**I have updated this article to include BtS concepts like synergy with quests and corporations and revised the reviews. Some lost material will be featured in my other article on manipulation of unit promotions gained from quests and events as it is more relevant there. Thanks to everyone for reading. I did eventually run out of space even with the editing of the first four posts, so you can find the final civs Rome to the Zulus here at post 76 on page 4. Here we go: American Mall (Supermarket): It is a good choice for an American UB, I feel. For the same price as a supermarket (which provides + 1 food and extra health from cow, deer, pig and sheep) you also get happiness from the three late "entertainment/culture wonders" or ECWs ; musicals from Broadway, singles from Rock n' Roll and movies from Hollywood, and now with the patch, plus 20% gold in the city to boot! For a future era start, maybe not needed right away, but if in a long game where your population is reaching health and happiness/WW limits, its a great building to have even if it does come late in the game. That alone is enough, but the +20% gold can be nice too. Possible Synergies: Building one or all of those happiness/culture wonders mentioned above would add 3 happiness points like that and the added health means larger cities as well. What is your pleasure, GP farming or warmongering? Either way, I think it helps out. Not sure about using it with Washington, who is charismatic and expansive, so the +2 health means the health bonus from the mall maybe isn't so big. Then again, you can afford to build pollution causing, production buildings with all that extra health. In BtS, the Industrial Park cause pollution depending on what resources you have. Also his +1 happiness in all cities and +2 with monuments or broadcast towers (which is great if you build the Eiffel Tower) works with, but seems to negate the happiness from the mall too. But, if you were to play as the industrious and organized Roosevelt, then you could get some of the benefits of Washington at the same time if you build malls. It seems that the extra health and happiness could really give Lincoln a nice late game edge when large, polluting cities needs extra health and happiness. Given his philosophical trait, he is a great candidate for space race because of the Mall´s bonuses, maximizing the health and happiness caps. Synergy with Corporations, Events or Quests? The Rural Farmers Event will give +1 food to a city's Grocer. Meanwhile, the Horse Whispering Quest which can occur once you have Animal Husbandry and a Horse resource gives you a chance for all stables to produce +1 food. So, add this to the Grocer event in one city or combined with the food from the Mall, we again have enough to support a(nother) specialist. Philosophical Lincoln likes this idea and the extra food raises the population and resulting score for any leader in those Time Victory games. Finally, any settled Great Merchant will contribute another +1 food, but don't forget to found either Sid's Sushi or the Cereal Mills first and then collect resources to really get that population up! And I assume the you have already built a lighthouse in your coastal city. Sid's Sushi can really clean up on certain maps, and I have had maps with a +16 food from Cereal Mills so it will all depend on the resources that you can rack up. With the extra health and happiness you can afford to trade your extra or obsolete resources in order to stock up on the Corporation resources. So maybe warmongering should be done sparingly as you'll want to be on good terms with some so you can trade with them. Or, what I do: Bully them and force them to capitulate and then you can just demand all their resources, giving you even more to broker with the other civs! (that is, until you vassalize them, too ) Ah, the American Dream. With your extra happiness from the ECWs and health from buildings or environmentalism, you'll be fine unless you grow too big from the extra food, but the extra cash will help you in hitting the cap-raising Future Techs. Possible Drawbacks? Well, it does come late and requires a grocer to be built. Given that the grocer gives +1 health from wine & plantation resources, that might solve your health problems already. Grocers also give +25% wealth and can turn two citizens into Merchants. Maybe you don't need the health, but the money is always nice. With Grocer, Market, Bank and Mall that is 120% increase in income. Yay, Capitalism! With a granary, a grocer and the supermarket/mall you get 11 possible health points. So that means the ability to build forges, factories and other polluting buildings. It would all depend on your civics (environmentalism), if you have FPs or trees and jungle in your fat cross and your goals (production, warmongering, space race, etc) As for the happiness, with Charismatic trait, you get +1 per city, and ignoring any happiness from other buildings, look at what building one of the three ECWs gives you once you have a Mall and Broadcast Tower. For example you build Hollywood, +1 and with Mall and Broacast tower, another +2 for a total of +3 for the same resource!! If you build all three ECWs and a BT, you are looking at +9 happiness for three resources not to mention that you can trade your extra singles, movies and musicals to other civs for resources you may not have, as mentioned above. Oh, and those resources are unpillageable; you just need to keep your cities. I recommend the Eiffel Tower as it comes before BTs and gives all cities, especially newly captured ones, a happiness and culture producing BT. Add in the fact that you likely have other happiness producing buildings and the fact that the Broadcast Tower (along with Theatres and Colosseums) will give +1 happiness for every 10% culture. If you have all three in a city, then that means +3 happinesss for only raising the culture setting up by 10%. For warmongering this is huge! Warmongering seems to fit America as a charismatic Washington or Lincoln gets +1 more happiness for that same BT and also get quicker promotions. The +20% gold will mean that you have more money coming in to support a large army and upgrade your troops; more so if you are Organized Roosevelt. The Mall is a CE UB, but Lincoln is a SE Leader, so there may be some mismatch here. Summary: Although some may feel that is comes too late, when the game is pretty much finished and you are either milking the score or just mopping up, it seems to me that given a large varied collection of resources, the Mall gives the American player the ability and flexibility to trade extra health/happiness resources away for other gains, or to exploit them and kick into high production/warmonger gear. All three leaders are bonafide space or diplo contenders but, Lincoln perhaps has an edge over Washington and Roosevelt. All can warmonger nicely as well, with the help of their UB as well as their UU. So, all leaders can benefit from the Mall. Roosevelt (Industrious and Organized - cheap factories) is more likely to be able to build the ECWs and Eiffel Tower to truly benefit from them. The other two are Charismatic and get the extra happiness assuming they have a Broadcast Tower, which works to enhance the benefit of the UB. Extra health helps Lincoln pop GPs, while the Expansive Washington will either not need the extra health or can take full advantage of it to really raise the health cap and have larger cities. Since health and happiness caps depend on the level played, the true effectiveness of the UB will also depend on your chosen leader and the level played. Arabian Madrassa (Library - double production for Creative leader): With a whopping +4 culture per turn is lends itself to a culture victory. Given that Writing is an early tech and you would likely build a library anyway, it's a no-brainer to place Writing higher up in your tech queue. Libraries cost the same, but in addition to assigning to scientists, you can also assign two prophets. So you will be sure to get the mid to late religions founded no problem. Possible Synergies: The culture route is likely the biggest draw for this one, but you could also concentrate on farming GP and GS only if you like. Lightbulbing to get ahead in tech and maybe settling some of them as well so that you could build the UN quickly. The big culture ensures that you have the resources if you join/start the space race or just own all the land around you for domination victories. Farming GPs will help you progress nicely through the religious tech and that means more religions, holy cities, shrines and mo' money, mo' money, mo' money! And it can also help you control religion spreading for diplomatic manipulation. This is even more important when trying for the BtS Religious Victory. Building Angkor Wat to have your priest specialists giving an extra hammer in production is nice. I have seen the AI settle 4-5 GPs and rake in money in that shrine city and be a productive powerhouse. Synergy with Corporations, Events or Quests? Since the ability to work priests means a probable SE, we need food. See the America entry above for the details of the events and quests can give you extra food in your cities. Of course, the Grocer event would come too late to really have a huge effect. Presumably by then you have already settled the GPs produced. The great thing would be a very early Horse Whispering; it obsoletes in the Renaissance Era and the early use of the priest assignments is the whole point of the UB's ability. This quest is a God-send, that is, an Allah-send , if you should happen to have a city with low food potential or even if your pastures and farms have been pillaged or lost in some other event. However, one may prefer the other options for that event: free Horse Archers or their Camel Archers with Sentry. There are also several events or the Classic Literature Quest which will give an extra research boost and the trigger is to simply have a Library built. Finally, the Literacy event gives a free settled Great Scientist in the Renaissance Era if all cities have a Library. For all of these, the chances that you are likely to build a UB as early as possible, means the likelihood of them occurring is higher. Possible Drawbacks? Other then the danger of polluting your GP pool if you are not careful and don't want that for a cultural victory, I can't think of any problems. Summary: All-round, early UB with simple bonuses, but powerful if used to their strengths. Aztec Sacrificial Altar (Courthouse - double production for Organized leader): These badboys are only 90 shields compared to the 120 needed for a courthouse! In addition to halving maintenance costs in the city it also halves the anger caused by whipping buildings in the city. Slobberinbear, for example has a brilliant strategy article for how to use the Aztecs, their UB and their UU most effectively, and there are plenty of discussion on whipping and the slavery civic out there. Finally, everything (units, building, etc) gets the discounted unhappiness from rushing Holy Quetzalcoatl! BtS: Like the courthouse, it also gives +2 Espionage points and allows you to turn one citizen into a Spy. Possible Synergies: One could whip their hands bloody, but to what advantage? Fast culture, fast science/research or fast infrastructure like libraries, grocers, etc. Space race might benefit from this strategy, but projects can't be whipped. Once you whip production buildings, you can pump out units and dominate/conquer the world. Or just whip the units out and slay everything in your path. You could be pumping out missionaries and heading for a Religious Victory. People love the overflow from slavery, but what about having the Kremlin simultaneously? Reduced cost means fewer pop needed, which means being able to whip it sooner, beating the AI to wonders and getting your new unit out before theirs. A large spanning empire via conquest relies on being able to build some culture and then courthouse and happiness buildings to develop captured cities into productive contributors more quickly. We want the altar first to whip out the other things, but more logically, the more units one has from whipping, the easier it is to overexpand. Actually, it might be a good idea to gift CoL to all your enemies before you start your campaign. If their courthouse survives the capture, then it becomes a Sacrificial Alter for you. Now that is dehumanization at it's best! On the other hand, I would never trade CoL to Monty. In war times you could have the possibility of both drafting and then whipping units, because Monty is Spiritual. There is a trick to whipping a unit or building and then switching civics to enjoy the OR boost, for example. So, you can finish off a wonder earlier and perhaps beat the AI to a few depending on difficulty level. I have found whipping to be a necessity when I am above the happiness cap. Just be careful, not to whip too much, depending on game speed and other factors, you could whip yourself into a problem as the happiness penalties compound, so even though this UB lessens the anger, remember to whip responsibly. I believe the rule of thumb is to try and whip for 2 pop points each time, unless it's an emergency. Again, their are plenty of articles out there on the tricks/exploits of Slavery. In terms of BtS, we have also only begun to explore the mechanics of espionage, but giving +2 espionage points and the ability to turn a citizen into this new type of GP is almost a throw in after the whipping unhappiness reduction. As a warmonger, this new feature of producing great spies has some definite synergy. The courthouse is likely not always the first items in a build queue, but I feel the Altar has a higher priority. In fact, the whole strategy of the Aztecs revolves around it and although I assume that one usually tries to build their UBs ASAP, this is probably the one case where it always happens. Starting with Mysticism will ensure a chance at a religion, which means a quicker path to CoL with a little help along the way with GPs from Stonehenge or the Oracle. Having the Altars built sooner will also mean the EPs will rack up faster as well. Play a game with a heavy slavery strategy and watch the graph as your EPs sore. In one Marathon game I put the slider at 20% for just a few turns and I had enough to see all the AIs research for the rest of the game and only once, before doing this, did I have a spy destroy a tile on me: nothing after that. Synergy with Corporations, Events or Quests? Since the ability to whip is what this UB is all about, we need food. See the America entry above for what the Grocer Event and Horse Whispering Quest can do for you. Any food added will be welcome. You may or may not be switching between slavery and a SE, but you need the food to be there. The great thing would be a very early Horse Whispering; whip the cheap stables and collect the reward of less time to get up to size. Slavery is only powerful if you have the fast regrowth. The Blessed Beast event or anything like villagers building a pasture for you are great. Things like dust storms and floods washing out your farms in not good, so a food producing stable is stable , unless a tornado comes a long. Anyway, it should be obvious that Cereal Mills and perhaps Sid's Sushi are your prime objectives to keep the whipping, war machine in motion down the road. Demand rice, wheat and corn from your vassals, especially corn: we love those tortillas! I have not played that far into the game with the Aztecs, but the possibilities are there. How about capturing an enemy with Cereal Mills and whipping their population away while you grow and heal your troops before moving on and conquering the rest? Sweet. The Too Close to Call Event gives the player a choice of either +1 gold or +3 culture in all Courthouses. All you need to trigger it is to be into the Renaissance Era and running Universal Suffrage. Hmmm, Universal Suffrage. As we are talking about the Sacrificial Altar UB, I hope that the irony is not lost on anyone here. I assume the warmonger would prefer the gold, however popping borders in cities when their Courthouse survives capture might make one lean towards the culture. Either way, I still find it funny to be making money or gaining culture from the potential whipping of pop points. Possible Drawbacks? If you are on a large, food-rich map with many civs, this UB makes sense. Also, many talk about whipping barracks in new cities to help with the war effort. It works nicely, I must say. The Altars do come too late to help whip early barracks, but Monty builds quick barracks anyway. But, a quick victory is likely not going to be done with only CoL and the Altar; you need the tech for the units. However, continuing whipping will keep the population low in those cities. Larger cities taker longer to get back up to that high population and having low populated cities would mean that perhaps you are not utilizing all of the good tiles available to be worked in the fat cross. Having low population might result in slower teching, and unless you are whipping Altars for every city you capture, you maintenance costs might still hurt you. So, it depends on your goal, how long you stay in slavery. Eventually, the unhappiness can catch up however, but there are plenty of savvy players out there that have slavery fine tuned to both an art and science. The real drawback is that in running slavery, there is the event with the slave revolt and this is a pain in the butt, no matter when it happens. If you don't have the money to sort it out and it keeps happening, it can be a lost cause when the enemy is approaching. This is one of the reasons I don't often use slavery, however with this Civ you need to use it. If that wasn't bad enough, one of Solver's events is specific to the Aztecs. The Toxcatl Event is triggered if a city with Sacrificial Altar has at least one unit in it. It can occur until you have discovered Education and the choices are +2 angry faces (like whipped), which can be brutal depending on happy cap and difficulty level or you pay gold and the unit is immobile for 3 turns. I haven't seen this one in game, so I can't say more. It's like the salve revolt, but worse. I prefer the money and culture for whipping people. Summary: An appropriately related UB for the Aztecs, and not the culture bomb like in Civ 3 but quite powerful in the right hands. An Oracle slingshot could give you it quicker and then it is worth more, but a slingshot solely to use this UB doesn't really merit the risk, especially on higher levels when trying to win the Oracle race. It can be effective for starting out and if it is the first thing build/whipped in a newly captured city (after a granary), then it will become a contributing city soon enough. With a little practice, it certainly is fun playing as the Aztecs. As Devo tells us: Whip It, Whip It Good! Babylonian Garden (Colosseum - double production for Creative leader): How cute, a UB named for their Hanging Gardens. The building gives extra +2 independent of what food resources you have or have been pillaged. It also has its happiness linked to the culture slider and costs 80 hammers, just like the Colosseum. Possible Synergies: Being aggressive and organized as well as the Babylonian UU might make Hammurabi a warmonger candidate. Assuming more cities earlier on, perhaps one could make use of the the extra health. Certainly high polluting cities for a late warmonger or space race could use it. Organized gets cheap lighthouses (more food), courthouses (faster expansion) and factories for more production. High production with extra health could mean some good warring possibilities with his Aggression or it could mean space race contention. The happiness from the building also helps with large cities or War Weariness. Synergy with Corporations, Events or Quests? There is an event where a gladiator can be cashed in on or you can arrange for easy opponents and raise the culture of the building. Then the UB would give happiness, health and culture. When going for a cultural victory, even better is the Sports League Quest. With enough Gardens built, you can either have them give +1 happiness or +4 culture. Available with Construction, this is one of my favourite quests and I never fail it. Possible Drawbacks? It comes with Construction and is 20 hammers less expensive than an Aqueduct. A Theatre is still a cheaper option for happiness if you don´t need the health, but this UB kills two birds with one stone and Construction gives two units and access to Engineering. Later in the game, when high production is needed but unhealthy, this UB will give a slight health advantage, but the beauty is that is comes so early that later you would not have to stop producing military units or spaceship components to build it. Summary: Creative or not, these are cheap buildings and given the possible events as an incentive to build you can't go wrong for the warmonger/expansionist Hammurabi. Byzantine Hippodrome (Theatre - double production for Creative leader): WELCOME TO THE HIPPODROME!! The Hippodrome is like a Theatre: You get +3 culture, but no Artists to assign and a +1 bonus for horses, not dyes. Unlike a Theatre, it also has a base happiness of +1, but if that wasn't enough, you also get +1 for every 5% culture on your slider, instead of the normal 10%. This essentially doubles that ability of the building to give happiness from culture and would stack nicely with Colosseums and Broadcast Towers. Possible Synergies: Where to begin? Well the extra happiness from the smaller culture slider means more money devoted to maintenance of cities for your expanding empire, more military units and upgrades, more research, you name it. Justinian I is Imperialistic and you will have more money available to take advantage of your fast settler production. Since the Cataphract UU is dependent on horses, it is a no brainer to try and connect the horses ASAP. Horses are usually more readily available than dyes on most maps. Being religious gives the civics flexibility of fast settlement and then gearing up for war or space exploration or anything else. He is a strong Religious Victory candidate with that starting tech and his traits. Synergy with Corporations, Events or Quests? There are a few events which result in more revenue or culture applied to the Theatre/Hippodrome. Just make sure that you have enough money sitting around to chose your option and more importantly to pay for a quick rebuilding if some inconsiderate smoker burns it down! Possible Drawbacks? Extra happiness is never a drawback, and as stated earlier, this leads to an economically advantage. Even without horses, there is still the +1 base happiness not to mention the slider giving +2 for every 10%. However, you will not be able to assign Artists to get a quick culture growth from new or newly acquired cities. The extra happiness from the culture slider means that in order get borders to grow quickly, you might need to put the slider higher even though you don't need the happiness. Kind of a waste, but you can use your starting knowledge of Mysticism to get Stonehenge or early religions as a way to compensate if that is even an issue. Summary: Very unique, even for a UB. It is no more or less resource dependent than other UBs and not being able to assign Artists in no more annoying that having the extra GA from the French Salon when you don't want to pollute the GPPs. It all depends on the map, difficulty level and victory conditions: Work around it and use the UB to it's strengths, with or without Horses. Carthaginian Cothon (Harbour - double production for Expansive leader): So, a Harbour which gives +1 trade routes to a coastal city to Hannibal, a financial leader who starts with fishing. What is the catch, you ask? I can't think of any. For 20 extra hammers you really can't complain. Possible Synergies: First off, Financial and Fishing is already great. Find some coastal tiles with food sources and settle down. In fact when I play as Carthage (or Portugal or Netherlands for that matter) it's nothing but coastal cities if I can help it. Your income will give a fast tech pace and you can plan for diplomatic or space victories, although I am not sure about others. I guess being ahead in tech will help keeping a more advanced army and he will promote his troops quickly, but you should try and keep some trading partners (or vassals!) out there to take advantage of the extra trade routes. The base number of trade routes for a city is one, but if you have discovered Currency and build a castle or run the Free Market civic in addition to your Cothons, that means 3 trade routes. (You can't do both since Economics obsoletes the castle.) The Colossus adds +1 gold in all water tiles and the Great Lighthouse adds +2 trade routes in all coastal cities. If you have a map with many civs, and nice silver or gold or calendar enabling resources which gives you huge coin besides your financial bonus you will have some rich cities. Being Charismatic, cities will be happier and working more tiles and the health from the sea food helps growth as well. If you are around late enough and make an early move for flight and the UN, the Airport and the Common Currency Resolution give you another 2 trade routes! Didn't talk about cottage spamming yet, so there. I said it. Cottage Spamming. Now, need I mention the Harbour's +50% trade route yield? That +50% on your 7 trade routes! Don't forget the additional 100% from the Temple of Artemis. Add markets, banks and Wall Street and you will be using C-notes for TP. BtS just makes it even more sick, with the Customs House giving another +50% on international trade. Synergy with Corporations, Events or Quests? There are plenty of great quests for the seafaring civ; they really can have a great game if the stars are aligned. For example, the Harbourmaster: You need Compass and a map that has at least 40% water tiles. It obsoletes near the Industrial era, but if you build a certain number of Harbours and Caravels you get your choice of all Harbours gaining +1 gold or your choice of Combat I or Navigation I promotions for all naval units. Something for the warmongers and something for the builders. Warships happens early if you have the Trireme prerequisites and at least 55% water tiles. Obsoleting with the Renaissance era, you build enough Triremes and they gain the Combat 1 promotion or if you control the Great Lighthouse then all harbors gain +2 commerce. If you were so lucky as to get both of these, that could be either +3 commerce or Triremes with Combat and Navigation I, but wait, there's one more. The Overwhelm Quest triggers with Flight, Industrialism and again, at least 55% water tiles. You have until Robotics to build an assortment of modern Air and Navy units. All those types of units can then receive Combat I promotions or all your Harbours will gain +5 commerce, essentially making your Carthaginian Cothon act like the Portuguese Feitoria. That would be a total +8 commerce, not even including the Customs House (BtS) and the 6-7 trades routes. Skip the Nuke Ban resolution it offers and use your wealth to buy your way into the UN and just pass it then. In BtS, Sid's Sushi would be the Corporation that you absolutely must get and with building the Colossus and/or GL or being the first to Economics, getting the GM to found it should be entirely possible. With all coastal cities and sea food resources, that means larger populations and greater profits and culture, both which can lead to obtaining more resources. Possible Drawbacks? Compass can come pretty late, but a beeline or slingshot or a combo of both could land you your Cothons earlier than you might think. The tech or time lost getting your UB will be made up for when you have +1 trade routes in your lucrative coastal cities. The only drawback is you need to have those coastal cities. If you want to reign supreme with Hannibal, you need high sea levels and/or likely some sort of Archipelago map. Finally, while you might want to run Mercantilism unless you really need/want the free specialist and/or have vassalized enough civs to still have the foreign trade routes. You it might not want the UN to force you out of FM, but depending on how many coastal cities with Cothons you have you will still have an advantage. Summary: Other than being map dependent, this UB is quite possibly the best matched with the civs leader traits and starting techs. With more money you can support a larger army/empire or research faster. The larger the population, the more lucrative the trade routes; so windmills giving more food and commerce makes sense. Use your Charismatic Navy to patrol and protect your coastline resources and be wary of blockades and privateers. Hannibal is quite possibly the strongest and most versatile of the four sea-faring civs.