I have mentioned a few times that I noticed a significant drop in income around the Industrial Era. I tried to quantify that into actual numbers, and here's what I came up with. Lets try to calculate how profitable (or expensive) a normal city is. For convenience, I am going to use land focused cities that are not the capital. I'll use progress and statecraft for straightforward numbers. I am assuming almost all building up to industrial era are built, with the exception of the Guilds, Agribusiness and Stoneworks, as they are more situational. HELP REQUESTED: I could use some help on the following to finalize the analysis: 1) Unit upkeep at Industrial Era? 2) City Connection Income Average 3) Standard Village Gold Income for Railroad + ITR running on it 4) I assume 10 gold from terrain (other than villages). Is that reasonable? For land I think it is, sea areas would probably be double that. Expenses TOTAL: 111 Buildings: 73 Spoiler Breakdown : Ampitheater 1 Aqueduct 1 Arena 1 Armory 2 Arsenal 3 Barracks 1 Castles 2 Chancery 3 Circus 2 Council 0 Factory 7 Forge 1 Garden 3 Granary 1 Grocer 4 Library 1 Military Academy 6 Monument 0 Museum 6 Opera House 4 Public School 6 Shrine 0 Temple 1 Train Station 7 University 2 Walls 1 Well/Watermill 1 Windmill 4 Workshop 2 Units: 28 Spoiler Breakdown : I am assuming that a city will support 1 worker and 3 military units. This would put a 5 city empire at 15 units, and a 10 city empire at 30 units. That feels about right, could even be on the low end, but we can also assume are more wealthy capital is sharing some of the burden here. At Industrial Era: 4 units * 7 gold = 28 Railroads: 10 Spoiler Breakdown : We will assume that each city handles 5 units of railroad. This may be a bit too much, but humans also generally create extra road for military purposes. 5 railroads * 2 per unit = 10. INCOME Total: 77 Spoiler All Income Breakdown : Progress 2 Statecraft 6 Caravansary 4 Custom House 3 Arena 2 Market 3 Bank 2 Chancery 10 (Assume 10 CS friends) Villages 12 (Assuming 2 villages per city) Starting Tile 1 Other Tiles 10 City Connection 8 1 Merchant Specialist 7 Total: 70 +Train Station (10%): 77 Deficit: 34 GPT per city So this deficit represents how much gold a city consumes. This suggests that in an empire with a lot of cities (aka the capital no longer can make up the majority of the gold income), that the deficit per city would start to dominate, and only TRs could compensate. This matches my experience. In Industrial Era, I find that my gold income drops noticeably, and if I'm sanctioned I often struggle to maintain a positive GPT. I think the Industrial bump in building upkeep is quite noticeable, you go from 1-2 on most buildings to 6-7 on Industrial era ones. I think that really eats into the gold available per city.