Naval warfare feels so all or nothing. I'm playing a game as Spain right now so I was hoping to take advantage of their UA a bit and faith buy some navy. I have plenty of continental enemies, though, so I'm sorta split in how I'm using my unit cap between navy and army My army is doing OK. I've conquered Germany (almost entirely inland cities), defended against Russia and Morocco, and am now defending against an English army. I feel like any units I lose in my army are from me being too aggressive and taking chances. I can use terrain, ZoC, etc to get an edge. It feels like I'm rewarded for good play and punished for bad play (sometimes punished severely thanks to the great strides in AI tactics). My navy, on the other hand, has been fairly useless. I've amassed what felt like a decent number of ships a few times now in order to assist my army in taking cities or attempt to take some cities on their own. Each time I've gone out with the intention of making trouble I eventually run into an AI navy that seems to be twice as large. An army twice as large can be handled given proper tactics but on the high seas there's no real fight- you get swarmed as soon as you really engage. Boarding party means you often can't really try to ZoC your way into an advantage and it also means you can't really make an orderly retreat to at least save your ships. It feels much more like you're just trading units and then the guy with more pretty much out swarms you. Trading units isn't a very successful strategy at higher difficulties. My guess is that you either have to go all-in with your navy or you probably shouldn't bother beyond a token few for defense, if that. I don't find that in many of my games I can afford to go too heavy with my navy at the expense of unit count for my army- you almost always need a decent sized army for defense at the very least on a continents style map. Are others having success with sea power? Maybe they can be used against a civ that has just a single coastal city and therefor not likely to have as large of a navy?