As you know, the latest patch removed the base science per citizen.To compensate for this change, the tech costs were significantly reduced (except in the final eras), and several buildings now provide science as a percentage of a specific yield. In one game, I entered the Classical Era at around turn 110 in Standard pacing, with a mere 6 science per turn. I realized that I had absolutely had to build Councils after I noticed that my research was far slower than I'm used to. I was dead last to enter the next era. In my last game, I went Progress and entered the Classical Era at turn 64, with only 4 science per turn. The Progress opener is overpowered right now. Not only because it gives science in a patch where science is rare, but also because the amount of science it gives is unchanged despite the lower tech costs. It's absolutely worth it to get it as your first policy even if you plan to complete another branch. In both of the above cases, I researched 7 ancient techs before going for my first Classical tech. In both cases, it was Writing. This tech is, as expected, really good right now. I feel that Councils and Libraries with specialists are absolute musts in every city as soon as possible, mostly because they're the only constant sources of early science. And you're gonna want to counteract the science penalty per city, even though this penalty is less severe this patch. Of course, there are buildings that provide percentage science yields and I imagine that they can all add up to eventually exceed the science per citizen mechanic. This means that the early eras are slower, while later eras are just as fast or slightly faster, which I personally think is great. (It's hard for me to say since I have not completed a single game this beta. I only made a few tests.) I'm all for slower ancient eras, but not so slow that it lasts 1/5th of the game's duration. There are 8 eras in total so we expect a Standard era to last 62.5 turns. A player who isn't particularly into science should reach the Classical Era by turn 85 or so after researching most Ancient techs, but this isn't what happened to me. I think it's best if we introduce a few more early sources of science and raise the tech costs. This is to prevent science buildings from becoming too valuable. Spoiler A few ideas : One idea I have is to give a national yield of +1 per discovered tech. There are only around 11 techs per era so this bonus won't increase too quickly, and would probably be negligible in the long run. It's just enough to devalue the early science buildings without making them useless. It also slightly devalues beelining, since you gain science faster if you research the cheaper techs first. And I personally don't like that Shrines give 20% of faith as science. Cities that generate faith are presumably benefiting from religious beliefs already. This is enough of a boon on its own. Cities with religion are at an advantage over cities without religion throughout the game. No need to further inflate their advantage. What are your thoughts? How was your experience of the new science mechanics so far? Edit: Here's a list of science-giving stuff compiled by pandasnail. Well done!