It strikes me as odd that I can just about supply three master tobacconists in a factory with just one expert tobacco planter on a tobacco resource (in my current game the planter yields 29 tobacco and the factory consumes 36). In my games I can typically get by with just a handful of super large cities. I've seen a few people complain about the tendency toward megacities, and I think rebalancing agriculture vs. industry would help. Since Ray likes proposals spelled out specifically, I'll use his format. Problem: Raw goods are too easy to come by and are too efficiently converted into processed goods. Reasons this is a problem 1. Historically, labor was all agricultural. 90% of the population in the American colonies were engaged in agriculture. 95% of the population lived outside of cities. As late as 1900, 40% of Americans worked in agriculture. In my current game (in 1665) I have 9 cities and 177 people working in them. 67 (37%) are working outside the city (mining, farming, fishing, etc), and 110 (62%) are working inside the city. Perhaps this would change a bit if I played with the 2-radius cities, but the essential issue remains. 2. There is little pressure to expand. Instead of having to continually expand and cultivate more land (as was done in history), I can just sit back with a few megacities and not bother any of my neighbors. Less conflict, just lots of micromanagement and building. If we were really in a competition for land it would raise the stakes a bit. 3. It makes things too easy. The only professions not available for purchase in Europe are the planters, trappers, etc that only come from native training or learning through hard work. It is a nice, challenging feature to try and get the expert indigo planter you need, but it becomes really easy when you only really need one. 4. It creates megacities. Since it only takes a couple of worked tiles to support a city, it is really easy to create massive, dense cities. I know health is supposed to be a brake on this growth, but it doesn't address the key problem which is that instead of 3 (or 9!) agricultural workers supporting 1 industrial worker the ratio is flipped. 5. It changes the dynamics of the revolution. During the American revolution the British were frustrated that even though they captured major American cities (like New York), the revolutionaries continued to fight because most of the population was rural. The Americans benefited from their knowledge of the land and fought skirmishes out in the countryside where they were strongest. In the game the king drops troops off outside of major cities and pretty much all the combat takes place right there as an extended siege. If your biggest megacity falls, you're in serious trouble. It would be a lot more fun if the kings troops were getting ambushed in pursuit of your forces in the interior. Possible Solutions 1. Cut the yield of raw goods. Significantly, like in half. That'll force you to set up more farms, more plantations and more cities to harvest more resources. You should reduce the amount of resources generated by the city square too. 2. Require more raw resources in factories. I believe the tier 3 buildings use the same amount of raw goods as the tier 2 ones, they just produce a lot more. I'd have them eat up a lot more resources instead of just giving more finished goods for free. 3. Bring back mercantilism. The whole idea of the colonial system was to harvest resources to send back to the mother country who could then process them and sell them back to the colonies for profit. To preserve this lucrative system the home countries would often make it illegal for colonies to produce various finished goods. There should be events where the king refuses to buy certain processed goods (but perhaps boosts the price of the raw good). Follow up events could have the king periodically deliver some shipments of that processed good for your domestic consumption (for a price of course). Processed goods should be less expensive relative to raw goods. 4. Make tile improvements more costly. It seems too easy to build farms/plantations/mines over everything. Easy to build roads too. It'd be nice if these things all took longer or were more expensive. It'd be a nice boost to the rather bland leader traits that boost pioneer actions.