I posted this in another thread, but I thought it might be of interest to GOTM people: How scoring works: There are four components: population, land, tech, wonders. The contribution to game score is the percent of each that you control times a multiplier: 4000 for population, 2000 for land, 2000 for tech, and 1000 for wonders. In the final score calculation, each component is divided by an exponential function of the maximum possible. The maximum possible is determined by the map; it seems that maximum possible population on a standard map is around 750 and maximum land is around 1000. Max tech is 300. At 2050, the exponent is 1, so when time runs out final score = game score. If you're at turn t and there are T total turns in the game, the exponent is t/T. You would divide your population by the maximum population raised to the t/T power and multiply by 4000 to get the contribution of population to the game score. So if your population score is 331/750 (44%), the contribution of population to the final score is 4000*331/(750^(t/T)). As t gets closer to T, the divisor gets larger, and the score gets smaller. (I left out a few details, but that's the gist of it.) So that's why early finishes score higher. Your score decays exponentially with the turn number. Attached is a graph of turn # vs final score, assuming Noble difficulty, normal game speed, and an approximately standard-sized map. Max population is 800; max land is 1000. I make the following simplifying assumptions: population increases at a flat rate of one point per turn up to 56%, land holding increases at a rate of one point per turn up to 45%, tech score increases at a rate of 2/3 per turn (I'm not sure how tech score is calculated, so I don't know if this is realistic) up to 300 (the maximum), and no wonders are built. The highest possible score achievable under these assumptions is 184,691 at turn 69, controlling 8.6% of the max population, 6.9% of the land, and having a tech score of 45 (which I think is not very realistic). At turn 2050, final score is 5145 (which is pretty close to my usual winning game scores). If anyone has a better model of population, land, tech, and wonder increases, let me know and I'll plug 'em into my program.