I understand the mechanics of how First Strikes and the subsequent promotions work, thanks to some great posts on other threads. However, I'm noticing some unexpected results whenever First Strike is in play. First Strike does seem to word as I would personally expect. But it seems to defy the game's Odds calcultions. I generally try not to reload due to a lost battle, but I did in these cases for purpose of experimenting. In one case my opponent had First Strike and I did not. I was attacking a basic Archer defending a city on plains with a +10% Chariot. Odds calculator gave me a 60% chance of winning the battle. I reloaded at least 6 times and never won the battle. I've done similar tests in similar situations with other unit combinations (Rifles v. Longbows) when the defender has First Strike. I consistently see the unit at a First Strike disadvantage being successful in a lower percentage of battles than the Odds predict. I'm not 100% certain about this next statement, but I believe I have observed: A Rifle with identical promotions except for lacking First Strike being told it had identical Odds to a Rifle in the same stack that did have First Strike in attacking the exact same Cossack inside a city. In practice however, the Rifle with First Strike tended to win the battle more often and with less damage. I've also seen surprising success when my unit has the First Strike edge. I can have only middling odds of winning a fight and be attacking suicidally to soften my opponent, but end up with the win most of the time if the odds are at all close (say at least 30 percent). All of this begs the question: Does the game's Odds calculator correctly assess First Strike?