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Poland after WW1: border issues, problems & opportunities

Discussion in 'World History' started by Domen, Oct 26, 2014.

  1. Domen

    Domen Misico dux Vandalorum

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  2. Domen

    Domen Misico dux Vandalorum

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    Now something about Polish eastern borders during and after the World Wars:

    1) During and after WW1:

    Source:

    Piotr Eberhardt, The Curzon line as the eastern boundary of Poland. The origins and the political background
     
  3. Domen

    Domen Misico dux Vandalorum

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    2) During and after WW2:

     
  4. Domen

    Domen Misico dux Vandalorum

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    Continued:

    Source:

    Piotr Eberhardt, The Curzon line as the eastern boundary of Poland. The origins and the political background
     
  5. Domen

    Domen Misico dux Vandalorum

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    There is actually as well a theory that he was murdered by the British, because he was "uncomfortable" for British-Soviet relations (you know, all of his "whining" about the Katyn Crime, other Soviet crimes, and the eastern boundary of Poland):

    Władysław Sikorski's death controversy:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Władysław_Sikorski's_death_controversy

    Did British double agent Kim Philby murder Polish war hero General Sikorski?:

    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/wor...-murder-Polish-war-hero-General-Sikorski.html

    http://www.fpp.co.uk/History/Sikorski/Times040703.html

    ===================================

    Another theory is that he was murdered by the Soviets:

    Real History and the Death of General Sikorski:

    http://www.fpp.co.uk/History/Sikorski/Times040703.html

    ========================================

    Comparison of the borders of Poland in 1772 (immediately before the First Partition), in 1937 (before the Munich Agreement) and modern borders:

    Dark / light blue - borders / territory in 1772
    Red / orange - borders / territory in 1937
    Green - modern borders in this region

     

    Attached Files:

  6. Domen

    Domen Misico dux Vandalorum

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    After WW2, despite large-scale deportations of Poles from areas annexed by the USSR, many Poles remained in those former Polish territories.

    That was especially the case in Western Belarus and Lithuania, where Polish presence had been stronger (in terms of %) than in Ukraine:

    Number of Poles deported by railway from Western Belarus after WW2:

    1945 – 135,654
    1946 – 136,419
    1947 – 2,090
    =========
    1955 – 10,067
    1956 – 30,639
    1957 – 46,634
    1958 – 13,290

    Number of Poles deported by railway from Lithuania after WW2:

    1945 – 73,042
    1946 – 123,443
    1947 – 671
    =========
    1955 – 5,849
    1956 – 17,825
    1957 – 16,044
    1958 – 6,834

    In total 274,163 from Western Belarus (areas which on 01.09.1939 belonged to Poland) and 197,156 from Lithuania in first repatriation (1944-1948) as well as 100,630 from Western Belarus and 46,552 from Lithuania in second repatriation (1955-1959).

    However, as Polish geographer and historian - Piotr Eberhardt - noticed in article about ethnic Poles from Belarus:

    "According to official data 274,2 thousand Poles came from Western Belarus to Poland [by railway]. But in fact a lot more came. Official data does not include all categories of Polish people who left former eastern Polish territories. During the German occupation many Poles from those Eastern territories were transported to Germany [as compulsory labour workers, prisoners of POW camps, concentration camp inmates, etc.]. They stayed in the West and after WW2 returned directly to Poland within its new borders, not to their former homes. Official data also did not include flights and groups of refugees, people recruited to the Polish Army [including Polish People's Army], as well as those who in 1942 left the Soviet Union with the Army of gen. Anders. After counting all these categories of people we can conclude, that the broadly understood first repatriation from Western Belarus affected over 400 thousand people of Polish nationality, who as the result abandoned forever the territory of Belarus. (…) In further years (1948-1959) remaining Polish population in Belarus experienced considerable natural growth. It was, however, entirely reduced by another repatriation conducted in years 1955-1959, which included around 250,000 [245,501] people permanently leaving the Soviet Union."

    What can be added is that official data for first repatriation given above included deportations by railway, in addition to them also deportations by trucks took place – they transported in total 22,815 Poles from the Soviet Union to Poland, but no breakdown is given so we don't know how many of them were from Western Belarus and from Lithuania.

    Numbers of Poles deported by railway from Eastern Belarus (pre-1939 Soviet Belarus) are also not included in those figures given above – they are included among Poles deported from „other parts of the Soviet Union”, who amounted to 266,833 in period 1944-1949 and 22,260 more in period 1955-1959 (these numbers also include Poles deported from pre-1939 Soviet Ukraine – while numbers of Poles deported from Western Ukraine were 787,674 in 1944-1948 and 76,059 more in 1955-1959).

    The real number of Poles who left Western Belarus in 1944-1959 was therefore over 500,000 (including over 400,000 in 1944-1947) and the number of those who left Lithuania over 250,000 up to 300,000 (including over 200,000 up to 250,000 in 1944-1947).

    We don't know how many left or were deported from Eastern Belarus – but according to pre-WW2 official Soviet census of 1926 Polish minority in Soviet Belarus numbered around 100 thousand people at that time (97,500). Add to this natural increase until WW2, and the number was much higher in the 1930s. Another question is how many of them survived Soviet pre-war persecutions (see the Polish Operation of the NKVD in 1937 - 1938) and then WW2. Anyway - according to 1959 census Eastern Belarus had a smaller number of Poles (see below).

    Official data for number of Poles deported by railway and trucks – as already explained above - is not the full picture because apart from repatriation there were other ways how Poles from Kresy migrated to Poland after WW2. Already until 01.01.1947 almost 560,000 people who came through ways other than repatriation (including refugees, demobilized soldiers, those who before WW2 lived east of the Curzon Line but who after WW2 came from camps & forced labour in Germany and settled west of the CL, etc.). In total on 1 January 1947 there were 2,05 million „Soviet Poles” in new borders of Poland. And in December 1950 - 2,2 million „Soviet Poles”.

    On 1 January 1947 out of those 2,05 million „Soviet Poles” – 1,7 million lived in former German territories (of them around 1,24 million deported by railway and trucks, 190 thousand who came from the west – for example from forced labour in Germany, POW camps, etc. - 200 thousand who were refugees from the Volhynian-Galician Genocide and similar events and around 70 thousand demobilized soldiers, mostly from the Polish People's Army) and 0,35 million in other parts of Poland (here we can estimate that no more than 0,25 million were officially deported and the rest of them were forced labourers returning from Germany, refugees, POWs, etc.).

    In December 1950 out of 2,2 million „Soviet Poles” around 1,6 million lived in former German territories (Western Poland) and around 0,6 million in other parts of new Communist Poland (Central Poland). So proportion of those living in Central Poland increased).

    Despite all those events – wartime deaths and post-war deportations, flights, emigration, evacuations, etc. of hundreds of thousands of Poles from former Polish territories, after WW2 belonging to the Soviet Union – the official Soviet census of 1959 still counted 1,380,282 Poles in the Soviet Union, with 768,988 of them (so over half of the total number) in Belarusian SSR and Lithuanian SSR.

    Even if we go by this official Soviet 1959 census data, which – most probably – underestimated the number of remaining Polish minority in the Soviet Union, the following area had absolute Polish majority, and was still ethnically Polish in 1959, even though less so than before WW2:

    Areas still inhabited by ethnic Polish majority as of 1959, after removal of most of ethnic Polish population



    According to official Soviet Union's 1959 census there were still 538,881 Poles in Belarus, of whom 454,348 (84,3%) were rural population – as flights and deportations of 1944-1959 as well as previous wartime mortality affected urban Poles more than rural Poles.

    Number of Poles in Belarus by Oblast according to 1959 census:

    In provinces located entirely in what used to be Polish part of Belarus before WW2:

    Grodno Oblast – 332,300
    Brest Oblast – 42,100

    In provinces located mostly in former Polish territory, but partially in Soviet Belarus:

    Vitebsk Oblast – 83,800
    Minsk Oblast – 64,400

    And in provinces located entirely in what was Soviet Belarus before WW2:

    Gomel Oblast – 7,200
    City Minsk – 5,600
    Mogilev Oblast – 3,500

    Districts of North-Western Belarus with highest percentages (between 90% and 30%) of Poles according to 1959 census (and there were many more districts in 1959 with between 15% and 30% Poles, but I won't list them here. Many of them had over 50% Poles in 1938):

    Radun - 25,842 Poles (87,4%) and 1,705 Belarusians
    Voranava – 16,117 Poles (86,8%) and 1,342 Belarusians
    Ivyanets – 27,529 Poles (75,6%) and 7,830 Belarusians
    Svir – 20,898 Poles (72,0%) and 6,320 Belarusians
    Astravyets – 17,966 Poles (65,5%) and 6,831 Belarusians
    Lida – 40,117 Poles (55,1%) and 22,048 Belarusians
    Vidzy – 9,468 Poles (51,2%) and 5,176 Belarusians
    Shchuchyn – 19,032 Poles (50,4%) and 14,781 Belarusians
    Vasilishki – 16,496 Poles (49,9%) and 15,648 Belarusians
    =================
    Pastavy – 18,912 Poles (43,3%) and 17,173 Belarusians
    Braslaw – 14,873 Poles (40,6%) and 14,482 Belarusians
    =================
    Dunilovichi – 13,857 Poles (47,0%) and 14,024 Belarusians
    Ivye – 12,877 Poles (41,5%) and 16,552 Belarusians
    Grodno – 50,159 Poles (38,1%) and 51,570 Belarusians
    Valozhyn – 14,063 Poles (37,8%) and 21,652 Belarusians
    Vawkavysk – 21,924 Poles (35,4%) and 32,140 Belarusians
    Zelva – 11,175 Poles (29,1%) and 26,001 Belarusians


    In total according to 1959 census these 17 districts had 713,988 inhabitants, including 351,305 Poles, 275,275 Belarusians, 66,537 Russians and 20,871 people of other nationalities (including the Romani people and others brought in to replace expelled Poles).

    =================================================

    According to official Soviet Union's 1959 census there were still 230,107 Poles in Lithuania of whom 161,523 (70,2%) were rural population - as flights and deportations of 1944-1959 as well as previous wartime mortality affected urban Poles more than rural Poles.

    Districts with highest percentages of Poles according to 1959 census:

    City Vilnius – 47,226 Poles (20,0%) and 79,363 Lithuanians (33,6%)
    =================
    Vilnius – 64,467 Poles (80,3%) and 5,546 Lithuanians (6,9%)
    Salcininkai – 37,182 Poles (85,2%) and 2,918 Lithuanians (6,7%)
    =================
    Trakai (+ Elektrenai) – 24,332 Poles (43,4%) and 5,103 Lithuanians (9,1%)
    Svencionys – 18,158 Poles (45,7%) and 5,901 Lithuanians (14,9%)


    In total according to 1959 census these 6 districts had over 455,000 inhabitants, including 191,365 Poles, 98,831 Lithuanians and about 165,000 other people (mostly Russian immigrants, as well as for example the Romani and others brought in to replace expelled Poles).

    ====================================

    In total those 23 districts of Western Belarus and Lithuania according to 1959 census had ca. 1,170,000 inhabitants including - according to official data - ca. 543,000 Poles (or over 70% of all ethnic Poles living in these two Soviet republics at that time), despite previous ethnic cleansing.

    All of Belarus and Lithuania had 768,988 ethnic Poles according to official 1959 data - including 615,871 rural people (80,1% of the total) and 153,117 urban people (19,9% of the total) - even though before WW2 ethnic Poles in Belarus and Lithuania were more urbanized than all other ethnic groups living in these regions, with the only exception of Jews. That was because post-war deportations and wartime losses affected ethnic Poles in cities (such as for example Vilnius and Grodno) more heavily than ethnic Poles in the countryside. Due to that expulsion of Poles from cities (and from villages as well, only to a lesser extent) and replacement by other ethnic groups, in 1959 Poles were actually the least urbanized (only 19,9%) of all ethnic groups in Belarus and Lithuania (the opposite of the 1938 situation, when Poles were the 2nd most urbanized group after Jews).

    Soviet authorities left a larger % of rural Poles, hoping that Polish peasants were easier to De-Polonize (Lithuanize/Russify/Belarusify).

    On the other hand a larger % of urban Poles - with a higher level of national consciousness (sense of Polishness) - got deported.

    =========================================

    Despite this, modern studies carried out recently by the Grodno University and by the Minsk University show that vast majority of Roman Catholics in Belarus identify as Poles and an even larger percent declare Polish ancestry (i.e. some no longer identify as fully Poles, but still declare Polish ancestry).

    For research carried out by Grodno University, which shows that 83,3% of Roman Catholics in the Grodno Oblast identify as fully Poles (the rest of Roman Catholics there identify as both Poles and Belarusians or just Belarusians) and even more - because 95% - declare Polish ancestry (including also mixed Polish-Belarusian ancestry) check this source:



    In another survey from 2003, as many as 82% of Catholics in Belarus declared that they have Polish ancestry, including 66% with fully Polish ancestry and 16% from mixed families. In the westernmost Diocese of Grodno 95% of Catholics declared Polish ancestry, while in the easternmost Archdiocese of Minsk-Mogilev still as many as 73%.

    This 2003 survey found out that 80% of Catholics in the Diocese of Grodno identify as fully Poles - so slightly less than according to that 2000 research by the University of Grodno (which showed 83,3%). In other dioceses percentages of Roman Catholics who identify as fully Polish are 70% in the Diocese of Pinsk, 57% in the Diocese of Vitebsk and just 35% in the Archdiocese of Minsk-Mogilev (compared to 73% who declared Polish ancestry in the Archdiocese of Minsk-Mogilev).

    In the nationwide scale (entire Belarus on average), 63% of Roman Catholics identify as fully Poles (2003 data), 66% declare fully Polish ancestry, and 16% declare mixed Polish-Belarusian or Polish-other ancestry (in total 82% declare Polish ancestry). Regional breakdowns above.

    There are also a lot of Non-Catholic (Atheist, Orthodox, etc.) Poles in Belarus, because in some regions % of Poles is higher than % of Catholics.

    Belarusians are slowly becoming Russians.

    In 1959 census only 6,8% of people who declared Belarusian ethnicity declared that Russian is their native language.

    By comparison, in 1999 census only 41,3% of people who declare Belarusian ethnicity declared that they speak Belarusian in daily life (among urban population who declare Belarusian ethnicity, only 23% spoke Belarusian in daily life in 1999).

    Poles in Belarus are also increasingly adopting Belarusian and Russian languages. Currently percent of ethnic Poles who speak Belarusian language in their daily life is higher than percent of ethnic Belarusians who speak Belarusian in daily life.

    According to official data of 1999 census there were 1,141,700 ethnic Russians in Belarus, of whom 1,092,700 (95,7%) spoke Russian and 48,500 (4,2%) spoke Belarusian in daily life. By comparison, out of 8,159,100 ethnic Belarusians only 3,373,300 (41,3%) spoke Belarusian and 4,783,000 (58,6%) spoke Russian in daily life. So instead of being a Pole-hater Gudas should rather start trying to prevent extinction of Belarusian culture.

    Nowadays in Belarus ethnic Poles are culturally more Belarusian than Belarusians themselves. Belarus is turning into Russia:

    Why does Lukashenko speak Belarusian on Independence Day?

    In the future perhaps Eastern Belarus will be annexed by Russia, just like Crimea and Donetsk-Lugansk recently. Then Western Belarus - inhabited largely by people who declare Polish ancestry and mostly still identify as Polish - will maybe want to join Poland again, by a democratic decision of its inhabitants.

    =====================================

    Comparison of the contemporary situation of Polish minority in Lithuania and of Lithuanian minority in Poland:



    Source:

    The contemporary situation of Polish minority in Lithuania and Lithuanian minority in Poland from the institutional perspective

    Of course the situation of Polish minority in Lithuania is still much better than the situation of Polish minority in Belarus and in Ukraine.

    Recently a large number of Polish minority members from the war-ravaged region of Donbass have been evacuated to Poland.

    ========================
    ========================

    And below some data from 2003 "Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-Century Central-Eastern Europe" by Piotr Eberhardt. After WW2 expelled Poles were replaced mostly by Russian (as well as Ukrainian/Belarusian/Lithuanian, but to a lesser extent) immigrants:





    There is a typo in the number of Russians in 1959 Ukraine. It should read 7,091,300 - check:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russians_in_Ukraine



     
  7. Domen

    Domen Misico dux Vandalorum

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    Antoni Abraham (1869 - 1923) and Tomasz Rogala (1860 - 1951) were Kashubian delegates to the Paris Peace Conference of 1919:

    http://www.inyourpocket.com/poland/gdynia/sightseeing/Antoni-Abraham/Abrahams-House_20192v

    http://www.sni.edu.pl/proj/adam/abraham/anteks_gb.htm

    http://translate.google.com/translate?sl=pl&tl=en&u=http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antoni_Abraham

    Tomasz Rogala:

    http://translate.google.com/translate?sl=pl&tl=en&u=http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomasz_Rogala

    Among other important Kashubian activists was for example doctor Aleksander Majkowski:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleksander_Majkowski

    And Gerard Labuda is among the most famous of Kashubian historians:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerard_Labuda

    Regional anthem of Kashubia:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dnDSOw3eSeg


    Link to video.

    ==========================================

    List of some of famous Kashubians / Pomeranians:

    http://www.spis.kaszubi.pl/index.php?event=article&parent_id=16&menu_id=1

    It includes Józef Wybicki, author of the Polish national anthem, who was born to a family of Pomeranian nobility from Royal Prussia:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Józef_Wybicki

    Będomin = Bãdomino in Kashubian dialect of Polish.

    Historically, "Kashubians" was first a tribal and then a regional name / identity (like, for example, "Bavarians").

    When talking about ethnic / national identity, Kashubians described themselves as "puolscy ledze" ("Polish people").

    Kashubians historically called their own dialect / tongue / language, "puolski" ("Polish"), while Germans called it "Polsch".

    According to 2011 census in Poland there were 232,547 people who declared themselves as Kashubians. Of them only 386 (three hundred and eighty six) regarded themselves as Kashubians and Germans. Vast majority - 215,784 - regarded themselves as Kashubians and Poles (of them 214,415 regarded themselves as Poles 1st and Kashubians 2nd, while 1,369 regarded themselves as Kashubians 1st and Poles 2nd). Finally 16,377 claimed they were Kashubians alone.

    Majority of Kashubians have already forgotten the local dialect of their ancestors, and speak standard Polish. But 97,714 (42% of those who declared Kashubian ethnicity) still spoke Kashubian at home, according to 2011 census. In addition to that, another group of 10,426 people declared that they spoke Kashubian in 2011, but they did not declare any kind of Kashubian ethnic identification (be it Polish-Kashubian, Kashubian alone, etc.) - they declared their ethnicity as Polish alone. The real number of Kashubians or people of Kashubian descent is higher than the number of people who declare Kashubian ethnicity (232,547), many of such Kashubians simply do not declare Kashubian ethnicity, but Polish alone (and 10,426 of them did not declare Kashubian ethnicity even though they still spoke Kashubian). The total number of Kashubians/Pomeranians and people of Kashubian/Pomeranian descent living in Poland today is estimated as around 500,000.

    In total there were 108,140 Kashubian-speakers in Poland according to 2011 census. Of them 3,802 spoke only Kashubian, while 104,319 were bilinguals who spoke Kashubian and standard Polish. And 19 (nineteen) were bilinguals who spoke Kashubian and German.
     
  8. Carolus I

    Carolus I Chieftain

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    The case of the Kashubians is similar to the Silesians (typical fate of these borderlanders).

    Were the Kashubians after WW1

    1. Poles
    2. Germans
    3. Kashubians
    ???:lol:

    Was there any regional autonomy movement / party after WW1?


    BTW: an interesting article on Kashubian identity by Dr. Arkadiusz Modrzejewski (University of Gdansk): www.bpb.de/internationales/europa/polen/40900/analyse?p=all (German translation of the Polish article)
     
  9. Domen

    Domen Misico dux Vandalorum

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    Nope.

    No anything similar to Bavarian, Alemannic, Frisian, Franconian, Rhenish, Lusatian, etc. separatist movements in Germany.

    BTW - can Bavarians be considered Germans, Austrians, or an ethnic group of their own ???

    When it comes to Kashubia - the Kashubian Regional Union, established in 1929, represented region's interests in relations with central authorities of the Republic Poland (for example they made sure that locals were adequately represented in public offices in their region) and - via its associated magazine Zrzesz Kaszëbskô - was responding to revisionist propaganda articles in Germany's press, as well as neutralizing anti-Kashubian and anti-Poland agitation in Germany's publications.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleksander_Majkowski#Withdrawal_from_public_affairs

     
  10. Domen

    Domen Misico dux Vandalorum

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    Kashubian speech is either a Polish dialect or a Lechitic language most closely related to Polish and to Dravano-Polabian (Dravano-Polabian is now extinct, but it is preserved in such publications as for example 1907 "Die Sprachreste Der Dravano-Polaben Im Hannoverschen" by Paul Rost).

    Kashubian is no more distinct from Standard Polish than Bavarian is from Standard German. If we count Kashubian as a distinct language, then among languages most closely related to Polish there will be: 1st Kashubian, 2nd Dravano-Polabian, 3rd Lower Sorbian. Both Standard Polish and Kashubian dialect are using the same alphabet - Latin alphabet, also known as Roman alphabet. Kashubian "variant" of Latin alphabet is similar to Polish, but is very young - it was created between 1850 and 1919 by Florian Ceynowa and Friedrich Lorentz. By comparison, Polish variant is many centuries old - as is Polish literary language.

    German Slavist, Friedrich Lorentz (1870 - 1937), wrote that Kashubians called themselves "puolscy ledze" ("Polish people") and their language was "puolski", Germans called it "Polsch". Also Polish ethnographer and historian Alfons Parczewski (1849 - 1933) noted that Catholic Kashubians called themselves "Polochy". Kashubians are a regional group of Poles, just like for example Westphalians are a regional group of Germans, etc.

    Also term "Kaschube" was pejorative back in the 19th century, and was often used as a synonym for "peasant".

    German censuses during the 19th century counted Kashubians as Poles. That only changed in the census of 1890.

    Most of 19th century maps also count Kashubians as Poles - for example this map from 1847 counts them as "Polaken / Polen / Lechen":



    =================================

    And something more - several excerpts about Kashubians from Franz Tetzner (1836 - 1919):

    1. Diese Slawen sind vielmehr von Süden zugewanderte katholische Polacken. Im Norden, am Meere hingegen, ist ein schmaler Streifen evangelischer Kaschuben erhalten geblieben

    2. Die Zahl der Slawen betrug in Stolp und Lauenburg 1861: 1025, von denen auf Stolp nur 24 kommen. Freilich haben sich da nur die katholischen Polacken zum Slawentum bekannt, die evangelischen Kaschuben bezeichneten sich als deutsch.

    3. die echten Kaschuben und nennen ihre nächsten katholischen Verwandten in Pommerellen und dem pommerschen Grenzgebiet: Polacken oder Katholische.

    4. Pfennig macht keinen Unterschied zwischen Hochpolnisch und Polackisch, das damals in Gegenden gesprochen wurde, die heute zu Preussen gehören, und dem wendischen und kaschubischen Dialekt in Hinterpommern.

    5. die katholischen Slawen im Bütower Kreise und in Westpreussen bezeichnen wir als Polacken, wie sie ja auch in der That das Recht verloren haben, sieh Kaschuben zu nennen. Sie sind im Laufe der Zeit dermassen polemisiert, dass sie sich von echten Polen kaum unterscheiden.

    6. Im Lauenburger Kreise nennt man die pommerellischen Slawen nur Polacken oder Katholiken, die alten pommerschen Slawen aber Kaschuben.

    7. Aber mit den letzten kaschubischen Resten mischen sich bereits schwache polackische Anfänge. Im Verkehr untereinander sprechen die Czarnowsker selten kaschubisch.

    8. In Mickrow, 1491 zuerst erwähnt, wurde 1750 abwechselnd einen Sonntag polnisch, den anderen deutsch gepredigt. Wie wenig Kaschuben vorhanden waren, bezeugt ein Vorkommnis aus dem Jahre 1788. Nossins Pastor Alexius hält bei Antritt des Predigers Seebald die Ein- führungs-Rede, darneben auch „eine polnische um der Koseschen Leute willen". Das war anscheinend die letzte polnische Predigt. Jetzt sind etwa 100 polnische Katholiken eingewandert; sie werden Polacken genannt, hören aber diese Bezeichnung nicht gern.

    9. Pfennig berichtet 100 Jahre später fälschlich von zwei Herzogtümern „Kassuben, wo Neustettin, Regenwalde und Polzin" und „Wenden, wo Rügenwalde Haven und Stolpe", die u. a. nebst den Herrschaften Lauenburg und Bütow zu Hinterpommern gehören; „polnisch spricht man" an einigen Orten in Hinterpommern, sonderlich in stolpischen und in den Herrschaften Lauenburg und Bütow.

    10. Aber mit dem allmählichen Aussterben der pommerschen Easchuben übertrug man den Namen ["Kaschuben"] mit auf die 150000 Slawen in Pommerellen, die einst zum Ordens- lande und dann zu Polen gekommen waren und durch ihren räumlichen Zusammenhang immer mehr und mehr polnisch wurden.

    More from Tetzner - contrasting Lutheran Kashubians (who did not call themselves Poles) with Catholic Kashubians (who did):

    11. (...) aber nicht in Wierschutzin, wo das Polackische herrscht, das stark abweicht

    ===========================================

    Otto Knoop (1853 - 1931) wrote that Catholic Kashubians from Bütow identified as Polacken, while Protestant ones from Stolp not:

    1. Da heisst es S. V: Wir in Hinterpommern nennen Kassuben nur die evangelischen Bewohner slawischer Abstammung in den Kreisen Stolp und Lauenburg; die katholischen Slawen im Bütower Kreise und in Westpreussen bezeichnen wir als Polacken, wie sie ja auch in der That das Recht verloren haben, sieh Kaschuben zu nennen. Sie sind im Laufe der Zeit dermassen polonisiert, dass sie sich von echten Polen kaum unterscheiden.

    ===========================================

    And another source confirming that they called themselves "Polish people" ("puolscy ledze" / "polskji ledze"):

    An excerpt from Richard Breyer "Die kaschubische Bewegung vor dem ersten Weltkrieg", Marburg 1963:

    http://www.studienstelleog.de/download/GZ.pdf

    1. Für das sprachliche Selbstverständnis der Kaschuben ist wichtig, daß sie zwar das Gefühl haben, etwas anderes zu sein als die Polen, daß sie sich aber doch erst sehr spät dazu entschlossen, sich selbst Kaschuben zu nennen. Der Kaschube empfand diesen Ausdruck noch gegen Ende des vorigen Jahrhunderts als unangenehm, weil dis Wort „Kaschube" im Danziger Sprachgebiet lange Zeit im verächtlichen Sinne für Bauer verwendet wurde. Dieser Diskriminierung wichen die Kaschuben dadurch aus, daß sie sich am liebsten „polskji ledze“ nannten, wobei freilich „polskji" nicht mit „polnisch“ im üblichen Sinne gleichgesetzt werden darf. Umgekehrt galt „dei Pölsche“ in der plattdeutschen Mundart des nördlichen Westpreußen für die Katholiken. Dabei bleibt ferner zu berücksichtigen, daß die Bedeutung des Namens Kaschuben nicht geklärt ist. Die heutigen Kaschuben wurden bis ins 14. Jahrhundert hinein in den Urkunden Pomorani genannt, Cassubia hieß lediglich das Land um Belgard an der Persante, um im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert auch auf Land und Bevölkerung der heutigen Kaschubei überzugehen.

    ===========================================

    You might also want to check this 2009 book about Kashubians:

     
  11. Domen

    Domen Misico dux Vandalorum

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    Medieval sources also called inhabitants of the area of Lębork (Lauenburg in Pommern) - "Polensche leute" ("Polish people"):

    http://webcache.googleusercontent.c...de/download/HG1.pdf+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pl

    http://www.studienstelleog.de/download/HG1.pdf

    (...) Dr. Lorentz mag alle Danziger Archive nach imaginären einheimischen Kaszuben durchstöbern lassen, das Ergebnis wird gleich Null sein; wohl aber lesen wir in Handfesten Ausdrücke wie: Dutsche oder Polene (1341, Lauenburg), Gerichtsbarkeit über die polnischen Einwohner (1356, Pasitz und Rosenberg), unser polensche Leute (1438, Roslasin). Der ostpommersche Adel hatte in Bütow und Lauenburg „polenisches“ Ritterrecht, die „polenschen“ Dörfer leisteten ihre polnischen Dienste usw. R. Cramer, den man gerade wegen seines Pseudokaszubismus[11] in den Mitteilungen so überschwenglich gepriesen hat, erwähnt diesen tiefgehenden kulturellen Einfluß des Polentums zur Ordenszeit mit keiner Silbe, das phantastische „Cassubentum“ - ein Anachronismus - macht die Lektüre seines Werkes geradezu ungenießbar. (...)
     
  12. Carolus I

    Carolus I Chieftain

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    Thanks for the interesting descripition of the Kashubians.

    BTW: you have copied probably from this site

    https://archive.org/stream/dieslowinzenund00unkngoog/dieslowinzenund00unkngoog_djvu.txt

    But there is a tiny transcription error:

    It is not polemisiert (polemicized), but polonisiert (polonized).


    https://books.google.de/books?id=b6...hl=de&pg=PA26#v=onepage&q=polonisiert&f=false
     
  13. Domen

    Domen Misico dux Vandalorum

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    Indeed, thank you for noticing! Sorry.

    ================================

    Below a few maps showing languages in Poland in 1931, in numbers of speakers (each dot represents 1,000 people).

    Note that population density in southern regions was much bigger than in northern (hence more dots of all kinds in the south):

    Polish-speakers:



    Eastern minority languages:



    And German-speakers (each dot = 1,000 people):

     
  14. Carolus I

    Carolus I Chieftain

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    It is a bit surprising that there were also Germans (or German-speakers) so far in the Eastern Borderlands. Who are these people? German settlers?


    It's google's fault. When the book was scanned and transscripted the program (by google?) recognized probably "polemisiert" instead of "polonisiert". An easy mistake surely due to the poor printing quality.
     
  15. Domen

    Domen Misico dux Vandalorum

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    I believe those over there (map below) were so called Volhynian Germans.

    They were settlers who settled there in period between 1816 and ca. 1881:



    While those in Eastern Galicia were mainly from Josephinian settlements:

    Some links: "Das Kolonisationswerk Josefs II. in Galizien", Ludwig Schneider 1939:

    http://www.mtg-malopolska.org.pl/images/skany/schneider_djvu/schneider.djvu

    1911 German book in PDF: http://ia600408.us.archive.org/16/items/geschichtederdeu03kainuoft/geschichtederdeu03kainuoft.pdf

    And a few more links can be found here: http://genealodzy.pl/PNphpBB2-printview-t-73-start-75.phtml



    And also many Germans settled in Congress Poland (for example in Lodz):



    As the song says: ;)

    Spoiler :

    ==============================

    And of course:

     
  16. Wisimir

    Wisimir Chieftain

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  17. Domen

    Domen Misico dux Vandalorum

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    Later I will post such a map, showing percent of Poles by county compared to modern and interwar Polish borders.

    Nope, this map is not very accurate. But it wasn't supposed to be - it is from a pre-war school atlas for students.

    ================================================

    BTW - here the Polish census of December 1919 (in North-Eastern Borderlands) can be found (and the introduction in English below):

    http://dziemiela.com/personal/documents/Spis_Ludnosci_1919.pdf



     

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  18. Domen

    Domen Misico dux Vandalorum

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    German censuses in the city of Vilnius 1915 - 1917:

    http://www.kpbc.ukw.edu.pl/dlibra/plain-content?id=37961

    German census of 1916 in Lithuania - results for Polish and Lithuanian nationalities (map):

    Lengyelek = Poles
    Litvanok = Lithuanians
    Lengyel-litvan etnikai hatar = Polish-Lithuanian ethnic boundary

    Spoiler :
     

    Attached Files:

  19. Domen

    Domen Misico dux Vandalorum

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    Spoiler :
    Polish-speakers:



    Eastern minority languages:


    And here extent of each of East Slavic minority languages:

     
  20. Mechanicalsalvation

    Mechanicalsalvation -

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    subscription post :goodjob:
     

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