Charlemagne was the ruler of the Frankish Kingdom, mainly located in today's France. From this, he has established through Conquest a large Empire encompassing most of today's France, Germany, Benelux and Northern Italy. In 800, he has been crowned "Emperor of the West" and remained as such untill his death in 814. His son, Louis le Pieux, became the new ruler of the Empire. When Louis le Pieux died in 843, it's been decided to divide the Empire between his 3 sons at the Treaty of Verdun. The three parts of the Carolingian Empire were divided as such : - Charles the Bald became King of Western Francia (ancestor of France) - Louis the German became King of Eastern Francia (ancestor of Germany) - Lothair I became King of Middle Francia (ancestor of no one as he got screwed up by his two brothers). What is remembered as the Holy Roman Empire is NOT the Carolingian Empire, but actually the Eastern Francia inherited by Louis the German. Hence, what became the Holy Roman Empire is only one third of the Carolingian Empire that became an independent entity only in 843 at the Treaty of Verdun. Apparently, the adjective "Holy" to designate it appeared only during the 12th century under the rule of Barbarossa. It's totally unrespectful of History to consider Charlemagne as the ruler of a civ having this name. Actually, it would be exactly the same as considering Constantine as the ruler of the Byzantine Empire.