Paintings dated 64000 found in Spain shown that cave painting did not start with the so-called "modern humans", but existed already before their assumed migration into Europe. Discovery of cave paintings and decorated shells reveals Neanderthals were artists To be clear, assumed is my own criticism of a theory of human evolution that should have been shelved due to new evidence years ago. I do not believe that a total replacement of the population of Europe some 40000 years ago happened, or that any credible evidence of such replacement has ever been produced to justify the hold such a theory has had during the last decades. Theories on pre-history always rested on exceedingly thin evidence of few archaeological remains. Fortunately we keep adding to that record, things should improve! Human evolution and the birth of human "culture" seems to me more likely to have been a continuum from a far more distant time, with populations moving and mixing in all directions for nearly a million years.