I am building a spreadsheet to compare the profitability of different means of producing additional colonists. Should I use my colonists as farmers to create additional colonists via accumulating 200 food or should I use my colonists to produce goods and raw materials to be sold in Europe and purchase new colonists? How does a tax rate of 50% affect this? This is the kind of question I want to answer in my spreadsheet. The spreadsheet will be able to compare different occupations by converting every colonist's productivity into gold produced per turn. Raw materials(cotton, tobacco, fur, sugar) and goods producing occupations(cigars, wool, etc.) are easy(at first glance) to convert into this figure. Food, on the other hand, seems different. But food can be converted into gold by seeing that 200 food is needed to create a free colonist. In AODII a free colonist can be bought in Europe for 750 gold. Therefore each food is worth 3.75 gold at game start. Calculations in the spoiler Spoiler : I said that raw materials production and goods producing occupations' profitability were easy to calculate at first glance. However, goods production profitability can get complicated. First, my formula for determining raw materials profitability is: Sale Price of Raw Material in Europe * Quantity being produced by unit[1-Tax rate] - food upkeep of unit Example: A free colonist working a farmed plains tile produces 4 tobacco per turn. The price of tobacco in Europe is 5 and the tax rate is 25%. The game is played on normal speed and a free colonist costs 750 in Europe so the upkeep cost of a unit is 7.5. The colonist will produce a total of 7.5 gold in profit per turn. (4*5)(1-.25)-7.5 My formula for determining goods production profitability is: Sale price of finished good in Europe*Quantity of finished good [1-Tax rate] - food upkeep of unit - opportunity cost of selling the raw material How do I model the opportunity cost of selling the raw material? Price Raw Material* Quantity needed of Raw Material for goods production[1-tax] - average food upkeep for raw materials gatherers to gather enough raw material to produce good Wow thats a mouthfull! Let met talk about that last item in more detail. Go to the f5 screen in civ4Col and see how many people you have harvesting tobacco. Then goto the f1 screen and look at the production tab. Add up the green numbers and look at the red number colonies to see if there is any production happening there. Now you know how much tobacco you produce per turn and how many people you have harvesting tobacco. Your tobacco production per turn divided by the number of tobacco harvesters is "average food upkeep per tobacco harvester". Now we can calculate the mouthfull from above. Average food upkeep for raw materials gatherers to gather enough raw material to produce good = cost of colonist in Europe/ food needed to grow colonist * how many cigars your production building makes per colonist / Average food upkeep per tobacco harvester For example: I'm playing a game of 1.10 AODII on normal speed(food upkeep of a unit is 7.5). On the f5 screen I have 3 units working tobacco. I produce a total of 60 tobacco per turn. (Note: I don't know how rebel sentiment affects the analysis yet.) For a cigar producing building that makes 6 cigars a turn, the "average food upkeep for raw materials gatherers to gather enough raw material to produce good" is: (7.5 * 6/ 20) =2.25 Thats a lot of work for such a small number! Well, those 3 workers were expert tobacco planters working specials and I had 4-5 cities settled on tobacco bringing in 3-4 tobacco a turn each! If I only had free colonists working farmed grassland tiles for tobacco the figure would be 7.5 * 6/4 or 11.25. Now I'm going to do an example of how profitable cigar production is: 7.5 is the food upkeep cost of a colonist Europe price of cigars is 10 Europe price of tobacco is 4 tax rate is 25% You have a normal citizen working a building that produces 6 cigars per turn The average production of a tobacco farmer is 7 10*6[1-.25] - 7.5 - 4*6[1-.25] - 7.5*(6/7) =13.07 A free citizen would make 13.07 gold per turn making cigars above his alternative of selling raw tobacco. Now for some comparisons The same colonist could work producing 4 raw tobacco a turn and make: 4*6[1-.25] - 7.5 = 4.5 gold per turn If you were to farm a 4 food square: 3.75 per food * 4 - 7.5 = 7.5 gold per turn. You're better off farming a 4 food tile than producing raw tobacco and selling it in Europe but manufacturing it into cigars is most productive. Factories, production buildings that give you 50% more production without costing raw materials, are amazingly profitable! Our colonist from above working in a factory instead would earn: 10*6[1-.25] - 7.5 - 4*6[1-.25] - 7.5*(6/7) + 10*3[1-.25] = 35.57 Thats 2.7x as profitable as the 6 production building! Constructive criticism is very welcome!