I'm interested in the economics of temples. A temple costs 1gpt in maintenance and makes one citizen happier, which would cost 1gpt to do with lux tax. So is there any lux tax advantage from temples unless you have the Oracle as well? It's complicated by the fact that lux tax is calculated per city, so a high level of tax may cause unnecessary expenditure in gold-rich cities. But you'll also spend the temple maintenance everywhere, whether you need it or not. Bottom line for me is I don't tend to build them unless I definitely want their cultural benefits, either for border expansion or for a cultural victory or to limit flipping. For most situations the shields for a temple don't seem to yield any direct economic or military benefit. But you probably only wasted the shields, not much gold.