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Meet the Civs - A Guide to Civ6 Civilizations (Updated 2/10/19)

Discussion in 'Civ6 - General Discussions' started by Brutus2, Aug 9, 2016.

  1. Brutus2

    Brutus2 Chieftain

    Jan 4, 2004
    Philadelphia, USA
    ** All Civilizations from Rise & Fall and Gathering Storm expansions are included. **

    Theodore Roosevelt

    Roosevelt took office following the assassination of President McKinley in 1901 and, at the age of 42, became the youngest United States President in history, a record he still holds today. Roosevelt championed his Square Deal domestic policy, comprised of three basic ideals: the conservation of natural resources, greater control over corporate plutocracy, and consumer protection.

    His efforts to regulate corporate trust and monopolies earned him the nickname "trust buster." He established the United States Forestry Service in 1905 and fought for the conservation of millions of acres of federal land, which are still protected to this day. Roosevelt also coined the iconic phrase "speak softly, and carry a big stick," describing his form of foreign policy of negotiating peacefully while simultaneously threatening with the "big stick." Roosevelt described this policy as "the exercise of intelligent forethought and of decisive action sufficiently far in advance of any likely crisis."

    Big Stick (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes peaceful civilizations that have a city on his home continent. Hates civilizations starting wars against a city state or civilization based on his continent.
    Roosevelt Corollary (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Units receive a combat strength bonus on their home continent
    • Bonus appeal to all tiles in a city with a National Park
    • Rough Rider unique heavy cavalry unit becomes available after researching the Rifling technology. Rough Riders gain culture from kills on their home continent, have increased combat strength when fighting on hills and have a low maintenance cost.
    Founding Fathers (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • All diplomatic policy slots in the current government are converted to Wildcard slots.
    P-51 Mustang (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Fighter
    • Increased combat strength vs. fighter aircraft, has increased range and earns experience faster
    Film Studio (Unique Building)
    • Replaces the Broadcast Tower building in the Theater Square
    • Doubles the Tourism pressure from this city during the modern era


    Born in 1137, Saladin was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria, and led the Muslims during the Crusades. Saladin initially began as a multilingual and knowledgeable scholar before beginning a military career under his uncle Asad al-Din Shirkuh. In Egypt, Saladin was but an obscure figure under ruler Nur al-Din, later ascending as a military expert and becoming Viser of Cairo.

    In 1171 Saladin became ruler of Egypt and conquered Damascus after the death of Nur al-Din. With newfound wealth, he went on to conquer Aleppo and Mosul in 1183 and 1186, and in 1187 he conquered the city of Jerusalem. This prompted the third crusade led by King Richard the Lionheart. After years of conflict, the Treaty of Ramla was signed in 1192, allowing Christian pilgrimages to Jerusalem although the holy city stayed under Muslim political control.

    Saladin died of a fever in 1193 in Damascus, giving away his wealth to the people, and left behind a legacy as a powerful and honorable ruler respected by both his own people and adversaries alike.

    Ayyubid Dynasty (Historic Agenda)
    • Wants to have his worship building in many cities, and likes a civilization with it. Dislikes civilizations following other Religions or civilizations waging war on followers of his religion.
    Righteousness of the Faith (Unique Leader Ability)
    • The worship building chosen for the Arabian religion can be purchased by any player for a greatly reduced Faith cost.
    • This worship building is enhanced to increase the Science, Faith and Culture output of Arabian cities.
    The Last Prophet (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • When the next to last great prophet is claimed, Arabia automatically gets the last one if they have not already received one. This guarantees Arabia the ability to found a religion.
    • Arabian science output is increased for each foreign city following Arabia’s religion.
    Mamluk (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Knight
    • Heals at the end of every turn, even if it has moved or attacked
    Madrassa (Unique Building)
    • Provides more Science than the University building which it replaces
    • Bonus Faith equal to the adjacency bonus of the Campus district where it is built

    John Curtin

    John Curtin was the 14th Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1941 to 1945. He held office while the country was under direct threat of Japanese attack during World War II. He proved more than capable for the job through his landmark legislations, which greater unified the many states of Australia and assisted in its reconstruction following the war.

    Curtin, leader of the Labor Party, sadly passed away while in office on July 5, 1945. He left behind a legacy of progressive social reform and civic responsibility that ensured he will forever be remembered as one of Australia’s most influential citizens.

    Perpetually on Guard (Historic Agenda)
    • Forms Defensive Pacts with friends and likes civilizations that liberate cities. Dislikes civilizations that are in a war and occupying cities.
    Citadel of Civilization (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Australia gains +100% production if they have received a declaration of war in the last 10 turns or have liberated a city in the last 20 turns.
    Land Down Under (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Cities receive extra housing when built on coastal tiles
    • Pastures can steal adjacent tiles from other civilizations or city states (cannot steal completed districts or wonders).
    • Campus, Commercial Hubs, Theater Squares and Holy Sites gain additional yields when built on tiles with charming (+2) or breathtaking (+4) appeal
    The Digger (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Infantry
    • Additional combat strength on land tiles adjacent to water and outside their territory
    Outback Station (Unique Improvement)
    • Unlocks with the Guild civic and yields increase with Steam Power and Rapid Deployment
    • Provides food and production with bonus food if adjacent to pastures and bonus food and production for every two adjacent Outback Stations

    Montezuma I

    Montezuma I, born in 1398, was the fifth king of the city of Tenochtitlan and second emperor of the Aztecs. His 29-year reign was categorized by a major consolidation and expansion of the Aztec Empire, also known as the Triple Alliance, as well as enacting a new series of sumptuary laws which aim to curb rampant consumption of goods and decadent lifestyles that reinforced an already existing class system permeating every facet of Aztec life.

    Montezuma's reign ended when he passed away from unknown causes in 1469 AD. He was succeeded by his 19-year-old son Axayacatl, who later sired Montezuma II, the Aztec leader who managed to lose it all to Hernan Cortes and his group of conquistadors.

    Tlatoani (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes civilizations that have the same luxury resources as he does and will try to collect every luxury resource available. Dislikes civilizations that have a new luxury he has not collected.
    Gifts for the Tlatoani (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Luxury resources in his territory provide an Amenity to 2 extra cities
    • Military Units receive bonus combat strength for each different luxury resource improved in Aztec lands
    Legend of the Five Suns (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • May spend Builder charges to speed district construction
    Eagle Warrior (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Warrior
    • Can convert defeated enemy units into builders
    • This conversion ability works only against the units of other civilizations, not barbarians
    Tlachtli (Unique Building)
    • Replaces the Arena building in the Entertainment District
    • Provides Faith and Great General points per turn

    Pedro II

    Pedro II, born in 1839, was the second and final ruler of the Empire of Brazil, a 19th-century state comprised of territories encompassing Brazil and Uruguay. Groomed for rule from the age of five after his father abdicated the throne and fled to Europe, Pedro II was known for his strong devotion to his people despite his resentment towards the monarchy that robbed him of so much of his childhood. Despite this adversity and the crumbling state of the Empire his father left him with, Pedro II managed to steer Brazil towards prosperity until he was suddenly usurped in a surprise military coup d'état and exiled to Europe, where he remained until his death in 1891.

    Pedro II earned the respect and admiration of some of the greatest scholars at the time, and is forever remembered as a champion of knowledge, culture and science.

    Patron of the Arts (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes civilizations who are not competing for Great People, and will recruit Great People whenever possible. Dislikes losing a Great Person to another civilization.
    Magnanimous (Unique Leader Ability)
    • After recruiting or patronizing a great person, 20% of it's Great Person point cost is refunded
    Amazon (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Rainforest tiles provide extra adjacency bonus for Campus, Commercial Hub, Holy Site and Theater Square districts
    • Rainforest tiles provide extra housing for neighborhoods built adjacent to them
    Minas Gerais (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Battleship and has improved defense and ranged attack
    • Unlocked after gaining the Nationalism civic
    Street Carnival District (Unique District)
    • Replaces the Entertainment Complex and provides Amenities
    • Unlocks the Carnival Project, which grants an additional Amenity when underway and a variety of Great Person points when completed
    • Can not be built in a city with a Copacabana
    Copacabana (Unique District)
    • Replaces the Water Park district and provides Amenities
    • Unlocks the Carnival Project, which grants an additional Amenity when underway and a variety of Great Person points when completed
    • Can not be built in a city with a Street Carnival

    Wilfrid Laurier

    Canada tames the Great White North led by Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier, remembered for his strong advocacy for uniting French and English-speaking citizens under one national banner.

    Canadian Expeditionary Force (Historical Agenda)
    • Laurier likes civilizations who respond to emergencies and dislikes civilizations who do not participate
    The Last Best West (Unique Leader Ability)
    • May build Farms on Tundra
    • After researching Civil Engineering may also build Farms on Tundra Hills
    • On Snow and Tundra, Mines and Lumber Mills will gain +1 production, Camps gain +1 Food and Strategic Resources are doubled
    • Half cost for purchasing Snow and Tundra tiles
    Four Faces of Peace (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Cannot be the target of a Surprise War and Canada cannot declare Surprise Wars or declare war on City-States
    • Gain increased Diplomatic Favor based on Tourism
    • Gain increased Diplomatic Favor from successfully completing Emergencies or Scored Competitions
    Mountie (Unique Unit)
    • Becomes available after researching the Conservation civic
    • Combat bonus when fighting near any National Park, bonus increases if the National Park belongs to Canada
    • May create a National Park
    Ice Hockey Rink (Unique Improvement)
    • Additional Appeal, Amenity and bonus Culture for each adjacent Snow, Snow Hills, Tundra and Tundra Hills
    • Grants Tourism from Culture after researching Flight technology
    • Grants additional Production and Food after researching Professional Sports civic
    • Culture is increased if built adjacent to an Entertainment District with a Stadium
    • Only one Ice Hockey Rink may be built in each city

    Qin Shi Huang

    Qin Shi Huang was a ruthless leader, responsible for conquering and uniting the various warring states of China. He went on to become the nation's first emperor in 221 BC.

    During his reign, Qin Shi Huang's military generals greatly expanded the size of China's territory. Qin Shi Huang was known for enacting major economic and political reforms that helped bring standardization to the many varied Chinese states, as well as unifying each state's walls into one singular Great Wall of China. Finally, Qin Shi Huang is known for building the world-famous Terracotta Army, a literal army of life-sized clay soldiers.

    Wall of 10,000 Li (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes civilizations not competing for wonders, and builds wonders whenever possible. Dislikes losing a wonder to another civilization.
    The First Emperor (Unique Leader Ability)
    • When building Ancient and Classical wonders you may spend builder charges to speed construction
    • Builders also receive an additional charge
    Dynastic Cycles (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Eurekas and Inspirations provide 60% of civics and technologies instead of 50%
    Crouching Tiger Cannon (Unique Unit)
    • This high-powered, short-ranged unit doesn't require specific resources to produce
    Great Wall of China (Unique Improvement)
    • An improvement which provides bonuses to Defense, Gold, Culture and Tourism that grow with more adjacent segments, if built on a hill and as you advance though the tech tree
    • Must be built along the edge of the empire


    Poundmaker (Pitikwahanapiwiyin) was chief during a time of crisis for the Cree. Deeply committed to both peace with the Canadian government and the preservation of his people, he negotiated impossible choices, only to be wrongly accused and tried for treason.

    Poundmaker was a highly skilled bison caller – a man who drew bison into pounds – and greatly respected among his people. After all, bison calling had a great practical and spiritual importance to the nation. However, he was also recognized as an outstanding orator and went on to become a great leader.

    In 1873, Poundmaker was adopted by the Blackfoot leader Crowfoot at the age of 31. Crowfoot had initiated a peace between the Cree and Blackfoot, bringing to an end an era of bitter wars and feuds. Poundmaker was given the name Wolf Thin Legs (Makoyikohin), and for the next few years lived with the Blackfoot. This greatly elevated his status with both the Cree and the Blackfoot.

    Three years later, the Cree were deeply involved in a treaty negotiation with the Canadian government. Poundmaker emerged as a leading skeptic of the treaty, objecting to some of the terms being dictated. He pushed for the inclusion of a famine clause, as well as assistance for the Cree in learning farming and trades. By all accounts, despite his earlier misgivings about the reservations and his reluctance to enter one, Poundmaker made every effort to learn to plough and farm to become self-sufficient, rather than rely on government rations.

    In 1881, Poundmaker served as an interpreter and guide for the Governor-General from Battleford to Calgary. The viceregal party was impressed with their guide’s nonviolent philosophy and cultural knowledge. He publicly encouraged his band to remain peaceful during this trip.

    This commitment to peace was shortly tested, though. In 1883, short supplies to the reservations and a reduction of the staff of the Indian Department, as well as the terrible winter of 1883-1884 led to starvation and desperation. By June 1884, war bands under young warrior leaders had begun to gather, and many groups, including ones led by the Cree leader Big Bear, assembled on Poundmaker’s reservation for a Thirst Dance ceremony to discuss the situation.

    Tensions increased over the next couple years with increasing skirmishes between the Cree and government forces. Then, on the morning of 2 May 1885, Lieutenant-Colonel Otter attacked Poundmaker’s camp, believing Poundmaker to be in rebellion. After a sharp skirmish, Otter and his men were forced to retreat. Poundmaker intervened to prevent the Cree and Stony warriors from pursuing the retreating troops, thus preventing further bloodshed. Poundmaker again intervened when his band captured a column of supplies intended for government forces, preventing the warriors from murdering the wagon drivers.

    Upon entering the nearby fort to calm the situation, Poundmaker and his followers were arrested and charged with treason against the government. Sentenced to three years in prison, he was paroled after a year at Stony Mountain Penitentiary. The year in prison had ruined him, physically and mentally, and he died shortly afterwards of a pulmonary hemorrhage, while visiting his adoptive father Crowfoot, on the Blackfoot reservation.

    Poundmaker’s historical reputation was restored after his death. His commitment to a lasting, just peace between the Cree and the government was born of foresight and dignity. During his life he had served as a personal agent of peace to end war between First Nations. He had negotiated in good faith and attempted to strike a conciliatory approach with the Canadian government. His legacy is now honored among both the Cree and Canadians today.

    Iron Confederacy (Historic Agenda)
    • Tries to form multiple alliances and respects those who do likewise
    Favorable Terms (Unique Leader Ability)
    • All types of Alliances provide shared visibility
    • Trade Routes provide additional Food per Camp or Pasture in the receiving city
    • Trade Routes provide additional Gold per Camp or Pasture in the receiving city
    Nihithaw (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Increased Trade Route capacity and a free Trader after researching Pottery
    • Unclaimed tiles within three tiles of a Cree city come under Cree control when a Trader first moves into them
    Okihtcitaw (Unique Unit)
    • Cree unique Ancient Era unit that replaces the Scout
    • Gains one free promotion and increased combat strength
    Mekewap (Unique Improvement)
    • Provides Housing and Production, also provides Gold if adjacent to Luxury resource
    • Provides Food for every two adjacent Bonus resources
    • Additional Production, Gold, Food and Housing as you advance through the Civics and Technology trees.
    • Must be placed adjacent to a bonus or luxury resource
    • Can not be placed adjacent to another Mekewap


    Born Cleopatra Thea Philopater in 69 BC, the Egyptian ruler set forth on a path to power that left many lives in her wake. At the age of 14, after many of her rivals had been poisoned or executed, she was made regent and deputy to her father, Ptolemy XII. Four years later, her father passed away, leaving Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy XIII (who was only ten years old at the time) as joint rulers of Egypt. Cleopatra, now married to her younger brother, had no intention of sharing power, and eventually had all mention of her brother erased from public records. Ptolemy XIII fled and she had become the sole leader and pharaoh of Egypt.

    In the years to follow, Cleopatra would strike up romances with powerful Roman figures such as Julius Caesar and Mark Antony, and ally Ancient Egypt with some of the most important figures of the time.

    Queen of the Nile (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes civilizations with a powerful military and will try to ally with them to avoid damaging military conflicts. Dislikes civilizations with a weak military.
    Mediterranean's Bride (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Trade routes to other civilizations provide extra Gold for Egypt
    • Other civilizations' Trade Routes to Egypt provide extra Food for them and extra Gold for Egypt
    • Trading with Allies earns twice as many bonus Alliance Points
    Iteru (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Districts and Wonders are built faster if placed adjacent to a river
    • Egypt does not take any damage from Floods
    Maryannu Chariot Archer (Unique Unit)
    • Ancient Era unique ranged unit that replaces the Heavy Chariot
    • Receives bonus movement when it starts on open terrain
    Sphinx (Unique Improvement)
    • An improvement which provides Faith and Culture and Appeal
    • Additional Faith when built adjacent to a wonder
    • Can be built on Floodplains

    Queen Victoria

    Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India and Defender of the Faith, Queen Victoria was heiress presumptive at a tender young age. Less than a month after her 18th birthday, her uncle, King William IV passed away, and Victoria became Queen.

    She would go on to reign over the British Empire for 63 eventful years, a span of time that saw the Monarch greatly expand its international holdings through military conquest. Her reign is more commonly known as the Victorian era, a period of great cultural, industrial, political, scientific and military change within the United Kingdom, where national conviction and refined sensibilities of morality became the chief ideals of its citizens.

    Angevin Empire (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes to build high population cities and likes civilizations whose nearby cities have high population. Dislikes nearby small cities that may become disloyal.
    Pax Britannica (Unique Leader Ability)
    • All settled or conquered cities on a foreign continent receive a free melee unit
    • Gain the Redcoat unique unit which is unlocked with Military Science, gains a bonus fighting on foreign continents and can disembark without using a movement point
    Workshop of the World (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Iron and Coal mines accumulate +2 of that resource per turn
    • Half production cost for Military Engineers and they gain 2 additional build charges
    • Buildings that receive extra yields from power will receive +4 of that yield.
    • Reduced production cost for Industrial Zone buildings
    • Royal Navy Dockyard buildings increase strategic resource stockpiles
    Sea Dog (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Privateer
    • Can capture enemy ships
    • Can only be seen by other units if they are adjacent to it
    Royal Navy Dockyard (Unique District)
    • Half the production cost of the Harbor District which it replaces
    • Removes the movement penalty for embarking or disembarking from the dockyard tile
    • Provides bonus movement to naval units built here
    • Provides bonus gold when built on foreign continents
    • Provides increased Loyalty on home continents and twice as much Loyalty on foreign continents

    Eleanor of Aquitaine

    Eleanor, duchess of Aquitaine, was queen consort of France from 1137 – 1152, followed by England from 1154 – 1189. She was one of the most influential figures of the Middle Ages, thanks to her vast land holdings inherited at a young age, making her one of the most sought-after brides of the time.

    She was a leader in the Second Crusade and is credited with establishing many of the royal court’s chivalric rituals– the social codes rooted in Christianity that guided the behavior of knights and women of high social standing.

    Angevin Empire (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes to build high population cities and likes civilizations whose nearby cities have high population. Dislikes nearby small cities that may become disloyal.
    Court of Love (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Great Works in Eleanor’s cities each cause a loss of Loyalty per turn in nearby foreign cities.
    • A city that leaves another civilization due to a loss of Loyalty and is currently receiving the most Loyalty per turn from Eleanor skips the Free City step and instantly joins her civilization.
    Workshop of the World (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Iron and Coal mines accumulate +2 of that resource per turn
    • Half production cost for Military Engineers and they gain 2 additional build charges
    • Buildings that receive extra yields from power will receive +4 of that yield.
    • Reduced production cost for Industrial Zone buildings
    • Royal Navy Dockyard buildings increase strategic resource stockpiles
    Sea Dog (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Privateer
    • Can capture enemy ships
    • Can only be seen by other units if they are adjacent to it
    Royal Navy Dockyard (Unique District)
    • Half the production cost of the Harbor District which it replaces
    • Removes the movement penalty for embarking or disembarking from the dockyard tile
    • Provides bonus movement to naval units built here
    • Provides bonus gold when built on foreign continents
    • Provides increased Loyalty on home continents and twice as much Loyalty on foreign continents
    Last edited: Jun 16, 2019
    IgorS, Sun Tzu Wu and The Highwayman like this.
  2. Brutus2

    Brutus2 Chieftain

    Jan 4, 2004
    Philadelphia, USA


    Eleanor of Aquitain

    Eleanor, duchess of Aquitaine, was queen consort of France from 1137 – 1152, followed by England from 1154 – 1189. She was one of the most influential figures of the Middle Ages, thanks to her vast land holdings inherited at a young age, making her one of the most sought-after brides of the time.

    She was a leader in the Second Crusade and is credited with establishing many of the royal court’s chivalric rituals– the social codes rooted in Christianity that guided the behavior of knights and women of high social standing.

    Angevin Empire (Historic Agenda)

    • Likes to build high population cities and likes civilizations whose nearby cities have high population. Dislikes nearby small cities that may become disloyal.
    Court of Love (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Great Works in Eleanor’s cities each cause a loss of Loyalty per turn in nearby foreign cities.
    • A city that leaves another civilization due to a loss of Loyalty and is currently receiving the most Loyalty per turn from Eleanor skips the Free City step and instantly joins her civilization.
    Grand Tour (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Bonus production towards constructing Medieval, Renaissance, and Industrial era wonders
    • Tourism from wonders of any era is doubled
    Garde Imperiale (Unique Unit)
    • Receives a combat bonus for fighting on the home continent
    • Earns Great General Points from kills
    Chateau (Unique Improvement)
    • An improvement which must be built next to a river
    • Provides culture
    • Gains bonuses from adjacency to Wonders

    Catherine de Medici

    Born an Italian noblewoman, Catherine de Medici was wed to King Henry II of France and served as Queen from 1547 until her husband's death in 1559. Her influence would extend beyond this brief period as Queen however; as she went on to bear three sons who would each become King of France during her lifetime.

    Her offspring each ruled France during a period of continuous civil and religious war. Despite the constant threat of complex and seemingly insurmountable conflict, Catherine kept the French monarchy intact as she championed both policies of compromise with the rebellious Protestant class and later more hardline stances against them. She was one of the most powerful women in Europe during her lifetime and was known to be a ruthless individual whose efforts inarguably kept the French monarchy in power during one of France's most tumultuous periods.

    Black Queen (Historic Agenda)
    • Catherine will gain as many spies and as much diplomatic access as she can and will dislike anyone who ignores espionage
    Catherine's Flying Squadron (Unique Leader Ability)
    • One level of Diplomatic visibility above normal with every civilization met
    • Gains a free spy after researching castles
    • All spies start as Agents with a free promotion
    Grand Tour (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Bonus production towards constructing Medieval, Renaissance, and Industrial era wonders
    • Tourism from wonders of any era is doubled
    Garde Imperiale (Unique Unit)
    • Receives a combat bonus for fighting on the home continent
    • Earns Great General Points from kills
    Chateau (Unique Improvement)
    • An improvement which must be built next to a river
    • Provides culture
    • Gains bonuses from adjacency to Wonders


    What makes an ideal monarch? Is it someone wise and diplomatic? A forward-thinking patron of the arts or a stalwart defender of the realm? Few live up to that standard, but you can count Tamar – ruler of Georgia at the height of its golden age – among them.

    Born around 1160 (dates of her birth vary) to King George III and Queen Burdukhan, Tamar would be in for an early fight to keep her crown. The nobles of the court preferred her cousin, Prince Demna, to be next in line of succession and by the time she was 17, a minor rebellion broke out. Those nobles were summarily crushed by King George III.

    Tamar was proclaimed heir and co-ruler by her father shortly after that rebellion. When George III died in 1184, Tamar assumed the throne of a fractured Georgia. Compromises needed to be made and Tamar was pressured into accepting the nobles’ choice for her husband: The Rus prince Yuri.

    The two were wed in 1185, but the marriage didn’t last. Yuri led Georgian forces to victory in battle, but he was a coarse and unpleasant person, causing all sorts of problems for the royal court. So she filed to divorce him on grounds of drunkenness and immorality. This was monumental considering the era: the monarch of a fervently Christian nation, divorcing her husband and then receiving permission to re-marry from the church? That just didn’t happen back then.

    As Tamar left Yuri, Georgia saw the greatest expansion of its domain begin. The Georgians fought against the neighboring Muslim sultanates, aided by exceptional generals (including the new king consort, David Soslan) and conquered them. Nearby kingdoms became vassals and protectorates. Georgian nobles stopped scheming, then began rallying to her banners. Georgians even founded the Empire of Trebizond, injecting themselves into the powers of the Middle East.

    Tamar became the frequent target of marriage proposals after Yuri. After all, she was an eligible queen of a prosperous kingdom. One story tells of how the Sultan of Rum declared war on Georgia, stating he would have Tamar "as a Muslim bride or a Christian concubine." The diplomat sent to deliver this message was summarily punched in the face by a Georgian courtier.

    Tamar, always pious, is said to have prayed at the cave city and monastery of Vardzia, then addressed her troops from the steps of the church. Inspired by her piety, the Georgians crushed the Sultan’s forces.

    Tamar was also a strong patron of the arts. She bolstered trade and commerce, and minted coins bearing her monogram and titles. Laws were codified. Churches and cathedrals were built. Georgian culture developed as a strong and lively blend of Byzantine Christianity and Persian-inspired ideas.

    Tamar is said to have died in 1213, but her grave remains a mystery. Some say she was buried in a monastery, to prevent desecration. Others claim her remains were secreted to the Holy Land, for burial near the Holy Sepulcher.

    She came to power in a divided kingdom, and left it larger, more powerful, and sure of its cultural identity. She is canonized as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox faith, and a national symbol for Georgians even today.

    Narikala Fortress (Historic Agenda)

    • Tries to put high level walls around her cities and respects civilizations who follow her lead. Does not like civilizations that fail to fortify their cities.
    Glory of the World, Kingdom and Faith (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Faith is increased by 100% for ten turns after declaring a Protectorate War.
    • Each envoy sent to City-States of her majority religion count as two envoys.
    Strength in Unity (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • When making a Dedication at the beginning of a Golden Age receive its Normal Age bonus towards improving Era Score in addition to its Golden Age bonus.
    Khevsureti (Unique Unit)
    • Gains a combat bonus on hills and ignores all hill movement penalties
    Tsikhe (Unique Improvement)
    • Lower production cost and higher outer defense strength than Renaissance walls which they replace
    • Provides additional Faith per turn
    • Provides Tourism after completing the Conservation civic
    • The Tourism and Faith yields are doubled when in a Golden Age

    Frederick Barbarossa

    The charismatic Frederick Barbarossa served as the King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor for nearly 40 years. Using strong organizational skills and military intellect, Barbarossa adeptly sought peace in Germany while helming six expeditions into Italy in defiance of papal authority.

    Barbarossa assimilated several Italian city-states, ultimately claiming direct Imperial control before settling peacefully with the opposition. In 1180 he looked inward, deposing Henry the Lion, one of the most powerful German princes of the time, and proclaimed peace throughout the Empire.

    Despite tensions with the church and his advanced age, Barbarossa answered the call of the Third Crusade, perishing in his campaign. His heroism earned him legendary status in German folklore, in which it is said he sleeps in the Kyffhauser Mountain and will return to bring Germany to a golden age.

    Iron Crown (Historic Agenda)
    • Barbarossa likes civilizations who do not associate with City States. He does not like civilizations that become Suzerain or who conquer City States.
    Holy Roman Emperor (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Additional Military Policy slot for any government
    • Bonus Combat Strength when attacking city-states
    Free Imperial Cities (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Cities can build one additional district above what the population limit would normally allow
    U-Boat (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the submarine
    • Lower production cost
    • Able to reveal other hidden units
    • Sight increased by 1
    • Combat Strength bonus when fighting on Ocean tiles
    Hansa (Unique District)
    • Half the production cost of the Industrial Zone District which it replaces
    • Major production bonus if placed adjacent to a commercial hub
    • Standard production bonus from each adjacent resource of any kind (even artifact resources from archaeological sites count). Resource does not need to be improved either.


    Though not much is known about her childhood, history remembers Queen Gorgo of Sparta, married to King Leonidas I in the 5th century BC, as a wise politician and capable ruler. She reigned alongside her King during the Greco-Persian Wars, a series of conflicts between the Persian Empire and the independent Greek city-states, and aided King Leonidas in his quest to form a coalition to muster against the impending invasion from Xerxes.

    Though Xerxes made some advancements and held a large chunk of Europe during his invasion, the Greeks eventually expelled the Persians from Europe and ensured no Persian soldiers stepped on Spartan soil.

    With Your Shield or On It (Historic Agenda)
    • Never gives up items in a peace deal, and likes civilizations who match that approach. Dislikes civilizations who have capitulated or who have never gone to war.
    Thermopylae (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Whenever her units are victorious in combat, she’ll accrue Culture equal to 50% of the base strength of the defeated unit.
    Plato’s Republic (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Greece has an extra wildcard policy slot no matter which government they choose
    Hoplite (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Spearman
    • Gains a Combat Strength bonus when other Hoplites are adjacent
    Acropolis (Unique District)
    • Half the production cost of the Theater District which it replaces
    • Awards one Envoy when completed
    • Standard culture bonus for each adjacent district including the city center
    • Must be built on a hill


    Pericles was an influential Greek statesman and general of the Athens army during the Golden Age of Athens. He oversaw a period of strong economic and cultural growth immediately following the successful defense against the invading Persian army in 478 B.C.

    After making peace with Persia, Pericles moved the unified Greek armies to Athens and what was a loose collection of independent Greek city-states soon after became the Athenian Empire. During this time of unification, Athens produced some of the most influential cultural artifacts humanity has ever seen, and was home to famous playwrights, historians, philosophers, physicians and more.

    Delian League (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes civilizations that aren't competing for the same city state allegiance. Dislikes civilizations that are directly competing for city state allegiance.
    Surrounded by Glory (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Greece receives a culture bonus for every city state for which they are Suzerain
    Plato's Republic (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Greece has an extra wildcard policy slot no matter which government they choose
    Hoplite (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Spearman
    • Gains a Combat bonus when other Hoplites are adjacent
    Acropolis (Unique District)
    • Half the production cost of the Theatre District which it replaces
    • Awards one Envoy when completed
    • Standard culture bonus for each adjacent district including the city center
    • Must be built on a hill

    Matthias Corvinus

    Led by Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary and Croatia from 1458 to 1490, Hungary is a domination focused civilization that is built for rapid expansion.

    Raven Banner (Historical Agenda)
    • Levies troops from City-States. Likes civilizations that also use City-State troops, dislikes those that shun such mercenaries.
    The Raven King (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Units levied from City-States gain extra movement and combat strength.
    • There is no gold or resource cost to upgrade levied units.
    • When units are levied from any City-State, two Envoys will be sent to that City-State.
    • The Black Army light cavalry unit is unlocked once the Castles technology has been researched. The Black Army gains additional Combat Strength for adjacent levied units.
    Pearl of the Danube (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Any district or building constructed across a river from a city center is built faster.
    Huszar (Unique Unit)
    • An Industrial Era light cavalry unit that receives a Combat Bonus for every active Alliance.
    Thermal Bath (Unique Building)
    • Replaces the Zoo building in the Entertainment District
    • Provides Amenities and Production to every City Center within its range
    • Provides Tourism and more Amenities if there is a Geothermal Fissure within the same city’s boarder


    Pachacuti is the leader responsible for transforming the Kingdom of Cusco into the structured Incan Empire. The Inca benefit greatly from mountains and internal trade routes making this a great civilization for isolationist civilizations.

    Sapa (Historical Agenda)
    • Pachacuti likes civilizations that do not settle near Mountains, dislikes civilizations that do settle near mountains
    Qhapaq Nan (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Domestic trade routes provide increased Food for each mountain tile that exists within the borders of the origin city
    Mit’A (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Inca citizens may work Mountain tiles which provide Production and will also provide Food for each adjacent Terrace Farm
    Warak’aq (Unique Unit)
    • Medieval recon unit unique to the Inca
    • May attack twice in a single turn if all of its movement points have not been spent for that turn
    Terrace Farm (Unique Improvement)
    • Can be placed on Grassland, Desert or Plains Hills and provides Food
    • Provides additional Food if adjacent to a Mountain
    • Provides Production if adjacent to Fresh Water or an Aqueduct
    • Feudalism and Replacement Parts increase yields for adjacent Terrace Farms


    Master strategist. Respected diplomat. Honored student. Chandragupta Maurya of India was all of those things and became legend amongst his people because of it. In his time, he toppled a corrupt empire, then succeeded in pushing the boundaries of his kingdom and worked to better the lives of his subjects. Then he voluntarily walked away from it all.

    Born sometime in the 3rd Century BCE, Chandragupta’s early life remains somewhat of a mystery. Though some accounts speak of his connection to a family with a noble warrior tradition, other accounts claim he was born a commoner, orphaned at an early age. Regardless, Chandragupta earned a reputation as a clever and charismatic man – so much so that the great Chanakya mentored him. Thanks to the legendary politician and philosopher, Chandragupta received a crash course in politics, the arts, and military tactics.

    Ever the masterful strategist, Chanakya had a plan: he hoped his pupil could challenge the Nanda dynasty, a government widely perceived as corrupt. Chandragupta proved worthy of his tutor’s confidence, for he soon raised an army. By 322 BCE he overthrew the Nanda, installed himself as ruler of the kingdom of Magadha, and established the Mauryan dynasty.

    Chandragupta next turned to the lands held by the successor-states of Macedon. Although Alexander the Great had perished before Chandragupta’s ascent to the throne, his conquest of the Indus valley needed to be addressed. Chandragupta kept extending his kingdom until he pressed against the newly-formed Seleucid Empire. The Seleucid-Mauryan War, lasting from 305 to 303 BCE, would end with Seleucus ceding Macedon’s Indian satrapies to the Mauryan king. To show there were no hard feelings, and knowing Seleucus cared more about his successor state rivals to his west and south, Chandragupta gifted 500 war elephants to the basileus.

    Chandragupta’s empire extended all the way from modern day Afghanistan to southern India. Yet conquest was not Chandragupta’s only strength. Throughout his reign, Chandragupta proved himself a canny ruler who cared for his people. He built roads, irrigation systems, and expanded trade routes to improve the lives of his people. He was also clever enough to ensure the loyalty of his soldiers by providing them finery and servants in their garrisons.

    Chandragupta met the sage Bhadrabahu near the end of his life, who taught him the precepts of Jainism, a religion promoting spiritual enlightenment and nonviolence through ascetic living. Following this new code, Chandragupta abdicated his throne to his son, Bindusara. He sought enlightenment, going on a pilgrimage to a cave in southern India. There he meditated until his death, fulfilling his ultimate goal of spiritual purity by giving up literally everything—his throne, kingdom, riches, and even food.

    Chandragupta’s death was not the end of his dynasty, though. The Mauryan Empire would last another century. Inspired by his actions, Chandragupta’s successors—especially his grandson, Ashoka—followed his combined examples of expansion and spiritual enlightenment.

    Maurya Empire (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes civilizations that do not share a border. Dislikes civilizations that do share a border.
    Arthashastra (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Can declare War of Territorial Expansion after gaining the Military Training civic. All units gain increased movement and combat strength for the first ten turns after declaring a War of Territorial Expansion.
    Dharma (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Receive the benefits of all follower beliefs of all religions present in your cities, in addition to any religion you may have founded
    Varu War Elephant (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Horseman
    • Reduces the combat strength of adjacent enemy units
    Stepwell (Unique Improvement)
    • An improvement that provides housing and food
    • Cannot be built on Hills or adjacent to another Stepwell
    • Gives bonus food if built adjacent to a farm
    • Gives bonus faith if built adjacent to a holy site
    • Prevents Food loss due to Drought

    Mahatma Gandhi

    Born in British-ruled India, Gandhi was famed for his courageous passive movements towards alleviating poverty, increasing women's rights, promoting religious harmony and, most prominently, obtaining India's independence.

    Gandhi led the campaign for India's independence from British rule through a specific philosophy of nonviolent resistance called Satyagraha. Some of his movements included the famed Salt March, multiple hunger strikes and more, which often led to long stints in prison and harm to himself.

    Gandhi also worked to unite Hindus and Muslims in the country, which drew the attention of many would-be assassins. After five failed attempts on his life, Gandhi was assassinated on January 30, 1948, leaving a nation and world in mourning. As the preeminent nonviolent activist, Gandhi's influence changed the course of human history, setting the stage for leaders such as Martin Luther King and Nelson Mandela who drew from his inspiring nonviolent philosophies for change.

    Peacekeeper (Historic Agenda)
    • Never declares wars for which he can be branded a warmonger and will try to befriend those who maintain the peace. Hates warmongers.
    Satyagraha (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Receive a faith boost for each civilization you have met that has founded a religion and with whom you are not at war.
    • Opposing civilizations receive additional happiness penalties for fighting wars against Gandhi
    Dharma (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Receive the benefits of all follower beliefs of all religions present in your cities, in addition to any religion you may have founded
    Varu War Elephant (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Horseman
    • Reduces the combat strength of adjacent enemy units
    Stepwell (Unique Improvement)
    • An improvement that provides housing and food
    • Cannot be built on Hills or adjacent to another Stepwell
    • Gives bonus food if built adjacent to a farm
    • Gives bonus faith if built adjacent to a holy site
    • Prevents Food loss due to Drought


    Dyah Gitarja went from being a princess locked in a tower to the warrior queen regent of a 14th century spice empire, the kingdom of Majapahit (located in modern day Indonesia). It all started with an assassination.

    As the Duchess of Kahuripan, she lived a sheltered life. As described in the epic poem Nagarakretagama though, Gitarja’s ascent began with the murder if her half-brother, King Jayanagara in 1328. She then came to power by order of her mother the following year. Gitarja wound up ruling with the help of her spouse, Kritavardhana, during a time of chaos and open revolt.

    With the help of Gajah Mada, a long trusted advisor, she began a campaign to quell rebellions and push a massive expansion of the Majapahit Empire. Legend tells us that Gitarja even rode into battle alongside her cousin, Malaypuran king Adityawarman. Ultimately, she is remembered for expanding the boundries of her empire to include the kingdoms of Pejeng, Dalem, Debahulu and the island of Bali while helping stabilize the kingdom.

    Archipelagic State (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes civilizations who avoid settling or conquering cities on small landmasses. Hates anyone with numerous cities on such islands.
    Exalted Goddess of the Three Worlds (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Coastal cites receive bonus Faith
    • Gitarja may purchase naval units with Faith at a discount
    • No movement cost for Religious units to embark or disembark.
    Great Nusantara (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Coastal tiles provide minor adjacency bonus for Holy Sites, Campus, Industrial Zones and Theatre Squares.
    • Entertainment districts provide an extra amenity if they are adjacent to a non-lake coastal tile.
    Jong (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Frigate and has a higher movement speed
    • Increased combat strength when in a formation
    • All units in formation with the Jong match its movement speed.
    Kampung (Unique Improvement)
    • May be built on coastal tiles adjacent to a sea resource
    • Provides Housing, Production and Food for each adjacent Fishing boat
    • Receives additional bonuses from later technologies

    Hojo Tokimune

    Hojo Tokimune, born in 1251, was the eighth Shikken (de facto ruler, or Shogun-regent) of Japan. He is chiefly remembered for leading Japanese forces to victory against the invading Mongol Empire, as well as spreading Zen Buddhism throughout Japan and championing the Bushido way of life.

    Tokimune was known to rule with an iron fist. After the Mongol Empire first attempted invasion in 1274 and was summarily defeated, it sent five emissaries to meet with Tokimune. These emissaries refused to leave without an audience with the Shikken, to which Tokimune responded by having them beheaded. Again, five more emissaries were sent, and again Tokimune had them all beheaded. This resulted in another invasion in 1281, which also failed, this time in part due to an unforeseen typhoon. As the threat of the Mongol Empire loomed over Japan for years, the samurai warrior class established itself as a formidable force and led all of Japan's defensive efforts, securing a legacy as one of the toughest warrior classes the world has ever known.

    Tokimune was more than just a great military leader, however, and was also a strong patron of Zen Buddhism, bringing notable Zen monks from China to Japan and endowing temples. In part, because of his deep investment in Zen, the sect became widespread among the samurai class during his lifetime and long after. Tokimune was only 33 when he died, but feudal Japan bore the stamp of his leadership for centuries after.

    Bushido (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes civilizations that have a strong military and faith and culture output. Dislikes civilizations that are strong in military but weak in faith and culture output.
    Divine Wind (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Land units receive bonus Combat Strength in land tiles adjacent to Coast
    • Naval units receive bonus Combat Strength in shallow water tiles
    • Builds Encampment, Holy Site and Theater Square districts in half the time
    • Units do not take damage from Hurricanes
    • Civilizations that are at war with Japan take double damage from Hurricanes when in Japanese territory.
    Meiji Restoration (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • All districts receive a standard +1 adjacency bonus for each other adjacent district rather than the minor bonus other civilizations have
    Samurai (Unique Unit)
    • Does not suffer Combat Penalties when damaged
    Electronics Factory (Unique Building)
    • Replaces the Factory building in the Industrial Zone district
    • Provides an additional production point per turn
    • Provides Culture to it's city after researching Electricity

    Jayavarman VII

    Much of what we know about King Jayavarman VII comes from inscriptions on the temple at Rajavihara. These inscriptions offer a rich, yet still incomplete history of this beloved king of the Khemer Empire.

    Rising to power during a period of crisis for the Khmer, Jayavarman was a military leader. By 1181, Jayavarman VII had repelled Cham invaders to the north and when hostilities died down, he crowned himself king. But instead of turning outward and seeking to aggressively expand, he focused on his people.

    King Jayavarman VII saw himself as a warrior for his subjects. As a result, his rule was marked by its tolerance and his drive to create a place of safety and paradise for his subjects.

    He went on to make Mahayana Buddhism the state religion, breaking with 400 years of Khmer Hinduism and to mark the occasion; he would initiate an era of unprecedented construction and infrastructure creation. Among the improvements made on his watch: numerous temples, 102 hospitals, stone-paved highways out of reach of flood waters, the 54 towers at Bayon, and extensive irrigation projects. Another documented project was the construction of rest houses every 15 km throughout the kingdom.

    King Jayavarman VII and his people-driven reign remains fondly remembered in Cambodia, where he figured prominently in state-produced education materials well into the 20th century.

    An End to Suffering (Historic Agenda)

    • Likes civilizations with many Holy Sites and high average population. Dislikes civilizations lacking in either of these areas.
    Monasteries of the King (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Completed Holy Sites add adjacent territory and, if built next to a river, provide additional Food and Housing.
    Grand Barays (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Increases Khmer’s food yield when Farms are built adjacent to Aqueducts
    • Aqueducts grant additional Faith and an Amenity
    The Domrey (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Catapult and has a higher combat strength
    • Can move and shoot on the same turn
    • Exerts Zone of Control
    The Prasat (Unique Improvement)
    • Replaces the Temple building
    • Missionaries produced at a Holy Site with a Prasat will get the Martyr promotion automatically
    • Provides a Great Work spot for a Relic

    Mvemba a Nzinga

    Also called King Afonso I, Nzinga is most famous for his attempts to spread Christianity across his empire, and increased activities with Portugal in a bid to modernize the empire.

    Mvemba a Nzinga's road to becoming king was paved with conflict. In 1506, he defeated his half-brother Mpanzu a Nzinga's forces in open conflict to claim the throne. Accounts attributed his victory to the appearance of an apparition of Saint James the Great breaking the morale of the enemy, thus leading to Christianity becoming the royal faith during Nzinga's rule.

    Nzinga's relationship with the Portuguese was seen as occasionally amicable and at other times highly contentious. Nzinga deplored Portuguese participation in the Kongo slave trade and fought to stop it. Once allied, Portugal helped bring structural progress to the empire and attempted to convert all of Kongo to Catholicism. Kongo welcomed Portuguese missionaries, who helped modernize the country with new schools, establish a literate noble class and gain new architecture from Portuguese designers.

    Enthusiastic Disciple (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes civilizations that bring Religion to the Kongo. Dislikes civilizations that have founded a religion but not brought it to a Kongolese city.
    Religious Convert (Unique Leader Ability)
    • May not build Holy Site districts, gain Great Prophets or found Religions
    • Gains all beliefs of any religion that has established itself in a majority of his cities
    • Receives a free apostle of the city's majority religion whenever a Mbanza or Theater district is built
    Nkisi (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Bonus food, production and gold from each Relic, Artifact and Great Work of Sculpture
    • Gains 50% more Great Artist, Great Writer, Great Musician and Great Merchant points
    • Palace has slots for 5 Great Works
    Ngao Mbeba (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Swordsman
    • Receives a bonus to ranged defense and does not require iron
    • Woods and rainforests do not slow them down or block sight
    Mbanza (Unique District)
    • Replaces the Neighborhood District but can be built earlier
    • Can only be constructed in Rainforests or Woods
    • Provides 5 Housing, 2 Food and 4 Gold regardless of the tile's Appeal

    Queen Seondeok

    Long before Seondeok was crowned Queen of Sillia (now Korea), legends tell of her being incredibly clever. That insightfulness made her a diplomat to be respected and a strategist to be feared.

    With no male successors, Seondeok became the rightful heir after King Jinpyeong’s death in 632. This lead to infighting and some outright rebellions – the notion of having a Queen instead of a King didn’t sit well with some factions.

    One revolt leader claimed that a falling star signaled Seondeok wasn’t fit to lead. That is was a sign of the end of her reign. The Queen’s solution: Fly a burning kite high in the night sky to signal that the star is back in its place.

    All the while, she still set about major projects to improve the lives of the Sillan people. Welfare policies were put in place to help the most impoverished citizens. She invested heavily in education, allowing knowledge in the arts and sciences to flourish during her rule. Seondeok commissioned the Cheomseongdae, an astronomical observatory to be built in Silla’s capital. It’s no wonder that Seondeok’s big in-game bonus is for science and while Buddhism was already the state’s religion, she integrated it further into society, refurbished old temples and broke ground on many new ones.

    The Queen did all this during her 15-year reign while also fending off neighboring kingdoms. It was through her ability to balance shrewd diplomacy with threats of force when needed that she even accomplished what some would think impossible: forging an unlikely alliance with Tang Dynasty China.

    Seondeok not only managed to get China to support Silla militarily, she also rejected stepping down for them to rule in her stead. While she didn’t live to see it, Seondeok put pieces in motion to let Silla thrive by pitting neighboring kingdoms against each other… and getting one step closer to a united Korea.

    Cheomseongdae (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes civilizations that are leading in science, dislikes civilizations who are behind in science
    Hwarang (Unique Leader Ability)
    • All cities with an established Governor will increase science and culture by 10% in that city.
    Three Kingdoms (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Mines receive +1 science if adjacent to a Seowon
    • Farms receive +1 food if adjacent to a Seowon
    Hwacha (Unique Unit)
    • Unique Renaissance Era unit
    • High ranged attack strength
    • Cannot move and shoot on the same turn
    Seowon (Unique District)
    • Replaces the Campus district
    • Receives a fixed +4 science yield (no adjacency bonuses) but the yield is reduced for each adjacent district
    • Must be built on a hill

    Alexander the Great

    Alexander the Great, born in 356 BC, was a king of the ancient Greek Kingdom of Macedon and one of the greatest conquerors the world has ever known. Alexander’s military campaign stretched from Greece on through Asia and northeast Africa, subsequently overthrowing Persian King Darius II and dispatching the Persian Empire in its entirety – all before his 30th birthday.

    While undefeated in battle, Alexander met his end during his decade long campaign. After pushing his war-weary and homesick soldiers into India in 326 BC, they implored him to turn back and he acquiesced, passing away three years later in the city he had planned to make the capital of his empire: Babylon.

    Alexander’s tactics are taught in modern military academies to this day, and he is considered one of the greatest military commanders and most influential human beings to have ever lived.

    Short Life of Glory (Historic Agenda)
    • Alexander will like civilizations that are at war with civilizations other than Macedon and will dislike civilizations who are at peace.
    To the World’s End (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Cities do not incur war weariness
    • All military units heal completely after any unit captures a city with a World Wonder
    • Allows production of the Hetairoi (Unique Unit) which replaces the horseman but uses the Heavy Cavalry promotion line. The Hetairoi gains additional combat strength from Great Generals, generates Great General points with each enemy it defeats and starts with a free promotion
    Hellenistic Fusion (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Receive a random Inspiration boost for each Holy Site and Theater Square district captured and a random Eureka boost for each Encampment and Campus captured.
    The Hypaspist (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Swordsman
    • Extra combat strength when besieging districts and extra support bonuses
    Basilikoi Paides (Unique Building)
    • Encampment building that replaces the Barracks
    • Provides increased combat experience gain for every land melee, ranged or Hetairoi produced in this city
    • Gain science when a military unit is built in the city
    Mansa Musa

    Led by Mansa Musa, arguably the richest man who has ever lived, the Mali is an adaptable civ suitable for any victory condition. With strong economic and faith based perks, the Mali can easily make up for and surpass the limitations hindering most desert based empires.

    Lord of the Mines (Historical Agenda)
    • Mansa Musa likes civilizations that try to maximize Gold output from cities and trade routes, dislikes those who do not.
    Sahel Merchants (Unique Leader Ability)
    • International trade routes grant gold for each flat desert tile within the originating borders
    • Each Golden Age increases the total trade route capacity
    Songs of the Jeli (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • City Center gains additional Faith and Food for every adjacent desert and desert hill tile.
    • Mines provide less Production but grant additional gold output.
    • May purchase Suguba districts buildings with Faith
    • Production penalty when producing buildings or units.
    Mandekalu Cavalry (Unique Unit)
    • Mali unique Medieval era unit that replaces the Knight
    • Trader units cannot be plundered as long as they are on a land tile within four tiles of a Mandekalu Cavalry unit
    • Combat victories provide Gold equal to the defeated unit’s base combat strength
    Suguba (Unique District)
    • Replaces the Commercial Hub district
    • Units, buildings and districts are cheaper to purchase with Gold and Faith in this city
    • Provides additional Gold for adjacent Holy Sites, Rivers, and bonus Gold for every two adjacent districts

    The Maori are led by legendary figure Kupe. According to Maori legend, Kupe was a navigator who set sail from his home of Hawaiki sometime in the 10th century and discovered the then unknown land of New Zealand. Upon returning home, he convinced others to migrate with him to this new land.

    Kaitiakitanga (Historical Agenda)
    • Kupe likes civilizations that build National Parks and limit chopping Woods and Rainforest and creating CO2 emissions; dislikes civilizations that do not do these things.
    Kupe’s Voyage (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Begin at sea and earn Science and Culture each turn prior to settling the first city
    • Once settled, the first Maori city will receive a free Builder and extra population in the capital.
    • The Maori Palace receives additional Housing and Amenities.
    Mana (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Start with the Sailing and Shipbuilding technologies already researched and the ability to sail across Ocean tiles.
    • Embarked units have additional movement and combat strength.
    • Unimproved Woods and Rainforest yield more Production, increasing after completing the Conservation civic.
    • Fishing Boats provide additional Food and will add adjacent tiles into your empire if they are within three tiles of the city.
    • Resources cannot be harvested and Great Writers cannot be earned.
    Toa (Unique Unit)
    • The Toa is a Classical Era melee unit which can construct the “Pa” improvement on Hills. The Pa is a unique defensive structure that provides combat bonuses for allied occupying units.
    • Toa have the “Haka War Dance” ability which weakens adjacent enemy units’ combat effectiveness
    Marae (Unique Building)
    • Replaces the Amphitheatre in the Theatre District
    • Provides Culture and Faith to all tiles in the city with a passable feature (Woods, Rainforest, Floodplains, Oasis, Marsh, Reef)
    • Provides Tourism to all of this city’s tiles with a feature after researching Flight
    • Does not hold any Great Works


    Imagine leading a rebellion against an invading force – as a teenager, no less – then remaining a rallying symbol for your people hundreds of years after the fact. Lautaro, revered among the people of Chile as the Toqui (a war chief or literally translated, “axe-bearer”), defied Spanish Conquistadors, escaped enslavement and cemented his legacy while facing overwhelming odds.

    Long before his first encounters with the Spanish (who had trouble pronouncing the native tongue) Lautaro was actually known as Leftraru, or "Swift Hawk" in the Mapuche language. Lautaro lead a relatively quiet early life until the Spanish aggressively colonized Chile at the expense of the indigenous people. With every Spanish fort built, Mapuche territory got pushed further. Eventually, the local populace started pushing back. Lautaro, the son of a Mapuche chief, was captured by the Spanish.

    Managing to escape roughly three years later, Lautaro finally did return to the Mapuche. A council of war declared that Lautaro would serve as vice-Toqui to a powerful warrior known as Caupolican and together, they led an assault on the Spanish forts scattered across their territory.

    Today, Lautaro is among the most famous military leaders in Chilean history, considered by many to be the nation's first true General in light of his battlefield tactics. The overwhelming forces of the Spanish did little to slow Lautaro's determination, and his efforts spurred a period of resistance that lasted for nearly three centuries after his passing.

    Spirit of Tucapel (Agenda)
    • Tries to create and maintain a high degree of cultural loyalty. Dislikes civilizations that fail to maintain the loyalty of their people, likes those that do.
    Swift Hawk (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Defeating an enemy unit in their own territory decreases the Loyalty of the owning city.
    Toqui (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • All units receive bonus combat strength against civilizations already in a Golden Age
    • All units trained in a city with an established governor gain more experience in combat
    Malon Raider (Unique Unit)
    • A unique Renaissance Era Light Cavalry unit that gets combat bonus when fighting near friendly territory.
    • Pillaging costs lest movement points.
    Chemamull (Unique Improvement)
    • An improvement that provides culture equal to 75% of a tile’s appeal and adds tourism later in the game.

    Genghis Khan

    Genghis Khan once demanded two Tug (“Spirit”) Banners: One made of white horse hide for times of peace, and another of black horse hide for all the other times. Upon his death, his soul was alleged to live on in the black banner. This is how the feared “Universal Ruler” of the Mongol Empire lived – and died.

    At his birth in 1162 CE, legends tell of a boy clenching a blood clot at birth – a sign that he would one day be a great leader. Born Borjigin Temujin (the later translates as “blacksmith”), scholars say he was named after a captured tribal chieftain as a taunt. At 9, he was betrothed to marry Borte, the daughter of the neighboring Konkirat tribe’s chieftain. Within a year, the boy would be ostracized by his tribe, his father assassinated by the Tartars and by 16 he would kill his half-brother. All the while, his mother Hoelun coached Temujin in statesmanship, influencing allies and controlling enemies.

    Temujin began amassing troops in his 20s. It started with his brothers as a fighting unit going on raids of their own. He would gradually build his army until it became a feared 20,000-strong force. Next, he'd go on to defeat the Tartars and exhibit the brutality he would become known for in avenging his father. It didn’t stop there. He ordered the death of every Tartar male above three feet tall.

    By 1206, Temujin united the tribes of the steppes. This is when he received the title 'Genghis Khan'. He then proceeded to issue the Yassa, a collection of divine laws governing everything from property to marriage to civil service designating its execution to his second son, Chagatai.

    The Yassa would do away with the common causes of tribal warfare, banning the kidnapping of wives and doing away with inherited titles. It also granted religious tolerance to his followers (as long as they recognized Genghis Khan as the final authority).

    As he lay dying in his 60s, it has been said that Genghis Khan asked to be buried in secret with his six cats, hoping their purrs would guide him to the afterlife. Legend has it that the funeral escort killed anyone and anything that crossed their path to conceal his final resting place. After the tomb was completed, soldiers had 1,000 horses trample any evidence of his burial site and to this day, it remains hidden. Khan’s black spirit flag continued waving as his third son, Ogedei, would inherit and expand an empire stretching from the Caspian Sea in the west all the way to the East Sea.

    Horse Lord (Historic Agenda)
    • Wants to build the world’s most dominate cavalry force. Likes those who do not compete in cavalry. Dislikes those who rival him in cavalry strength
    Mongol Horde (Unique Leader Ability)
    • All cavalry units get increased combat strength and have a chance to capture defeated enemy cavalry units
    Ortoo (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Sending a trade route to another civilization immediately creates a Trading Post in the destination city.
    • Receive and extra level of Diplomatic Visibility for possessing a Trading Post in any city of a civilization.
    • All Mongolian units double the usual combat bonus for having a higher level of diplomatic visibility than their opponent
    Keshig (Unique Unit)
    • Medieval unique ranged cavalry unit unlocked after researching Stirrups
    • Any unit in formation with a Keshig receives its movement speed
    Ordu (Unique Improvement)
    • Replaces the Stable and grants increased movement to any Heavy and Light cavalry class units trained in that city
    • Increased Combat Experience for any Cavalry class unit trained in this city
    • Strategic resource stockpiles increased by +10

    Queen Wilhelmina

    Imagine knowing at four years old that you’re next in line to lead the Dutch. That’s exactly what happened for Queen Wilhelmina, whose rule of the Netherlands began when she turned 18. Queen Wilhelmina saw the dawn of the 20th century, the economic collapse of the 1930s and led through both World Wars.

    Her nearly 58-year reign is often remembered for her role maintaining Dutch neutrality during World War I and inspiring the Dutch resistance during World War II. Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom described the young Wilhelmina as pretty, polite, and intelligent, but Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany could attest to her wry wit. During a meeting prior to World War I, the Kaiser commented that his guards were “seven feet tall,” while Queen Wilhelmina’s were “only shoulder high.” She elegantly responded, “Quite true, Your Majesty, your guards are seven feet tall, but when we open our dikes, the water is ten feet deep!” The Netherlands maintained neutrality for the duration of World War I thanks to negotiations with the German Emperor – perhaps he remembered her threat. Despite Dutch neutrality, Wilhelmina supported a strong defense policy throughout the Great War.

    The Dutch, well known for their trading, were blocked by Allied forces by the close of WWI despite their claims of neutrality. Amidst all this, and around the wreckage of the world economy, Whilhelmina’s prudent investments would see her become one of the wealthiest people in the world. At least until Germany invaded the Netherlands on May 10th, 1940.

    Queen Wilhelmina declared a “flaming protest” at the attacks on her territory. She fled the Netherlands, taking refuge in England and sending her family to Canada for the war’s duration. Her departure was a calculated rather than cowardly move – if she remained, her people would assume collaboration. Wilhelmina’s departure declared her resistance. Her government-in-exile remained in London until the war’s end, and she encouraged occupied territories to remain strong on Radio Oranje. Spurred on by her words, the Dutch resistance fought on until her return in 1945.

    Billionaire (Historic Agenda)
    • Tries to maximize trade routes. Likes civilizations that trade with her, dislikes those who do not.
    Radio Oranje (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Trade routes to your own cities strengthen the loyalty of the starting city
    • Trade routes to or from foreign cities provide culture
    Grote Rivieren (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Building Campus, Theater Square and Industrial Zone districts adjacent to a river grants major adjacency bonus
    • Completing a Harbor adds adjacent tiles to your territory
    De Zeven Provincien (Unique Unit)
    • Increased ranged and combat strength with additional bonus when attacking defensible districts
    Polder (Unique Improvement)
    • Can be placed on water with adjacent coastline
    • Provide food, production and housing gaining additional bonuses with later civics and technologies

    Harald Hardrada

    Norway's eventual king wasn't always close to the throne. Exiled from his native land in 1030 after supporting his half-brother Olaf's failed campaign, Hardrada sought refuge in Kievan Rus and later, Constantinople. Being a highly skilled warrior, he climbed the ranks of the Varangian Guard, earning the nickname "Devastator of the Bulgarians" after quelling an uprising.

    In 1042 he returned to Norway and skillfully maneuvered his was into joint kingship with Magnus I. After Magnus' passing, the now sole ruler of Norway warred with Sweyn, King of Denmark, in 1048 until 1064 before settling peacefully. He then attempted to claim the throne of England, perishing during the Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066.

    Hardrada's reign was marked by war, but also great progress. Peace flourished as Norway was unified under a strong government, new currency, external trade, and religious advancement.

    Last Viking King (Historic Agenda)
    • Builds a large navy and respects civilizations who follow his lead. Does not like civilizations with a weak navy.
    Thunderbolt of the North (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Allows coastal raiding for all Naval Melee units and production of naval melee units is increased by 50%
    • Hardrada can build the Viking Longship which replaces the Galley, can pillage enemy coastal tiles, capture civilians if adjacent using it's coastal raiding ability and has increased movement in coastal tiles
    Knarr (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Naval melee units heal in neutral territory
    • Units ignore additional movement costs from embarking and disembarking
    • Units gain the ability to enter Ocean tiles after researching Shipbuilding
    Berserker (Unique Unit)
    • Increased movement if it starts in enemy territory
    • Pillaging costs 1 movement point
    • Bonus Combat Strength when attacking and reduced Combat Strength when defending
    Stave Church (Unique Building)
    • Replaces the Temple
    • Holy Site district gains additional faith adjacency bonus from Woods
    • Adds +1 production to each coastal resource tile in this city


    Amanitore, a Nubian Kandake (queen), was one of the last great builders within the Ku****ic Kingdom of Meroë. She ruled an area between the Nile and Atbara rivers.

    Many Kandake are described as warrior queens who led forces into battle, but references to Amanitore also point to an unprecedented time of growth through building. The sheer number of structures completed during her reign – the middle part of the first century – suggest this was a very prosperous time for the kingdom.

    Amanitore was involved in restoring the large temple for
    Amun at Meroë and the Amun temple at Napata after it was destroyed by the Romans. Water retention reservoirs were erected at Meroë during her reign. Amun temples at Naqa and Amara were also built at this time.

    City Planner (Historic Agenda)

    • Always tries to keep the maximum number of districts in each city and respects other civilizations who also develop their cities in this fashion.
    Kandake of Meroe (Unique Leader Ability)
    • District production is increased by 20% for all districts increasing to 40% if a Nubian Pyramid is built adjacent to the city center
    Ta-Seti (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Production of ranged units increased by 50%
    • All ranged units gain 50% more combat experience
    • Mines over strategic resources provide additional production
    • Mines over bonus and luxury resources provide additional gold
    Pitati (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Archer
    • Increased combat strength and movement over the ancient Archer
    Nubian Pyramid (Unique Improvement)
    • A Nubian Pyramid can be built on Desert, Desert Hills or in Floodplains regions.
    • Provides Faith, as well as additional yields based on the adjacent district, and Food if adjacent to the City Center.
    Last edited: Feb 11, 2019
    IgorS, Manifold, Clubber Lang and 4 others like this.
  3. Brutus2

    Brutus2 Chieftain

    Jan 4, 2004
    Philadelphia, USA

    Led by Suleiman the Magnificent, remembered for his societal reform and militaristic expansion of the empire, the Ottomans are a great civilization for war with unique units and bonuses aimed towards conquering the competition.

    Lawgiver (Historical Agenda)

    • Suleiman likes to keep his cities happy and loyal and dislikes leaders with poor happiness, loyalty or who have few conquered cities
    Grand Vizier (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Ibrahim, a Governor available only to Suleiman, has his own unique promotion tree and can be established in other civilizations
    • Conquered cities do not loose population and they benefit from Amenity and Loyalty bonuses while under Ottoman control
    Barbary Corsair (Unique Unit)
    • Ottoman unique Medieval Era naval raider which replaces the Privateer
    • Coastal raids do not incur movement cost and it cannot be seen unless a unit is adjacent
    Grand Bazaar (Unique Building)
    • Replaces the Bank in the Commercial Hub
    • Adds additional Amenity for every Luxury resource improved in this city
    • Strategic Resource gain is increased for each different type of resource improved in this city

    Cyrus II

    Cyrus II of Persia, more commonly known as Cyrus the Great, founded the Achaemenid (Persian) Empire. Prior to the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Persian Empire was the largest the world had ever seen.

    He built his empire through a series of brilliant military campaigns, starting with the surprise invasion of his Median grandfather, Astyages, followed by conquest of the lands of the Lydians, Elamites, Babylonians, Syria, Judea, and Patrea, after which he felt comfortable enough to declare himself “King of the Four Corners of the World.”

    Although he has something of a reputation for ruthlessness, even by the standard of the ancient world (some of his conquests had been against one-time allies or distant family), Cyrus was also known for respecting the customs and religions of the lands he conquered. His call for the repatriation of Jewish people following his conquest of the Babylonian Empire is easily one of the more famous examples of this.

    Opportunist (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes civilizations who have declared surprise wars and dislikes civilizations who have never declared a surprise war.
    Fall of Babylon (Unique Leader Ability)
    • After declaring a surprise war on a major civilization, all units (civilian and military) receive +2 bonus movement for the next 10 turns
    • Occupied cities with a garrisoned unit generate +5 Loyalty per turn
    • Declaring a Surprise War only counts as a Formal War for the purpose of warmongering and war weariness penalties
    Satrapies (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • One additional trade route capacity gained with Political Philosophy civic
    • Internal trade routes will gain additional gold and culture
    • Roads built in your territory are one level more advanced than usual
    The Immortal (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Swordsman but does not require Iron
    • A melee class unit that gains a ranged attack while keeping its strong defense
    The Pairidaeza (Unique Improvement)
    • Provides culture, gold and +2 appeal
    • Additional culture for each adjacent Holy Site and Theater Square
    • Additional gold for each adjacent Commercial Hub and City Center
    • Additional culture and tourism as you progress through the technology and civic trees
    • Can not be built on snow, tundra, snow hills, or tundra hills
    • Can not be built adjacent to another Pairidaeza


    Led by Dido the legendary founder and first Queen of Carthage, Phoenicia is a great civilization for players looking to subjugate the seas. Combined with Dido’s unique ability to move the capital from one city to another, it’s easy to see how Phoenicia can adapt in ways other civilizations cannot.

    Sicilian Wars (Historical Agenda)
    • Dido wants to settle coastal cities. She likes those who settle inland and dislikes those with mostly coastal cities
    Founder of Carthage (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Allows Phoenicia to move its capital to a city with a Cothon by completing a unique project in that city
    • Unlocks additional trade route capacity with the construction of a Government Plaza district and each building in the plaza
    • Increased production toward districts in the city with the Government Plaza
    Mediterranean Colonies (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Unlocks the Eureka for Writing at the start of the game
    • Coastal cities founded by Phoenicia on the same continent as its capital have full loyalty
    • Settlers have additional movement and sight range while embarked
    • Settlers ignore additional movement costs associated with embarking and disembarking
    Bireme (Unique Unit)
    • Ancient era naval unit that replaces the Galley
    • Increased combat strength and movement
    • Friendly Trader units are immune to being plundered if on a water tile and within four tiles of a Bireme
    Cothon (Unique District)
    • Replaces the Harbor district
    • Increases Production toward naval units and Settlers in the city
    • All naval units in this city’s borders heal completely in one turn


    Jadwiga was the first female monarch of the Kingdom of Poland in the late fourteenth century and youngest daughter to Louis the Great.

    Her reign began in 1384, with her early years being categorized by earning the respect and loyalty of Polish nobility, ruling side-by-side with Lithuanian king Wladyslaw II Jagiello. Jadwiga was an expert mediator, protected the poor, and was a devout Christian who later became canonized as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church in 1997. She founded a special college for Lithuanians in Prague but perhaps is best known for her work helping to restore the University of Krakow, which would go on to become the center of Polish culture.

    Saint (Historic Agenda)
    • Tries to build up Faith and likes civilizations that also focus on Faith
    Lithuanian Union (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Any city that loses territory from the Golden Liberty ability also gets Poland’s founded religion as the majority religion in that city.
    • Relics provide bonus culture, faith and gold
    • Additional Holy Site adjacency bonus
    Golden Liberty (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • When Poland completes an encampment or fort inside friendly territory, it gains adjacent tiles even if those tiles are owned by another civilization. Can't steal tiles with completed Wonders or Districts however, unfinished Wonders or Districts will be removed if the tile is stolen. Also, tiles gained this way still must be within three tiles of your city center.
    • One of Poland’s Military policy slots will be converted into a Wildcard policy slot
    Winged Hussar (Unique Unit)
    • When attacking, if it does more damage than the defending enemy unit it pushes that enemy unit back. Defenders that can’t retreat suffer additional damage
    • Unlocks with the Mercenaries civic
    Sukiennice (Unique Building)
    • Unique building for the Commercial Hub which replaces the Market
    • Provides bonus production from international trade routes
    • Provides bonus gold from domestic trade routes


    As the 13th Emperor of Rome, Trajan was as successful a soldier as he was an overseer, responsible for a great expansion of territories for Rome unmatched by any Emperor to follow.

    Born around the year AD 52, Marcus Ulpius Traianus held military renown and served as the governor of Upper Germany before being named Emperor in October 97 CE.

    Trajan yielded military prowess in wars with Dacia, who had threatened Rome's economy for many years. Rome defeated Dacia in 101, and again in 105 with the razing of the Dacian capital. In 113 Trajan invaded Parthia after years of uneasy conflict, ultimately annexing Armenia and capturing the Parthian capital, Ctesiphon.

    Trajan's incredible military skill was matched by the love his people garnered for him. He cared for the people by creating a welfare program for orphans and impoverished children. Trajan oversaw the creation of several enduring monuments and roads, including the aptly named Trajan's Column and the Forum of Trajan. He also hosted a gladiatorial festival with spectators ranging in the millions.

    Optimus Princepes (Historic Agenda)
    • Tries to include as much territory as possible in his empire. Does not like civilizations that control little territory.
    Trajan's Column (Unique Leader Ability)
    • New cities start with a free city center building, usually a monument (for ancient era starts)
    All Roads Lead to Rome (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • All cities Rome founds or conquers will start with a trading post. If the city is in trading route range of the capital, the city also gets an instant road to the capital.
    • Roman trade routes earn extra gold for passing through trade posts in Roman cities in addition to foreign cities
    Legion (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Swordsman but does not require iron
    • Higher production cost and Combat Strength
    • Can repair pillaged improvements, build one Roman Fort in Roman or neutral territory, and remove improvements or features (chop woods or rain forests). These abilities remain on upgrade.
    Bath (Unique District)
    • Half the production cost of a standard aqueduct district which it replaces
    • Provides more housing than the standard aqueduct and an amenity from entertainment
    • Must be placed next to the city center and next to a mountain or source of fresh water

    Peter the Great

    Known for his vast reforms and modernizations, Peter the Great has a resume few can match. Peter modernized Russia at a widespread level – primarily expanding his nation’s naval abilities for both trade and warfare, and gaining access to the Black Sea by capturing Azov from the Crimean Tatar vassals of Turkey. In 1697 he discretely went to Western Europe in the Grand Embassy to examine international affairs.

    Peter led a coalition against the Swedish Empire in the 21-year Great Northern War. A historic victory was won in the Battle of Poltava in 1709, but it wasn’t until 1721 that the Baltic belonged to Russia.

    As “Emperor of All Russia” Peter the Great advanced youth and secular education, reformed the nation’s calendar system to fit European standards, prioritized investment in industrial manufacturing, and improved trade relations dramatically. Through intelligence and strong will, Peter left an indelible mark on Russia.

    Westernizer (Historic Agenda)
    • Friendly to those civilizations that are ahead of him in science and culture. Dislikes backwards civilizations that are lacking in science and culture.
    Grand Embassy (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Gives science and culture from trade routes to more advanced civilizations
    Mother Russia (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Gain extra territory when founding a new city
    • Bonus faith and production yields from tundra tiles
    Cossack (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces Cavalry
    • Higher combat strength than standard cavalry
    • Can move after attacking
    Lavra (Unique District)
    • Half the production cost of the Holy Site District which it replaces
    • Provides one Great Artist, Great Writer and Great Musician point per turn as well as an additional Great Prophet point per turn
    • Each time a great person is used in a city with a Lavra that city’s border will expand by one tile.

    Robert the Bruce

    Born among the Scottish aristocracy, Robert the Bruce is best remembered for his stalwart leadership of Scotland during the nation’s war for independence with England in the late 13th century. Robert successfully claimed the throne of Scotland and led his people to victory over the oppressive rule of England.

    Although the details of his early life are uncertain, Robert was born into a line of Scottish nobility and by the time he was 18 years old, Robert was already entangled in the elaborate web of politics surrounding the rule of Scotland.

    Following the death of their queen in 1290, Scotland entered an interregnum or gap in governance. Edward I, King of England (known famously as Longshanks), was asked to choose her successor. When he selected John Balliol as the rightful heir in 1292 (over Robert the Bruce’s grandfather), both Robert and his father refused to accept the decision.

    Rather than support the newly-crowned King John, the Bruces sided with Longshanks – the English king that chose John in the first place. This found the Bruce family at odds with many of their countryman.

    Hearing of an alliance between the Scots and French in 1296, England invaded and dethroned King John – once again, leaving Scotland without a true monarch. Robert finally broke from his father's wishes and sought to align himself with those seeking to revolt. However, it wasn't until 1298 after once again siding with Longshanks at the Battle of Falkirk that Robert truly broke from the English king. After seeing his fellow countrymen defeated, including Sir William Wallace, the time had come for change. When Wallace ceded the title of Guardian of Scotland, Robert was named his successor.

    Following a series of purported agreements and broken promises over the future of the Scottish throne, in 1306 Robert met with John Comyn, nephew to prior King John. Comyn was another strong claimant to the throne and potential rival to Robert. The details of their meeting are still debated to this day, but what is known for certain is that at some point the two came to blows and Comyn was killed by Robert. Less than two months later, Robert was named King of Scots by his fellow noblemen.

    As King, Robert led Scotland in a prolonged conflict against England that persisted not only through the reign of Edward Longshanks but also that of his son, Edward II. For nearly eight years, Scotland and England volleyed for control of the nation, culminating in the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. By some accounts Robert's forces were outnumbered three to one, yet through clever tactics the Scottish emerged victorious. Suffering thousands of casualties, the battle was an utter humiliation for England and King Edward. With momentum on his side, Robert now pushed back the English in their own lands as well as their territories in Ireland.

    When the Pope finally recognized Robert as the true king and sole ruler of Scotland in 1324, England's claims to the country were all but over. By 1327, the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton officially marked the end of what eventually came to be known as the First War of Scottish Independence.

    Although he lived to see his homeland free of English rule, on June 7th, 1329, Robert died at the age of 54. Despite the political conflicts that plagued the Bruce family during his formative years, Robert rose to the call of his people, finally shaking off the threat of England after more than a decade of turmoil.

    Flower of Scotland (Historic Agenda)
    • Will not attack neighbors unless they break a promise to him. Likes civilizations that do not war with their neighbors, dislikes civilizations that have wars with neighbors.
    Bannockburn (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Can declare a War of Liberation after gaining the Defensive Tactic civic.
    • Gain bonus Production and additional movement during the first ten turns of a War of Liberation.
    Scottish Enlightenment (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Happy cities receive additional Science and Production and also generate an additional Great Scientist point per Campus and a Great Engineer point per Industrial Zone. Ecstatic cities double this bonus.
    Highlander (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Ranger and gains combat strength bonus fighting on hill and forest terrain.
    Golf Course (Unique Improvement)
    • Becomes available after gaining the Reformed Church civic
    • Provides an Amenity and Gold. Also adds Culture if adjacent to a City Center with additional Culture if adjacent to an Entertainment Complex.
    • Later in the game it provides additional Tourism and Housing.
    • Cannot be placed in desert or desert hills.


    Tomyris assumed leadership of her group of nomadic pastoral tribes in 530 BC upon the death of her husband, the current chieftain. Her exploits were mentioned in the works of several great ancient writers such as Herodotus, Strabo, Polyaenus, Cassiodorus and Jordanes.

    The most notable story about Tomyris involves the Persian ruler Cyrus the Great and his efforts to invade and subjugate Tomyris' people. Cyrus and his troops planted an unattended camp with a healthy supply of wine in Scythian territory. The Scythian army, led by Tomyris' son, stumbled upon the wine and, unfamiliar with the intoxicating effects of alcohol, drank themselves into a stupor. After, the Persians attacked the incapacitated army and kidnapped Tomyris' son.

    Tomyris, enraged, challenged Cyrus and another battle ensued. However, this time Cyrus and his forces were defeated, suffering a great many casualties including Cyrus himself. After the death of Cyrus, Tomyris had his corpse beheaded and crucified, and shoved his head into a wineskin filled with human blood. During this act, Tomyris is quoted as saying, "I warned you that I would quench your thirst for blood, and so I shall."

    Backstab Averse (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes civilizations who are their declared friend. Hates civilizations who back stab and declare surprise wars.
    Killer of Cyrus (Unique Leader Ability)
    • All units receive bonus Combat Strength when attacking wounded units
    • When they eliminate a unit, they heal up to 30 health points
    People of the Steppe (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Receive a second light cavalry or Saka Horse Archer unit each time you train a light cavalry or Saka Horse Archer
    Saka Horse Archer (Unique Unit)
    • An early game fast ranged unit that doesn't require Horses
    Kurgan (Unique Improvement)
    • An improvement that provides Faith and Gold and receives an adjacency bonus from Pastures
    • Can't be built on a hill

    Philip II

    For 48 years, Philip II was king of the massive Spanish Empire, and the most powerful ruler in Europe during the 16th century. He championed the Catholic faith, utilizing the Spanish Inquisition and leading several religious conflicts.

    In staunch defense of Catholicism, Philip organized a "Holy League" against the Ottoman Empire, halting their dominance across the Mediterranean at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. He later opposed Protestantism in England, and attempted to invade the country several times using his fleet of ships, the world-famous Spanish Armada.

    Philip directly intervened during the French Wars of Religion between 1585 & 1595, financing the Catholic League and ultimately causing Catholicism to be the foremost religion in France.

    Philip II's reign ushered in a golden era for Spain. Despite constant religious warfare, Spain's culture flourished. Music, art, and literature boomed under Philip, culminating with the creation of the majestic El Escorial monastery and palace in 1595.

    Counter Reformer (Historical Agenda)
    • Likes civilizations who follow the same religion and wants his cities to all follow the same religion. Hates anyone trying to spread their religion into his empire.
    El Escorial (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Combat bonus against units from civilizations with a different religion in both military and religious combat
    • Inquisitors can remove heresy one extra time
    Treasure Fleet (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Trade routes between different continents provide bonus gold (+6) for routes to other civilizations and bonus food and production for routes between your own cities
    • May form Fleets and Armadas earlier than other civilizations, unlocking with the Mercantilism civic
    • Increased Loyalty per turn for cities with a Mission adjacent to the City Center and not on your original Capital's continent
    Conquistador (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Musketman
    • Bonus Combat Strength when stacked with an Apostle, Inquisitor or Missionary
    • If a conquistador is adjacent to a city when it's captured, the city automatically converts to Spain's majority religion
    Mission (Unique Improvement)
    • An improvement that provides faith with bonus faith when built on a foreign continent and bonus science (+2) if built adjacent to a Campus district


    Little is known about the real Gilgamesh, the main character in the Epic of Gilgamesh and other Sumerian poems. In the epic, Gilgamesh, king of the city of Uruk, is described as part god and part man, and has several run-ins with various gods as well as a sage who is said to have survived the Great Flood depicted in the Bible.

    Scholars generally concur that Gilgamesh was in fact a real person, as several individuals referenced in the epic are confirmed to have lived in the region at the time, between 2800 and 2500 BC. An ancient manuscript, called the Sumerian King List, posits that Gilgamesh ruled over the city of Uruk for 126 years.

    Ally of Enkidu (Historic Agenda)
    • Likes civilizations who are willing to form a long term alliance. Dislikes anyone denouncing or attacking him or his friends and allies.
    Adventures with Enkidu (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Can declare war on anyone who is at war with one of his allies without any warmonger penalties
    • When fighting a joint war, Sumerian units share pillage rewards and combat experience with the closest allied unit within five tiles
    • Alliances gain Alliance Points for being at war with a common foe
    Epic Quest (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Can levy City State military forces at half cost
    • Clearing a barbarian camp also grants a tribal village reward
    War-Cart (Unique Unit)
    • Available at the start of the game
    • No penalty for fighting spearmen or other anti-cavalry units
    • Gains extra movement if starting on open terrain
    Ziggurat (Unique Improvement)
    • An improvement that provides science and, if placed next to a river, will also provide culture
    • Cannot be built on a hill


    Led by Kristina, one of the most educated women of the 17th century, Sweden is one of the best civilizations to pursue a Culture or Diplomatic victory. Fill up those Great Work slots, settle cities on as many varied terrain types as possible and build Open Air Museums in every city and Sweden will be well on its way to outpacing its competitors.

    Bibliophile (Historical Agenda)
    • Kristina likes to acquire as many Great Works as possible and dislikes those who keep Great Works for themselves.
    Minerva of the North (Unique Leader Ability)
    • Any buildings with at least three Great Work slots or Wonders with at least two Great Work slots are automatically themed when full
    • The Queen’s Bibliotheque, is a second tier building in the Government Plaza unique to Sweden which provides two slots each for works of Great Writing, Music and Art and awards a Governor title on completion.
    Nobel Prize (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • When earning a Great Person, Sweden receives additional Diplomatic Favor
    • Sweden earns extra Great Engineer points from Factories and extra Great Scientist points from Universities
    • Unlocks three unique World Congress competitions in the Industrial Era
    Carolean (Unique Unit)
    • Unique Renaissance Era Anti-Cavalry unit that replaces the Pike and Shot
    • Has more movement and receives additional Combat Strength for each unused movement point
    Open Air Museum (Unique Improvement)
    • Increases Loyalty and boosts Culture and Tourism for each type of terrain in which at least one Swedish city has been founded.
    • Only one may be built per city


    Unquestionably one of military history’s greatest commanders, Shaka’s reforms to the Zulu armies gave them efficiency, organization, and lethality – making the impi one of the most feared forces in the world. Equally notable are Shaka’s wrath and grief which resulted in thousands of lives lost on the African continent.

    He was born the illegitimate son of Zulu chief Senzangakhona, and Nandi, the daughter of a Langeni chief. The Zulu chieftain would eventually exile Nandi and Shaka. Driven out and scorned, Nandi found safe haven with the Mthethwa chief, Dingiswayo.

    During this time, Shaka enrolled in the ibutho, a traditional regional military cadre program. Young men of the same age group would get grouped together into a unit within the ibutho, and the unit would eventually disband when the men aged out of the warrior class. Shaka’s unit served under the command of the chief. Dingiswayo laid the groundwork for the system of command that would eventually be brought to ultimate refinement under Shaka.

    When his biological father died in 1816, Shaka, by now a renowned commander in his own right, left Dingiswayo’s armies and returned to lead the Zulu, who were at this time the smallest of the region’s Bantu clans. Southern Africa would quickly learn to fear the Zulu.

    Shaka immediately reorganized the army and its training. The age-grade system of the ibutho was refined and strengthened into an age-based regimental organization, with each regiment having a distinct fortified village (or ikanda), uniform heraldry on their ox-hide shields, specific ornamentation in jewelry and headdresses, and sworn loyalty to Shaka. Organization of the impi and its tactics were standardized. Shaka introduced a corps of officers, promoted on the basis of merit and ability, from all the subordinate tribes. Comparisons to the Marian reformations of the Roman Legions are apt; both commanders took control of fundamentally competent basic forces, and transformed them into unstoppable military machines.

    Shaka then took his impi on a march of conquest. His first conquest was said to be the Langeni, who humiliated him as a boy. When his former commander Dingiswayo was assassinated by the rival Zulu chief Zwide, Shaka swore vengeance, and a full-scale civil war of the Zulu broke out. Zwide was decisively routed at the Battle of Gqokli Hill by a force half his size under Shaka’s command.

    But Shaka’s reign was not uncontested. There was substantial opposition to his policies within his own kingdom. Escalation of warfare between tribes into near-extermination were a marked change from previous patterns of war. Tensions were exacerbated when Shaka granted European traders concessions. But it was the death of his mother in 1827 that seems to have marked the beginning of the end of Shaka – and the bloodiest part of his reign.

    Grief-stricken, Shaka ordered that no crops be planted, nor milk used for a year (and milk was the staple of the Zulu diet). Women found pregnant were to be killed with their husbands, as was anyone found to be insufficiently mournful. Cows were to be slaughtered “so that calves would know what it was like to lose a mother.” 7,000 of Shaka's subjects were killed in his grief, according to accounts.

    His two half-brothers had been actively conspiring against him for some time. In 1828, while the impi were on campaign to the north, he was assassinated by his half-brothers Dingane and Mhlangana, along with a third co-conspirator named Mbopa. Tradition states that Shaka’s dying words were a warning both about the growing power of the Europeans in South Africa and about the peril of Zulu disunity.

    The meteoric rise of the Zulu under Shaka, coming at a time of increasing European colonization in the region, had a profound and complex impact on the history and culture of Southern Africa, whose implications are still debated and considered. Shaka’s legacy as a ruler is not a simple one, even within Zulu culture today. But his impact on the history of the world is beyond question.

    Horn, Chest, Loins (Historic Agenda)
    • Tries to form as many Coprs and Armies as possible and dislikes civilizations who do not form their units into Corps and Armies.
    Amabutho (Unique Leader Ability)
    • May form Corps with Mercenaries, instead of Nationalism, and Armies with Nationalism, instead of Mobilization.
    • Corps and Armies gain additional Combat Strength.
    Isibongo (Unique Civilization Ability)
    • Conquering a city will upgrade the conquering unit into a Corps or Army, if the proper civics are unlocked.
    • Additional Loyalty per turn to cities with a garrisoned unit, and increases if the garrisoned unit is a Corps or Army.
    Impi (Unique Unit)
    • Replaces the Pikeman
    • Lower production and maintenance cost
    • Increased flanking bonus
    • Earns combat experience faster
    Ikanda (Unique District)
    • Replaces the Encampment District
    • Provides additional Housing
    • Allows Corps and Armies to be produced faster and without a Military Academy once the required civic and technology has been researched.
    Last edited: Feb 3, 2019
  4. moysturfurmer

    moysturfurmer Chieftain

    Mar 6, 2010
    Scythia's not a one trick horse archer, they can focus on Religious victories too.
  5. Brutus2

    Brutus2 Chieftain

    Jan 4, 2004
    Philadelphia, USA
    Possible Hidden Agendas
    • Airpower: Tries to build up air power. Admires civilizations with greater air power. Dislikes civilizations with weaker air power.
    • Barbarian Ally: Sympathizes with the Barbarians. Does not like civilizations that destroy barbarian outposts.
    • City-State Ally: Likes civilizations that aren't competing for the same city-state allegiance. Dislikes civilizations that are directly competing for city-state allegiance.
    • City State Protector: Emphasizes protectorate wars. Admires civilizations that start protectorate wars. Dislikes civilizations that attack city states.
    • Civilized: Hates Barbarians. Likes civilizations that clear out barbarian outposts. Does not like civilizations that ignore barbarian outposts.
    • Cultured: Tries to build up Culture and likes civilizations that also focus on Culture.
    • Curmudgeon:
    • Darwinist: Likes to see civilizations at war, and believes in constant struggle.
    • Devout: Tries to build up Faith, and likes civilizations that also focus on Faith.
    • Environmentalist: Builds National Parks, doesn't clear features, plants forests. Likes civilizations that plant forests or found National Parks. Dislikes civilizations that clear features.
    • Exploitative: Clears all features and improves all possible tiles. Likes civilizations with a high percentage of improved tiles. Dislikes civilizations with low percentage of improved tiles or that found National Parks.
    • Explorer: Tries to explore the map, and likes civilizations that have explored less of the map than itself and dislikes civilizations that have explored more of the map than itself.
    • Flirtatious:
    • Fun-Loving: Tries to make the citizens in each city as happy as possible. Likes civilizations that also develop in this fashion.
    • Great Person Advocate: Likes civilizations who are not competing for Great People and will recruit Great People whenever possible. Dislikes losing a Great Person to another civilization.
    • Heavy Industry: Tries to build up industry, and likes civilizations that also focus on Production.
    • Ideologue: Favors civilizations with the same type of government, dislikes civilizations that have different governments, and really dislikes civilizations with different governments of the same era as its own.
    • Money Grubber: Tries to have the highest possible Gold per turn income. Respects other high income civilizations.
    • Naturalist: Tries to find all natural wonders. Likes civilizations that keep Woods and Rainforest unchopped, and those that establish National Parks.
    • Nuke Happy: Has no hesitation to use nuclear weapons. Respects other civilizations that project strength with nuclear weapons.
    • Paranoid: Likes civilizations who pose no threat. Dislikes civilizations with strong militaries or ones with nearby cities.
    • Populous: Tries to have the highest overall population. Respects other high population civilizations.
    • Standing Army: Always tries to keep a large standing army. Respects other civilizations with large armies.
    • Sycophant:
    • Sympathizer:
    • Technophile: Tries to build up Science and likes civilizations that also focus on Science.
    • Wonder Obsessed: Likes civilizations not competing for wonders, and builds wonders whenever possible. Dislikes losing a wonder to another civilization.
    Last edited: Jan 26, 2018
    Sun Tzu Wu likes this.
  6. SammyKhalifa

    SammyKhalifa Warlord

    Sep 18, 2003
    Thanks for the work, Brutus.
  7. bcaiko

    bcaiko Chieftain

    May 9, 2011
    Washington, DC
    The Samurai is listed as a Longswordsman replacement, but I think the evidence has suggested that the Japanese can build both Longswordsman and Samurai, correct?

    Great work, Brutus. Thanks for putting it all in one place.
  8. King Jason

    King Jason Fleece-bearer

    Oct 21, 2005
    More importantly that there's no longswordsman unit. :lol:

    The Samurai don't seem to replace anything. They're a separate special unit like the Horse Archer.
  9. GenyaArikado

    GenyaArikado Judge of Love

    Oct 12, 2011
    GrAnd Tour
  10. Haig

    Haig Warlord

    Aug 3, 2010
    Good list, actually I saw some details for the first time, like Royal Navy Dockyard full bonuses and that Aztec Building gives Great General points too.

    Question: Does Rough Rider and Redcoat arrive on tech tree more early than Cavalry and Musketman?

    edit: From Divine Wind is missing that Japan can build Encampments, Theatre districts and Religious districts in half the time.
  11. Brutus2

    Brutus2 Chieftain

    Jan 4, 2004
    Philadelphia, USA
    Fixed - Thanks!
  12. The Highwayman

    The Highwayman Chieftain

    Jul 21, 2016
    Dallas, TX
    Nice work on the guide.

    I believe they said the Saka Horse Archer gets additional mobility (highly mobile from the video) along with the no resource requirement. It may be worth putting highly mobile as a placeholder until we know more.
  13. apocalypse105

    apocalypse105 Chieftain

    May 17, 2011
    • Pedro will dislike anyone who builts more great person's then him. Same agenda like china in regards of wonders its in a video on youtube
  14. MarcoFurio

    MarcoFurio Chieftain

    Jul 30, 2016
    Does the English Royal Navy Dockyard (Unique Harbor District) adds an additional trade route for each one of this district you have?
    If you have 10 cities each one with a Royal Navy Dockyard, do you get 10 extra trade routes?
  15. playshogi

    playshogi Chieftain

    Nov 1, 2001
    Yes, and I think everyone's harbor districts add a trade route not just the Royal one.
  16. zwei833

    zwei833 HRE Mercenary

    Feb 26, 2011
    Why do you say the Redcoat and Garde Imperiale is Musketman ?
  17. Brutus2

    Brutus2 Chieftain

    Jan 4, 2004
    Philadelphia, USA
    I think it's safe to assume this would be his agenda but I have not seen it in a video yet to confirm it. Any chance you could link the video where you saw it? Was the player just speculating or did they actually show it on Pedro's diplomacy screen?
  18. Brutus2

    Brutus2 Chieftain

    Jan 4, 2004
    Philadelphia, USA
    Yea. I caught that too but its not really clear if they have extra mobility or if she was just commenting that Horse Archers have good mobility in general.
  19. Brutus2

    Brutus2 Chieftain

    Jan 4, 2004
    Philadelphia, USA
    Good catch, I originally had that in as a placeholder. I know Redcoat unlocks with Military Science which comes after Gunpowder which unlocks musketmen so I will just call them a unique unit for now.
  20. Brutus2

    Brutus2 Chieftain

    Jan 4, 2004
    Philadelphia, USA
    I went back and looked at the video again and the tooltip for Saka shows 4 movement, same a the regular horseman in the video so unless they get some rough terrain movement bonus, I don't think the "highly mobile" comment was in reference to any specific ability of the Saka.

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