Hey first post here. I've been playing Vox Populi for a couple of months, and have played a few different campaigns with different play styles. I tried a few wide militaristic runs, as Carthage and Aztecs, which is where I did most of my bullying of city-states. One thing I've noticed in particular is some city-states are almost never worth Heavy Tributing and only worth taking Gold from. Maritime City-States are the biggest offender, as often they will yield less than a single turn worth of food in the capital. Food is already fairly weak as a one time bonus, let alone being less than a turns worth, for a bunch of turns where the city-state can't be tributed again, and won't give quests or its resources. With the rewards this lacklustre, I often only take gold or stop bullying them and try to ally them. Particularly once chanceries come online, and become very useful for getting lesser cities up and running. Maritime City-states aren't the only ones. Cultural ones, particularly with a wide empire will give way less than a turns worth of culture. Religious ones are sometimes useful early game but by the medieval era, the faith that can be bullied from them is nowhere near worth it. Even production ones can sometimes stop being useful if I'm not actually racing for some wonders. With this issue, Authority stops really providing benefits in extra bonuses from bullying city-states, and I quickly switch to allying them for the most part. Particularly with the percentage change. One change that could help is if the tribute could be directed to non-capital cities. A lot of the time the capital doesn't need the food, which represents a turn of food production for it, but the food could be an extra citizen for a lesser city. Or perhaps Maritime City-states could just be a flat out 1+ citizen for a random city, provided it has less than a certain population threshold, by era. So no buffing a 20 population city of the Classic Era, but say by the industrial era, it could add population to a 20 population city. Another thing could be changing bonuses by era. Like for example, cultural city-states can give flat culture in the early game. Then say in the medieval era, tributing could start giving some Cultural Great Person points, in addition to the fairly meagre culture. This could be extended to the other types. Maritime - Great Merchant. Mercantile - Great Engineer Militaristic - Great Scientist Religious wouldn't work, as Great Prophets don't work by points. Maybe Golden Age points. Not a lot. Good for speeding alone the first few Great People, but stops adding much if you've already popped out quite a few. Aka helpful for an Authority Civilisation that hasn't been able to work its specialists or wonder whore, but won't suddenly change a Great Power Specialist strategy into bully all the city-states. A final thing could be tributing for a resource. A major drawback of the bullying is no access to the luxury or strategic resources of a city-state. Not sure of this suggestion if it would be too complex, but maybe it could lock the city-state into supplying your empire for a number of turns with a single resource. Worse than a straight alliance, but a good way to snipe resources. Also, it would piss off a Civ if it is allied with it, since you are hijacking their supply of resources.