line against the colonies and alienates most of the friends they had. Therefore in 1776, the colonies of Canada sent representatives to the Continental Congress as well. Unlike in our timeline, the majority of people in North America were anti-British. Thanks to French entry into the war in 1777, these Americans won their independence in 1780, much earlier than in reality. An earlier victory has drastic consequences. Unlike in our timeline, a Constitution was never developed to tie the colonies together. Infighting and internal dispute has led to the collapse of the Union. With a plethora of different governments and ideals governing the new states, the experiment started with the end has come to a climatic conclusion. At the same time, Europe has sparked the rise of “isms”. Nationalism has been stirred up across Europe thanks to Napoleon’s campaigns and the wars which tore Europe apart for nearly two decades. Socialism lurks on the horizon as writers and intellectuals begin debate its validity. At the moment, kings are enjoying a revival of their prestige and power, having more control over their nations than ever before. Now both America and Europe are engaged in the troubles of the nineteenth century, this NES experiments with making America a “second Europe,” with its own wars and striving for unification. If you are playing as a historical nation, I’d highly recommend research into your nation, as you never know what you might find that could help your cause. For example, woe unto the poor leader who engages in war against Virginia between 1850 and 1880, for they will have perhaps the best military minds in the world. Overall though, like The World Turned Upside Down, this NES is about the story and politics. Stay in character with the times and attempt to imagine your position as leader of a nation in the nineteenth century. Their morals and objectives are far different than our own, please think hard before talking about “humanitarian aid” in these early times. Enjoy the new rule changes, and read carefully. If you have any questions at all, please, just ask me. For update links and important treaties see the following thread: http://forums.civfanatics.com/showthread.php?t=278736 Rules Sample Nation Statistics British Empire: Tyrion Constitutional Monarchy: Conservative PM Capital: London Dissent: 5% Base IC: 8 Military Spending: 3 Public Spending: 1 Private Enterprise: 4 Army: 15 Infantry Divisions, 2 Cavalry Divisions Army Quality: 4 Navy: 55 Frigates, 41 Man-o-Wars Navy Quality: 4 Government and Elections Government The government of a nation can be switched by any command of the player. As a warning, your decisions in switching government will have difficulty in resistance by the public, especially if you fail to adjust your economic spending to match your ideology. As an example, if the government of France changes from being a conservative republic to a communist dictatorship, the people will be outraged if half of the nation's IC remains in the control of private enterprises. Please be sure to consider the style of your economy and society before conducting a major government change. Ruling Party/Monarch To the right of your nation's government in the stats is the ruling party or absolute ruler of your government. This is not controllable except in the cases where we were unable to find a clear head of state, in which case you can come up with your own ruler. The exceptions are for republics and constitutional monarchies which have parties in charge. The example best for this would be the Federalist Party in charge of New York, or the Liberal PM in charge of the government of Denmark. In an absolute monarchy or dictatorship, assuming the nation does not reform at any point into a republican style government, head of state can change by player's request only alongside a good story or description of the events leading to change. Otherwise, rulers will keep their crowns until they were historically deposed or till they die. Elections The history team involved in the development of this NES has done extensive research into the election years and political parties of all the nations within the NES. Therefore all elections will be held in the historical years in which they were held in OTL. This is with or without the influence of the nation which is holding elections. Should the player fail to determine the election himself, the moderator will determine the results of the election based on historical information and events occurring elsewhere in the world. Dissent Dissent is the key indicator of your success and the stability of your government. Dissent rises in the following circumstances: 1. When you radically shift economic policies. 2. When you shift government types. 3. When a republic shifts control from one party to another. 4. When you lose a war 5. Other types of unfortunate events which can surprise you and have a wide variety of styles in which they are introduced. Dissent falls in the following circumstances: 1. When a government successfully shifts to a more publicly preferred form. 2. Lowering taxes in the form of reducing military and public spending and switching to Private Enterprise 3. when you win a war 4. when a party is reelected to government 5. Other types of fortunate events Economy Base IC The Base IC is NOT the IC you spend each turn. This is the total combined IC your nation produces, and a collection between the production and development of military assets, the spending put into welfare and other public projects, and the amount of industry and economy controlled by private enterprises such as corporations and wealthy individuals. IC cannot be banked or saved over time, and all must be spent or else you will lose it. Once again I'd like to repeat that Base IC is NOT the IC you spend each turn. Shifting IC Emphasis and Spending IC Shifting IC Your Base IC determines the total amount of IC per turn you gain, and from that the IC is divided into different aspects of your economy. You can shift the amount you want to have per turn in each section very easily, just put the shift into orders and it will be done. Beware, however, the consequences that a major shift will have upon your people and your dissent rating. For example, New York has 1 IC per turn in all three of the different sections, giving them a solid government which is able to sustain its military, provide a small form of pension plan for veterans and their families, and a larger part of their economy is produced by private corporations within the nation. However, ruining this peace, Vermont determines to attack the larger nation. In order to mobilize for a full war, New York shifts IC from Public Spending and Private Enterprise in order to triple its production of military forces in the fight against Vermont. In that case, the war would provide reasonable basis for a radical shift in economic policy. Doing the same thing in peace time would likely have caused a major civil war within New York as private and mass interests rose up to protect themselves from the increasingly militaristic government. Here are descriptions of what governments under each of the economic extremes would look like: Max Military Spending: A totalitarian government bent on a total war of annihalation against all of its enemies. Max Public Spending: An utopian regime providing free health care, welfare, and employment for all the people. An idealist's socialist heaven. Max Private Enterprise: An nation managed, owned, and operated by a major corporation. Spending IC Each section of the Base IC can be used for different types of spending and development. Military Spending represents the portion of the modern industrial apparatus being used to train and produce weapons for the military. Public Spending is other parts of industry and the economy being used to supply for the people. Private Enterprise is all industry and parts of the economy privately owned by individuals within the nation. IMPORTANT NOTE: IC cannot be traded. Under no circumstances will one nation be able to provide IC to another through diplomacy. If you want reparations for a war, merely include monetary value. Chances are IC will decline or increase based upon the amount you insist upon. If you want support in a war, then one nation must build the unit and send it to the second nation. This represents the construction and sale of weapons to another nation. Military Spending Military spending IC is the only IC that you can specifically spend on military unit producion. If you do not spend the IC, it is not banked, but is lost forever. What it can be spent on is below. Ground Forces Militia Division: 1 IC for 1 Division. These are moderately better forces than Natives, but not by much. Militia can be upgraded to infantry for 1 Military IC. Infantry Division: 2 IC for 1. These forces provide the standard military forces to most nations. Cavalry Division: 2 IC for 1: These mounted forces provide the only mobile force available to the nations of the world for much of the nineteenth century. Balloon Brigade: 3 IC for 1: REQUIRES OFFENSIVE BALLOONING. Steam Battery: 4 IC for 1: REQUIRES STEAM TANKS Naval Forces Frigates: 1 IC for 3. These are quick and efficient naval vessels. Not as good in ship to ship combat as Man-O-Wars, but good for patrolling the sea lanes. Steam Frigates: 1 IC for 3. These are even quicker naval vessels. Equipped with both sails and steam engines they could be a radical advancement in naval warfare. Steamer Raider: 1 IC for 2. These are powerful naval vessels entirely equipped with steam engines for modern warfare. While lacking the firepower of a man-o-war, it still possesses considerable strength. Man-O-Wars: 1 IC for 1. These are the best wooden fighting ships available. Not only for combat, but each also represent a nation’s prestige and power. Armored Man-o-War: 1 IC and a Man-o-War for 1. These ships demonstrate a new era in the age of warfare. The Armored Man-o-War uses steams, sails, iron, and cannon for the newest type of warship. REQUIRES NAVAL ARMOR. Monitor: 1 IC for 4. These ships are the first available pure ironclad and turreted vessels. They are incredibily easy to manufacture but suffer from the one weakness of being vulernable to the open seas. REQUIRES IRONCLADS. Military Upkeep A nation can only support so many soldiers at a given time. Sometimes these people are paid mercenaries, but mostly now they represent a national army. Each division represents somewhere between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers and those troops have to come from somewhere and have to be given weapons from somewhere. Therefore players may only have ten divisions for every point of Military Spending IC. The only exception to this rule is five “free” divisions. Any nation may have at most five divisions without requiring military spending. If you ever exceed your capacity, expect many problems within your military. Soldiers don’t like fighting without ammunition and sometimes if they feel that you are doing a poor job of managing the nation, they’ll find someone they like better. NOTE: there is no “upkeep” cost for a navy, this is due to the fact that overall boats are relatively low maintenance at this time. This can be argued, but for the sake of simplicity and ease of moderation, I’m not listening. Public Spending Public Spending represents the amount of your economy which is used to provide for the unfortunate of your nation's society. Most civilized nations will start with at least 1 IC per turn put into Public Spending, representing police forces and basic pension and compensation plans. A real life example would be 1 IC in spending would be the USA in 1920, and 10 IC in public spending would be the USA in 1933. (and 30 IC in public spending would be USA in 1999.) Placing money in Public Spending provides your people with security in their jobs and lives. You may justify your switch, increase or decrease, in public spending in your orders, or I'll do it for you in the update. Increasing Public Spending will often help decrease dissent, with a few different circumstances. For example, public spending would be far less popular in a majority conservative nation then in a socialist or liberal one. Another use for Public Spending is great works or projects. These can be anything from socialistic “Five-Year Plans” or the construction of a national railroad. Canals would also fall under this. To start a project, simply inform me of the objective, and I’ll inform you of the cost and time it takes to complete. Please be warned that not every project will succeed in its objectives. Private Enterprise Private Enterprise is the most essential aspect for a long term game plan. Private Enterprise is the only type of IC which can be used for research. This is because within the nineteenth century most major advances were done by private individuals. Also, the more investment you have in Private Enterprise, the more likely your industry will grow over time. Military and Its Use Warfare Time within this NES covers years, and wars can be won in a year or less. I must ask that when you send orders, describe your plan for the whole war, and leave the specific strategy to the generals in charge. On a related note, your generals can and will get better over time, so remember their names and keep them fighting to get a better military. If you possess AOL Instant Messaging and happen to be online at the same time I am while updating, I will occasionally allow a more interactive way of managing warfare, conducting the war over AIM. Just ask warman17 and crezth, they can attest to the wisdom and potential for being online when I am. This could be considered biased, but oh well. New Rule: If you are to begin a war the following update, it is considered good form to issue a public declaration of war on the thread. If you fail to do so, you will get extra dissent. This is to reflect the attitudes of the time and proper diplomatic form. Military Quality Your military quality demonstrates how well advanced, experienced, or trained your armed forces are. This can be modified in several ways, including through Projects which revolve around military training, fighting wars, and researching new military technologies. Some nations have naturally higher qualities than others, Prussia and Switzerland being the prime examples. Research is the best way to decrease the gap, and winning wars will have a positive effect on your military's quality as well. Losing wars could possible decrease quality, but it is far easier to increase than decrease. Remember to keep up with modernization or you could find yourself horribly beaten if you go to war. Mobilization If the situation appears desperate in the midst of a war, or if you’d prefer to throw your full force against the enemy, you can mobilize reserves. Essentially, this creates a certain amount of Reserve Divisions, which are slightly less effective than Infantry Divisions. These are not subordinate to upkeep and depend on your nation’s estimated population and the style of your government. To mobilize you merely have to say in your orders to mobilize the reserves. As a warning, large losses in reserves will have an adverse effect on your Dissent. Research Research can only be conducted through Private Enterprise. Please see the Tech Tree below for specific costs and effects of technology. Also, the Tech Tree is set, and determined pursuit of different trees could lead to a dramatically different world than the one in which we live today. Techs can only be shared through means of blueprints. Unlike in The World Turned Upside Down technology cannot be shared directly. However, “blueprints” can be provided to reduce the costs of researching technology. These reductions will be determined based on how many people had previously researched the technology. Research Fund are also no longer available for use. This reflects a much different time period. We may see the resumption of funds later within the NES. Colonization Colonies were an important aspect of powerful nations throughout the nineteenth centuries. Not only could they be hubs for trade and economic value, they acted as positions of prestige for imperial powers. The bigger the empire, the better to many politicians and rulers within Europe. Establishing an overseas colony took great expense on behalf of the colonial power. To reflect that, there's continuing costs for colonial expansion within this NES. A colony is defined as a region controlled by your nation which is not directly connected to the territorial region in which your capital is based. As one of the largest examples, India is a colony of the British Empire. To establish a new colony, you must point out the region you wish to colonize, either by use of a map or RL geographical reference. The cost for establishing a colony is 1 Military Spending, 1 Public Spending, and 1 Private Enterprise. This represents the combined efforts of government and individuals in establishing a new colony. To expand a colony from its initial, minute, borders you can spend 1 of any type of IC. Each type of IC will have a different effect upon the expansion of the colony. Using military spending reflects growht of the colony by violent or conquering means. Using Public Spending implies development of the colony using government coffers. Using Private Enterprise represents individual investment in the expansion and development of the colony. Remember however, it's not the size of the colony that matters, it's how you use it. NEW!Colonial Armies The colonial army was used historically by European powers in order to fight their wars and expand their empires overseas. The colonial army stat represents various ethnicities within your empire that contribute full military forces to aid with the Empire. A colonial division is staffed entirely by the members of the listed nationality or ethnicity. However, keep in mind, that these divisions are still led by "white" officers or officers of the majority ethnicity of the mother country of the stated empire. These are not always native forces, a historical example would be Australian or New Zealander forces under the command of the British in World War One. Costs for colonial forces are the same as for regular armies. The main difference is that when recruiting colonial forces, you must specify a prefered region from which they come. Otherwise, I will randomly select an area to bring those soldiers from. There are some specialized "rules" which I recommend only breaking in the case of a dire emergency or collapse. For your convience I have listed below the prime advantages and disadvantages of colonial armies. Advantages: Deaths of colonials have less impact on home dissent and allow for persecution of war efforts with far fewer repurcussions domestically. Colonials will fight hard for their home territory or region, and can be counted upon to fight well in a defensive battle. Lastly, and most importantly, colonial armies are immune from the overall upkeep cost, being paid from home sources. Disadvantages: The mother country doesn't always like to see the empire return home to them, watch out if you're using colonials in the homeland. Additionally, if using "colored" forces against white nations, be warned. There was a realistic (to an extent) fear at the time that if the "colored" people learned they could kill a white man, they may turn on their masters. Lastly, if an ethnic division's home territory has been overrun, be warned that they may quickly turn disloyal. Overall, natives have an increased chance of mutiny, especially if a war is going poorly. Uncivilized Nation Rules “Uncivilized” is a broad and unfair term for such ancient civilizations as Japan and China. However, the fact cannot be ignored that both nations would have been hard pressed to defend themselves against the smallest of European powers. Therefore, a completely different method must be developed to recognize the modernization of the “uncivilized” world. Sample Stats China: Absolute Monarchy: Daoguang Emperor Capital: Peking Dissent: 30% Production Capacity: 6 Army: 35 Native Divisions, 2 Mounted Native Divisions Government and Dissent Both government and dissent work identically to the equivelant stats for civilized nations. Please see above for complete information on these stats. Production Capacity Rather than Industrial Capacity, the pre-industrial society is measured by Production Capacity (PC). Furthermore, you may notice the lack of subordinate stats and the ability to shift between private and government spending. This is to reflect the simplicity of a pre-industrial society. Spending Production Capacity is even easier than IC. You can use it to build up your military or research tech. Production Capacity can be increased only through population growth, though reforms could possibly make things more efficient. Like IC, PC cannot be traded between nations. Also PC cannot be banked or saved over time. Military See above for information on fighting wars and so forth. However, there are dramatic differences in units, primarily the lack of a navy. Also, it should be noted that all Native divisions are inferior to regular infantry and cavalry. They can outmatch militia, but overall they fail to match up to modern forces. Here are the PC costs for each: Native Division: 1 PC for 1. These are native infantry and are armed with the weapons of their culture. Sometimes they have gunpowder weapons, but often they don’t. It costs 1 IC to convert a Native Division to a Militia Division. Mounted Native Division: 2 PC for 1. These are experienced light cavalry. Underestimate them at your own risk. It costs 1 IC to convert a Mounted Native Division to a Cavalry Division. Civilization Uncivilized nations can become civilized, as demonstrated by the real life example of Japan who would shift in less than thirty years from a backwater civilization to a modern power which bested several European nations. To achieve this in this NES is rather simple. First, you must gain a “civilized” sponsor for your modernization. This means that you must find a civilized nation willing to provide emissaries to develop your nation. When you do, you can proceed to the second step of civilization. Essentially PC can be spent on research to learn the three main aspects of Western thought. Once this is completed, your nations moves up the chart to civilized nation. Blueprints cannot be provided to assist in the research of these “techs.” Remember, you must have a sponsor to gain the ability to research these. See the Tech Tree below for costs. Character and Role-Playing Remember that this NES is based in times far different than our own. While I will not kick someone from the NES for light infractions of breaking from character, I will boot people who completely ignore realities of the times and cultures. For those who do keep in character and provide the thread with stories and creativity will be aptly rewarded, if only with an award from each 25th Update marker. The more detail in your nation, the more interesting the story is. The biggest recommendation I can make is to research your historical region and nation. Not only can this help you in finding ways to improve your economy, it can help in defense and conquest. Wikipedia is a useful source, though not always 100% accurate. Try to get into the mindset of the times. Finally, if you have questions on your nation's background or current status, feel free to ask me on the Background thread, located here: http://forums.civfanatics.com/showthread.php?t=268144 Orders and Updates I cannot express enough how important the following statement is. Please head all of your orders sent via Private Message as followed: ABNW [Nation Name] Any player who plays of the old joke of saying “ABNW Nation Name” will be executed by firing squad. Updates will hopefully be once a week. At the moment, current events within TWTUD will make that NES far easier to update and quicker to manage. When that occurs, both NESes will be assured for an update a week. A Hearty Thanks To Shadowbound for his modifications to the map and assistance on South American and Asian governments. TheLastJacobite for a preliminary history of Massachusetts and background on historical leaders of the state. J_eps for assistance in minor changes for Canada. LightFang for his brilliant introduction of the idea of blueprints over tech trees and research fund. Also thanks for providing information for stopping people from “gaming” the system. My research team for the hard work and hours they have put into this NES and the creation of the idea and history. All the players of The World Turned Upside Down who have helped me finalize this new ruleset through their experiences within that NES.