As I said, I am new at this. I play at the cheiftan level. I gather from what I have read thus far, many things change as one moves to higher levels of difficulty. At the cheiftan level the margin for error is greater. That is good because there is a lot to learn to master this game. The advice to make military units as often as possible has worked. At the Chieftan level, the AI won't mess with you if you have the power edge. As far as navies go, I disagree that a powerful navy is a waste of time. I haven't figured out how to make the most efficient use of navies as yet, but to control the seas gives a lot of advantages, at least to me. Frigates ships of the line on up can bombard cities and destroy offshore improvements. If you set up your trasnporting of personnel properly, you can bring forces to bear at points of attach near costlines very quickly. You can also protect your own coastline. But, to be honest, I haven't yet harnessed the power of the seas yet. I will keep the interested posted on this. A couple of you advised attaching as soon as possible after IW. That has proven good advice. I am finding at the Chieftan level that I can wipe out one or two civilizations with a load of Praets. The key is strick fast. I have also found that an agressive strategy requires patients. To go right for a city is deadly. I have learned to move forward destroying everything in my path. Counter attack AI units if they are stupid enough to leave the protection of their cities. Surround the city then pounce. Someone advised that settlers should found cities carefully to make sure I get all the resources needed. They were right. I have been more judicious as to where I place my first cities. Iron, copper, horses arekey in the early going. Lack of oil is a killer later in the game. Thanks to everyone who took the time to respond to my first contact.