I’ve noticed a consistent trend in the games I’ve played, that from about the Modern Era onward, power disparities between civs get absurdly large. In the early and mid game, some civs may fall behind due to bad luck, but for the most part, things are relatively even; there’s rarely more than a 2-policy difference between first and second place. But later on, the snowball effect becomes so strong that the lead of the top civs becomes insurmountable. If I have a slight lead at the Industrial Era, it’s common for me to have my tier 3 tenet before the next civ even gets their ideology, or have a 20-tech lead at the end of the game. If a civ falls slightly behind, they seem to lag and be unable to catch up. I don’t know what causes this effect—I suspect it has to do with the strength of late game buildings and policies, and faith purchasing great people—but I just wanted to throw this out there and see if others have a similar experience.