I would also suggest a few other combat rule changes for navies: 1.) Penalty when a land unit or city bombards a naval unit (to make early naval units more viable, since they can't retreat to deep ocean to escape bombardment range). 2.) Reduce city bombard strength. If players are forced to bring siege units against a city, then the siege units should be able to survive long enough to get at least one shot off. Similarly, the City Raider promotion for naval units is worthless until Privateers because Triremes and Caravels are so weak against cities that they can't survive attacking and then being bombarded by the city and a garrisoned unit. The best defense against a navy should be your own navy! 3.) Allow melee naval units to capture barbarian encampments that are on a coastal tile. After destroying the encampment, the unit can just be moved back to the sea tile that it attacked from. This would be akin to a ship or fleet dispatching a small detachment of marines to clear up the enemy camp. This gives much higher value to melee naval units, since they can be used as anti-barbarian forces instead of just recon and defensive units. 4.) Allow naval without Supply to heal whenever adjacent to land. This simulates anchoring at a beach and sending scouts ashore to gather supplies and provisions to repair the ship and treat injured crew. This adds more value to early naval units since it allows them to explore further, participate in war efforts, and it synergizes well with suggestion (3.) above.