Overview The Hybrid Economy is a type of economy that combines the best elements of the Specialist Economy and the Cottage Economy, while minimizing the disadvantages of both types of economies. This article assumes use of the Beyond the Sword expansion, but it should be easily adapted to both Warlords and Vanilla Civilization IV. Like a Specialist Economy, a Hybrid Economy's cities are highly specialised. Like a Cottage Economy, a Hybrid Economy relies on cottages as it's primary source of beakers. Unlike either a Cottage or Specialist economy, the goal of a Hybrid Economy is to keep the science slider at 100%. Characteristics Attributes most common improvements: farms and cottages beaker source: primarily commerce, some specialists espionage source: specialists gold source: specialists optimal slider position: 100% science best civics: Representation, Free Speech, Caste System best traits: Financial, Philosophical Advantages high degree of city specialization no economic crash with switch to Emancipation high GPP production not as much micromanaging as a Specialist Economy high degree of predictability in Great People produced Disadvantages using the culture for happiness causes research to slow down, but not as much as a Cottage Economy more micromanaging than a Cottage Economy unable to use Slavery Civic after Caste System to boost production Cities in a Hybrid Economy Cities in a Hybrid Economy are heavily specialized, just as in a Specialist Economy. Few buildings are constructed beyond the necessary ones, allowing the greatest number of specialists or cottages to be worked for the longest period of time. The city types are: Capital This city tends to become a "Jack 0f All Trades" city, usually having ample commerce as well as production, additional happiness, which often makes Bureaucracy attractive mid-game. Of course, if you start with Mysticism and you have a lot of extra food in your capital, you might want to consider founding an early religion, making it your Wall Street city, and running some other legal civic instead. Or moving your Palace to better location. Production Cities Production Cities produce your military and construct most of the wonders your empire needs. Most empires need only two or three. Improvements are mines and other hammer producers, plus the necessary farms to support the citizens to work the hammer tiles. Buildings are, naturally, hammer multipliers. National Wonders are Heroic Epic, West Point, and Ironworks. Wealth Cities Wealth cities produce the gold necessary to pay for costs of your empire, whether it is maintenance for your cities, civics upkeep, or pay for your military. Small empires only need one. Improvements are farms to support merchants. Buildings are, naturally, gold multipliers. The city with the highest food output gets Wall-Street. Ideally, this should also be a Shrine city. These cities produce a lot of Great Merchants, which should be settled in the Wall-Street city so you can keep that science slider at 100% for most of the game. Science Cities Science cities produce the beakers your empire needs to research new technologies. These cities make up the majority of your empire. Improvements are cottages and other commerce producers. Buildings are, naturally, beaker multipliers. The city with the second highest food production will eventually get Oxford University, and gets farms to support scientist specialists. Espionage Cities Espionage cities produce the espionage points your empire needs to conduct espionage missions, both active and passive. You really only need one in your empire. Improvements are farms to support spy specialists. Buildings are, naturally, espionage buildings. Due to the lateness of most espionage buildings, this is a good candidate for a late game forested tundra/National Park city. Strategy by Age Classical Age The classical age is when you'll be getting your core cities established. By the end of this era, your HE city will be churning out units, your future Wall-Street city will be churning out gold and Great Merchants, and the rest of your cities will producing beakers, primarily through cottages. Civics would be slavery and organized religion, and Hereditary Rule, or perhaps Representation if you snagged the Pyramids. Hopefully, you'll be able to snag The Great Library in your future Oxford University city. Middle Ages Congratulations, you've just made the switch to Caste System. Get used to it, because you'll be sticking with it for a while. By now, you'll have enough improved tiles to switch citizens to hammer tiles while building infrastructure, and back to cottages or specialists the rest of the time. During this age, your science cities should be slowly building banks after they've finished their Universities, so you'll be able to build Wall-Street as soon as possible. Needless to say, you probably won't have to build any unnecessary Universities in your wealth cities. Renaissance With Liberalism comes Free Speech, and with Democracy comes Emancipation, so it's time to start prepping your Wall-Street and Oxford University cities for the post-Caste System era. Start building cottages until one-turn from completion over your farms, and do the same with windmills over any mines. Once another Empire switches to Emancipation, it's time to do likewise, before unhappiness cripples your Empire. Switch as many farms to cottages as possible, and mines as windmills, until your city is growing while still running seven specialists. Industrial Age With Caste System no longer viable, you're going to get some beakers in your wealth cities, so it's time to build some libraries and observatories in your wealth cities. If you've been expanding aggressively, you might want to build some grocers in your science cities as well, since your science slider might have to drop below 100%. Fortunately, you already built all those banks. This is also the Era of the Corporation, and you've been producing a lot of Great Merchants, so you should save one to found one of the Food Corporations in your Wall Street city. Spread it to your Oxford University, your production cities, and your capital. If you're lucky, you've saved a Great Engineer to found Mining Inc. in Wall Street, which you can then spread to your production cities and capital as well. Modern Age You haven't won yet? Then what are you waiting for? Build whatever you need to reach whatever victory condition you've been aiming for. Other Issues The National Epic Unlike a Specialist Economy, which relies on Great Scientists to suppliment your beaker production, or a Cottage Economy, which uses this National Wonder to create a GP farm, you get to decide which Great People you want the most of. If you want a lot of Great Merchants, build it in your future Wall Street city. If you want a lot of Great Scientists, build it in your future Oxford University city. Maybe you'd like a lot of Great Spies late in the game, so hold onto it until your Espionage city is up and running, or Ironworks to get some Great Engineers to found Mining Inc. and rush some late-game wonders. Or pair it with National Park and get a super GP farm up and running. The choice is yours!