With Rise and Fall overhauling the Government systems one of the biggest changes was to a few Governments. Namely, Communism and Democracy have been changed to a very large degree from vanilla. Here's how each Government stacks as of Rise and Fall: Democracy: Major bonus: +2 Production and +1 Housing per District. Minor bonus: 25% discount on purchases with Gold. Communism: Major bonus: +0.4 Production per citizen in cities with a Governor. Minor bonus: +10% Production. So you might be thinking that Communism works better for tall while Democracy works better for wide. While that isn't completely inaccurate, that doesn't quite paint an entirely accurate picture. Keeping in mind that percentage bonuses in Civ 6 are applied after all numerical bonuses, our formula for total production under Communism would be: 1.1 * (city size * 0.4 + base Production). While for Democracy, the formula is: base Production + number of Districts * 2. Keeping in mind that you get 1 district per 3 population after the first one (i.e. the formula for District cap is floor(population / 3) + 1), we thus get the following: As you can see, Communism only eclipses Democracy in Production if you have both a large city population AND a high amount of base production (around 2.7 production per pop or so). The difference, of course, is that you only get the bonus production from Democracy by building Districts (which in of themselves have a production cost) while with Communism you get the boost as soon as a Governor is established. Given that Governors are finite while Districts are not, however, it's easier getting the production boost from Democracy for a large empire, and the ability to accelerate production through chopping still exists as a way to quickly get Districts online. TL;DR: Democracy > Communism for all but the tallest empires.