Sorry, I don't have time to read all the posts in depth but do want to interject a couple thoughts: re: Deputies. Anyone can start any discussion. You do not have to be a leader or deputy or anything to start a discussion - or post a poll for that matter. Also, please remember that a deputy does not have to be formally installed as leader in order to lead. neither does a leader have to be formally removed from office for a deputy to be able to step in. The proposal to allow a deputy to post instructions if the leader doesn't do so by a given time is on the right track. But here's the trouble with trying to come up with a comprehensive ruleset from the git go: That good proposal needs alot of work. Say no instruction is posted by the deadline and the deputy comes in and does his or her job and posts some instructions. An hour later the leader shows up and posts different instructions. Which ones are the legal ones? Better yet, the leader wanders into the chat and starts countermanding the deputy's instructins left and right. You've got to address these kinds of questions and that takes a discussion thread of it's own. Yes, I do remember the good old days of Tlaxcala and the Southwest province. Naming the third vote getter a deputy / leader was supposed to be a temporary stop-gap measure - but the citizens never saw fit to pass a law addressing the matter. I never liked the idea of the number two vote getter being deputy. I've hated that idea ever since I was deputy domestic leader in DG1. (Eyrei was the leader and he and I had more than one policy dispute. It was kind of like John Adams having Thomas Jefferson for a VP.) I've always thought we should allow leaders to pick their own deputies before the election but that sort of thing smacks of political parties which have been anathema since day one of the Civ III demogames. I still dislike having leaders appoint deputies after the elections. If a leader can't or won't do his or her job what makes us think he or she will appoint a decent deputy? Re: other stuff. Official reprimands and removing officials from office are distractions that should be tabled. Use the election process to weed out poor leaders. Also why not have open ballots?