That would be easier to answer if you asked about a specific mitzvah (commandment/law). There are 613 & I don't have them all memorized. I can say that the most observant Jews do try to follow every mitzvah in the Torah. Some of them can't be followed today because they are specific to the Temple which no longer exists, but they would be reinstated if it were ever possible to rebuild it. Many of them have been reinterpreted for modern times. For example, there's a mitzvah about leaving 1/10 of a crop for the needy. Most of us aren't farmers these days so it's interpreted as donating 10% of income to tzedakah and tikun olam ("charity" & "repairing the world") & Jews do do this. It's my understanding some Christians interpret it this way today as well. As I said earlier, even the most observant Jews do not stone people to death for capital crimes. We defer to civil law for criminal cases these days. There is a mizvah about males not cutting their "forelocks" which is why you can see Chasidic & some Orthodox Jews with long tufts of hair ("peyas" in Hebrew) in front of their ears. The tricky thing there is that we're not exactly sure which forelocks we're not supposed to cut. That specific info got lost somewhere in the milennia. Therefore, you get several interpretations ranging from beards to sideburns to peyas-another reason observant Jews often grow long beards. The laws of kashrut (dietary laws...kosher food) are still interpreted strictly. Perhaps the most so is the one about not boiling a goat in it's mother's milk. Observant Jews interpret that to mean never mixing dairy products & meat even though it's impossible to ever boil a chicken in it's mother's milk. This means that Jews classify food in 3 categories-milchik ("dairy" in Yiddish), fleishik ("meat" in Yiddish) & pareve (neither dairy nor meat, in Hebrew I think). Pareve food can be eaten with the other two. You can get a great sandwich in a kosher deli, but don't ask for swiss cheese on your pastrami. I've seen that happen many times & it makes for an awkward moment. I used to own a kosher meat market, deli & bakery so I could talk about this subject all day... While I'm on the subject, there's a major misconception that kosher food has been blessed by a rabbi. It's not. Blessing stuff is more of a Christian concept. As I said earlier in the thread, it would be easier for me to answer these questions if you gave a specific example. There are 613 mitzvot in the Torah... Thanks. I've enjoyed this thread allot, too. Plotinus' expertise on Christian history has been very interesting. I just hop in when questions on Judaism arise as it's not Plotinus' specific field & he doesn't seem to mind. I'm far from being a rabbi, but if I don't know the answer, i'll try to find it.