I'm interested in how cultures describe and define Heaven, and since this belief is very old it might have its roots predating our expansion within and eventually out of Africa. Or maybe a Tower of Babel event did happen and the belief spread with a much more recent dispersal of people building the Tower. No, "Heaven" is a very old story. This thread will examine that story in light of what we know about the cosmos. I'll post images of Heaven from around the world and sacred texts describing what Heaven is and how it was created. First I'll start with rock art from Utah produced by the Fremont Indians, northern neighbors of the Anasazi. What appears to be a hunting scene may depict the celestial battle that gave birth to Heaven. Several Indians attack the sheep from the right but one is targeting the horned deity dominating the upper row. This is a common theme in creation mythology, a hero deity slays a malevolent demon or dragon to create Heaven and Earth. What is of interest is the line of sheep left and right of the horned deity. These were the planets before Heaven and Earth were created. From left to right: Mercury, Venus, Mars, proto-Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Pluto and Neptune. Two appear out of order, but Pluto does get closer to the Sun than Neptune and the proto-Earth lies between Mars and Jupiter. Today that region is home to the asteroid belt. Thats 9 'planets', 10 if we include the Indian about to kill the horned deity in the middle of the solar system. If Heaven and Earth were born of that battle from the remains of the horned deity, that leaves us with 10 planets and the Sun and Moon, neither of which appear on the panel that I can tell, albeit the Moon may be one of the combatants below the central figure. Now the Incan Heaven... The central image is Viracocha the creator - its an ellipse. Compare that to the Fremont panel, the Indian warrior stalking the horned deity will approach and kill it from beyond the 5 outer 'sheep'. The Incan image shows 5 stars separated from 4 more by the ellipse. The creator in both images came from beyond the outer planets, carved up the planet between Mars and Jupiter, and returned to its loftiest of thrones (orbits). Well, technically the Incan image shows the entire ellipse between the 2 groups of stars. This could lend weight to the theory the ellipse is the Milky Way anchored by the southern cross and another group of stars. But when esoteric knowledge is lost or confused what we can see may replace it. For example, researchers tell us the number 7 was sacred because there were 5 known planets and the Sun and Moon. One problem is Uranus can be seen. Undoubtedly the visible objects became a focus of religion and ritual leading to astrology, but even that 'science' incorporated the sacred unseen elements in creation. If the Sun, Moon and 5 visible planets were central to creation mythology, why do we see a Zodiac based on 12? Ptolemy's 'cosmos' was 12 circles, etc... So what about the Maya and Toltec? 9 levels with a temple to Queztalcoatl/Kukulcan on top. Notice the shadow on the staircase, each equinox the shadow ascends or descends the staircase - a serpent with 7 humps. According to Toltec cosmology 9 Lords of the Night rule the 'Underworld' while their creator ruled a Heaven comprised of 12 levels. But this creator had an interesting attribute, he occupied 2 levels in Heaven - a Heaven comprised of 13 levels with 2 serving as God's abode. Now look back at the Incan depiction of the heavens: Viracocha is an ellipse dividing 9 'stars' into groups of 4 and 5 with the Sun and Moon on either side. If we count the ellipse as a planet crossing the orbits of the outer planets it would occupy 2 levels in the heavens. The Fremont panel depicts the solar system before creation, but it also shows their Creator and his allies approaching the solar system from below the planets. Their Creator came from beyond to kill the 6th planet. Where did that horned deity end up? It became the 7th planet, it became the Earth, pushed to a new orbit inside of Mars. And that brings us to Genesis, God created Heaven and Earth in 6 days and rested on the 7th. In my next post I'll show how the Sumerian creation myth matches up with the Fremont cosmology, the sequence of planets being born in the Enuma Elish - the forerunner of Genesis - shows the two are connected. The short version is this, the Fremont horned deity is the Tiamat of the Enuma Elish (biblical Tehom). And according to the Enuma Elish, 3 planets formed between the Sun (Apsu) and proto-Earth (Tiamat) and 5 more beyond Tiamat. The Fremont and Sumerians placed their demon/dragon in the same place - between Mars and Jupiter.