One of the mistakes I make when trying to capture a city is to jump a little too soon. During these times I sacrifice all my catapults for excellent collateral damage, then knock out almost every defender, only to have one last defender almost dead, but I have run out of attackers, and then reinforcements arrive. These are the times when I wish I had just one more catapult and one more strong CR maceman . . . or whatever. One of the mistakes I make when trying to capture a city is to wait just a little too long. During these times I get all the odds just the way I want them, then on the next turn I attack, only to discover that the archers have all morphed into longbowmen, or a spearman appeared suddenly, or a grenadier appeared suddenly, or an infantry appeared suddenly. These are the times when I wish I had just attacked full force even though it was not guaranteed to be an overwhelming victory. One of the mistakes I make during a war is to focus so intently on capturing enemy cities that I leave my own cities weakly defended and an enemy slips through and takes one of my cities despite my overall military superiority. One of the mistakes I make is to pillage the enemy into the stone age, then regret it after I capture and keep the cities. One of the mistakes I make is to avoid pillaging because I plan to keep the city, but the enemy remains strong because they still have key resources. - - - - - - - - - - Know what I mean? - - - - - - - - - - How can I learn to plan this better? It is bad enough on land . . . but it gets worse when Tokugawa or Alexander suddenly declares war on me and several loaded ships appear out of nowhere and deposit giant armies near my cities. Most of the time I win the game anyway, because I play on the Noble difficulty setting. An army of knights is no match for cavalry. An army of riflemen is no match for infantry. In general the wars go my way because I'm ahead in tech. How can I learn the right amount of troops, and the right balance of forces, and knowing when to push forward for another city, and knowing when to stop, and knowing when it is a good idea to raze a city? It turns out that even lowly archers can defend cities really well, when they are fortified and promoted, and it is a high culture hilltop city. Any ideas?