While air power was overwhelming in World War II naval battles, there were nine instances of battleship to battleship battles: * North Sea (9 April 1940). The undergunned German battleships Gneisenau and Scharnhorst engaged the old British battlecruiser Renown in an indecisive action off southern Norway. * Mers El Kébir (3 July 1940). The old British battleships Resolution and Valiant, with the battlecruiser Hood and some other ships, attacked the French fleet near Oran, Algeria, destroying the old battleship Bretagne, severely damaging her sister Provence, and less seriously damaging the new battleship Dunkerque, while the latter's sister Strasbourg managed to escape unscathed. * Calabria (9 July 1940). An Italian squadron including the reconstructed old battleships Giulo Cesare and Conte di Cavour was intercepted by a British squadron including the older battleships Warspite, Royal Sovereign and Malaya, resulting in an indecisive but often intense action lasting about 50 minutes. * Denmark Strait (24 May 1941). In a brief morning encounter in the Denmark Strait (between Iceland and Greenland), the new German battleship Bismarck took several hits while sinking the British battlecruiser Hood and damaging the very new (still had shipyard workers aboard) battleship Prince of Wales. Later that afternoon Bismarck and Prince of Wales briefly clashed again, without ill effects to either. * North Atlantic (27 May 1941). After a wide-ranging chase across the Atlantic, Bismarck, slowed by several aerial-torpedo hits, was pounded to pieces by the new British battleship King George V and the older Rodney, reducing the German ship to a burning wreck which was finished off by several torpedoes. * Casablanca (8 November 1942). The new USS Massachusetts exchanged several hundred rounds of heavy shells with the partially completed French Jean Bart, which was tied up to a dock. Jean Bart, which had only half her main guns mounted, was heavily damaged. * The Second (Naval) Battle of Guadalcanal (14-15 November 1942). In a wild action which began shortly before midnight, a Japanese squadron including the battlecruiser Kirishima engaged the new Washington and South Dakota. The latter suffered considerable damage, while Washington pounded Kirishima so badly (nine 16" hits in the first few minutes) that she had to be scuttled the next day. * North Cape (26 December 1943). Off the northernmost point of Europe, a British squadron including the new battleship Duke of York encountered the German Scharnhorst, resulting in the latter's sinking after a protracted slugfest. * Surigao Strait (24-25 October 1944). The old U.S. battleships Mississippi, West Virginia, Maryland, Tennessee, California and Pennsylvania (all but the first veterans of Pearl Harbor), supported by numerous smaller warships, ambushed a Japanese force including the old battleships Fuso and Yamashiro, which were annihilated in an action so one-sided that Pennsylvania never got to fire. This was the last time battleships ever fired on each other.