Okay, I'm going to breakdown why I feel this is save is not a representative case for an argument that production and science levels are equivalent, or however it is you want to phrase the argument: 1) You're in the future era and have access to every + building in the game. -The difference between tech and production speeds is really noticeable early and midgame, especially before you can get multiple factories and rails online. 2) You have 4 cities built on large rivers working a combined 36 tiles with hydroplants. You also have 2 solar plants. -an extension of point 1, these buildings are only available in the modern era and you are clearly getting a huge benefit from these buildings because... 3) You're in a golden age. -obviously this increases your production a huge amount. I figured out how much the top 4 cities would yield without hydroplants or the GA you were in: Shanghai: 133.3 -> 83.85 Beijing: 120 -> 66 Nanjing: 109.65 -> 70.95 Guangzhou: 100.8 -> 43.74 (with solar plant) That's a drastic difference. Clearly a large portion of your hammers are coming from your eras buildings and your GA. Since my issue is with earlier production times, the save you've posted it is unfortunately not really applicable. Now, to address tech speed: You have 14 completed RAs by turn 271 (1 free tech every 19.4 turns) with 61 completed techs (1 more in 1 turn). This means you've averaged 1 tech per 5.67 turns from the beginning of the game, not including RAs. Obviously I can't determine how many GSs you popped, but that is also part of the concept that tech goes by too quickly. How long is the average build time of a unit? I believe it's over 5.67 turns.