Edit: I did more tests with more battles and concluded that the AI did not cheat. I was just suspicious because of extremely unlucky RNG immediately after raising the difficulty level. I was defending a city from a surprise attack by the AI, and noticed that I lost almost all the battles. I decided to load back, abandon the city, and then attack it the next turn, and wrote down the battle odds and whether I won or lost. This was prince difficulty level. I thought I caught the AI cheating before on a different post, but someone explained to me that I didn't understand the battle mechanics. So this time I held my mouse over the enemy unit and let the game tell me what my battle odds were. I loaded back to attack rather than defend so that I could see the battle odds before the battle took place. These were the results, using % of victory, (W) for win and (L) for lost: 99.4% (L) 50% (L) 75.8% (W) 88.5% (L) 69.8% (L) 82.5% (W) 56.8% (L) Those units above were the ones I wanted to send to attack, because I thought they had a good chance of winning. But I thought for the sake of record-keeping, I would attack with all of my units 36.5% (W) 70.6% (L) 36.5 (L) Edit: I deleted some convoluted math I came up with in my original post because I couldn't remember at the time how to calculate these odds. My original math was more complicated than it needed to be and wasn't 100% right, but I got quite close to the real answer (I compared the odds to something simpler which I knew how to calculate), which is that there was only a 2.5% chance that I would get so unlucky, or a 5% chance that either the AI or myself would get so unlucky. My earlier estimates were 3 and 6 percent. Edit: I deleted some complaints I had about what I suspected to be AI cheating and suggested that I would test more battles (which I later did) to prove it. I ended up analyzing 80 battles with excel, and the actual result was barely outside 1 standard deviation, which is not all that unusual (something like 35% chance of that happening). Considering the standard deviation was only 3.25 out of 80 battles, and my results were only slightly unlucky, I don't think the developers would go out of their way to program in such a small advantage to the AI. So my current conclusion is that I made a bit of a fool of myself guessing about whether the AI was cheating, and then I went and proved myself wrong. I was just suspicious because I got extremely unlucky battle odds first thing after raising the difficulty level.