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Zapotec Civilization

Discussion in 'Civ4 - Creation & Customization' started by Sword_Of_Geddon, Jun 23, 2013.

  1. Sword_Of_Geddon

    Sword_Of_Geddon Mysterious Jungle Warrior

    Dec 21, 2003
    New England, USA
    I've been looking over the forums for art and doing research on this interesting southern Mexico based Civilization. Heres what I have so far

    Possible leaderhead: http://forums.civfanatics.com/downloads.php?do=file&id=19087

    Leader: Cosijoeza (Spiritual and Protective)

    Unique Unit: Lightning Warrior(As in Age of Empires III), replaces Pikeman, starts with the Shock promotion.(Couldn't resist)

    Unique Building: Royal Tomb(As in the Civ5 civilization here: http://forums.civfanatics.com/showthread.php?t=432001), replaces Jail(becomes availiable earlier as well).

    City List:
    Capital: Monte Albán


    Oaxaca was first inhabited in prehistory by hunter gatherers making their way down from the north. Around 1500 B.C.E., these hunters began the first agricultural and communal living. The first distinct culture to inhabit Oaxaca was the Chatino in the southwest of Oaxaca, who were to have a long history. Arriving from an undisclosed ‘distant land‘, they were highly militarist people who fought hard against both the Zapotec and Mixtec, and managed to resist all Zapotec attempts at conquest, before finally succumbing to Mixtec invasion. The Chatino called themselves Kitse Cha'tnio, which, evocatively, means "Work of the Words".

    Around 1150 - 800 B.C.E, Oaxaca fell under a strong influence from the Olmec. Though the valley was never conquered by them, it was migrated to and strong trade and cultural ties emerged. It was during the Olmec trade period that the population of Oaxaca began to boom and distinct signs of civilization appeared, with elites and social structures emerging among indigenous people. This was highly desirable for the Olmec as their civilization, at that period, was chronically short of other advanced people to trade with. They were always on the lookout for people advanced enough to extract and process raw materials from in exchange for Olmec goods.

    The Olmec trade period came to an end, around 800 B.C.E., as more sophisticated cultures emerged along the gulf area. It became more practical for civilizations of the valley to trade with the local people, rather than ship goods huge distances to the Olmec. Around 500 B.C.E., Monte Alban rose along with larger population centres. Carvings show that intermittent warfare occurred between the people living in the valley, with the Zapotec emerging dominant, though far from all-conquering by 200 B.C.E.

    The Zapotec, the Cloud People, were the first major native culture of Oaxaca. They were also the second illustrious civilization to emerge in Meso-America, after the Olmec. The Zapotec were knowledgeable in both complex Mayan mathematics and are believed to be the first Meso-Americans to develop writing. Their cities show evidence that, in their long history, they freely traded with and took a lot of cultural influence from other cultures. Goods from the Olmecs, Teotihuacan and the Toltecs have especially been found across the region and influences of their architecture are also very evident.

    The Zapotec society in the Oaxaca Valley was divided into three different sects. Each sect was located in a different corner of the original Zapotec lands in the Oaxaca Valley. Based upon archeological evidence such as burnt temples and sacrificed captives, the three Zapotec societies were believed to have been in some sorts of competition between themselves. The reason behind the fighting and killing is not know, but the facts support that the Zapotec civilization fought amongst themselves. After a hundred years of fighting between themselves, a centralized and peaceful city began to emerge in the center of the Oaxaca Valley called Monte Albán. Around the time of the building of the centralized city, the Zapotec civilization began to look outside the borders of the Oaxaca Valley for expansion. The Zapotecs were a violent people and it is believed that since they had stopped fighting amongst themselves that they soon looked outward to find a target for their wrathful struggle for power.

    The Zapotec empire that formed in the coming decades was vast and stretched much farther than the Oaxaca Valley. Evidence of their expansion can be seen in the ruins of the colonies that surrounded the Zapotec owned Oaxaca Valley. Additionally the influences of the Zapotec expansion can be seen in one of the buildings that was found in Monte Albán. The building was constructed to look like an arrowhead, which is believed to symbolize the civilizations wars. The building also contained more than 40 carved stones with hieroglyphics that represented the rulers of the provinces that the Zapotecs captured. The carved stones that illustrated a head that was turned upside down are believed illustrate provinces that had been taken by force and the carved stones with an upright head are believed to symbolize provinces that had been taken peacefully. The Zapotec society continued to expand during the years of 100 BC - AD 100.

    Zapotec civilization went into decline shortly after Teotihuacan. Around 900 A.D., they abandoned Monte Alban and moved to their religious center of Mitla, 40 km away, only to abandon same. The troubles of the Zapotec seemed to have roused a Mixtec migration into their lands. Over the next three centuries, the Zapotec were to lose more and more of their lands, until, eventually, surviving Zapotec were faced with a choice of staying in Oaxaca under Mixtec rule, or migrating. The independence-minded Zapotec overspilled into their neighbour’s territory where they seized the city of Tehuantepec from the Zoquean and Huavean, and made it their new capital.

    Before the Mixtec's prolonged conquest of the Zapotec was complete, both people fell under the gaze of the Aztec Empire, who coveted the valley's rich gold and obsidian mines. As a preliminary to invasion, the Aztec closed both Mixtec and Zapotec trade routes, outside of Oaxaca. The Zapotec and Mixtec called a halt to hostilities between them and braced themselves for an inevitable invasion. When the great invasion eventually did come, in 1498 A.D., the Zapotec, almost 3,000 years into their civilization, chose that time to find their greatest chief, Cocijoeza. Knowing the Aztec would come across Mixtec lands first, he promised aid to the Mixtec. Trying to ensure that the Mixtec didn't sue for a separate peace, when hostilities began, he made peace with the Aztec and left them to fight a wearying war with the Mixtec. After several years, a weakened Aztec army finally achieved victory. Cocijoeza immediately betrayed the Aztec by attacking and defeating them. The Zapotec had ensured their survival from two larger and hungrier predators, playing them off against one another.

    The last battle between the Aztecs and the Zapotecs occurred between 1497 and 1502, under the Aztec ruler Ahuizotl. At the time of Spanish conquest of Mexico, when news arrived that the Aztecs were defeated by the Spaniards, King Cosijoeza ordered his people not to confront the Spaniards so they would avoid the same fate.

    They were defeated by the Spaniards only after several campaigns between 1522 and 1527. However, uprisings against colonial authorities occurred in 1550, 1560 and 1715.

    I just need good buttons and flags for this Civilization, if anyone is interested in helping I would appreciate it.
  2. kevinman4404

    kevinman4404 Lightning Warrior

    Mar 31, 2007
    Yay! As I'm sure you noticed my avatar is a lightning warrior unit.

    I've attached a good flag.

    Good luck!

    EDIT: removed black stripes
  3. Sword_Of_Geddon

    Sword_Of_Geddon Mysterious Jungle Warrior

    Dec 21, 2003
    New England, USA
    Thankyou so much
  4. Sword_Of_Geddon

    Sword_Of_Geddon Mysterious Jungle Warrior

    Dec 21, 2003
    New England, USA

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