Ghetto gangsta means someone who dresses and acts as a thug, specifically like a "gangsta" glorified by many black youth.
Punk/Rebel are those people against the system who wear counter culture outfits and listen to punk rock.
Prep/Jock/Cheerleader. Preps have two meanings: one is the real meaning which is someone preperaing for college, i.e. a student who studies hard and takes challanging classes. But preps also tend to dress nicely and properly (as do most in-crowd students) which leads to a second slang term used by those born in 1990 and later for cool in a in-culture way. A jock is someone who is enveloped in sports culture and more importantly plays sports. They are also "in". A cheerleader, as an image would be the feminine version of the jock, athletic but girly instead of masculine.
Loner is someone uncomfortable with being social, or has reasons to be a social outcaste. Can be all kinds of people
Drama nerd is someone whose highschool life revolves around theater. Tend to come in many packages from loner-like to popular, counter-culture to "in", etc.
Stoner someone who does drugs, specifically marijuana.
Goths don't exist in my high school and haven't since 1997 or so. But they come in proper goth form and punk goth form. Both are counter cultural, and encompasses dark clothes and makeup, but proper goths dress nicely, whereas more punk goths just wear black. They listen to music like Rammstein and Nine Inch Nails and Metallica and various metal and industrial groups
Geeks are people who socially don't quite get it but are nevertheless intellectual. There are cool geeks who are smart but social (still a bit off though) and comeplete spaz's who just don't get how to behave properly. They tend to not hide their computer, gaming, and trivial knowledge.