Ideological History of Andean Communardism Early Years (1878-1886) In this period preceding, during, and immediately following the Andean Civil War, the United Communes were surprisingly non-ideological in both Government and people. There were historical and political motivations for this outcome, but it was also relevant that few besides key educated intellectuals within the new government were aware of what precisely Communardism stood for. Most Andeans understood the revolution as fundamentally opposed to a European-styled, oppressive regime; what emerged was Andeanismo, a unifying and profoundly malleable ideology. Both the revolution and persuasive government outreach in its aftermath focused on Andeanist appeals - i.e. a central military was necessary to preserve a traditional, communard existence. Willing to tolerate intensely hierarchical or catholic communities, extremely appealing to remote and indigenous communities, and remaining popular with unions and their ardently revolutionary base, Andeansimo was, in conjunction with political decentralization, an effective tool for generating buy-in for the new government across the Andes. The end of this period saw the emergence of the Progresismo movement, a largely urban ideology. A response to Andeanism, its focus on democratization and imagining new labour-controlled modes of production rejects the Andeanist embrace of traditionalism. Progresismo, however, never became popular in the agrarian countryside, and remains a minor ideological force in Andean society. Spoiler Political and Historical Motivations : Following the overthrow of military junta by Communard groups in the wake of the famous “High March,” there existed a period of quiet rebuilding. Due to the lack of prolonged armed struggle, there hadn’t been a particularly large military build-up by the victorious Communard revolutionaries, and there had thus been little need for centralized institutions. DeLuna’s new government in Lima existed in name only; its “Citizen Directives” were ignored in all but the nearest of the highlands, and the limited capacity for taxation afforded an extremely size-limited armed police force. Recruits needed to be paid fair wages, DeLuna insisted; this respect and compensation was important without the immediate threat of counter-revolutionary forces to bind them together. Highland confederacies began to congeal around strongmen, and the solidification of this fracturing was imminent. In order to achieve buy-in for Unified Andean rule by the “Oficina de Coordinación Comunista” (OCC) from the now self-governing highland valley agrarian communes, former-plantations, indigenous communities, Union-run towns and cities, etc, DeLuna enshrined in the new constitution a compromise; centralized executive powers and legislature in exchange for massively devolved powers to Communes. The document also formally defined this unit of government as democratic, intensely local, and responsible for everything not explicitly in the national interest. Each contributed a portion of its taxes to the OCC, and received security and an OCC congressional representative in return; for all else, (medicine, education, utilities) they were responsible. Spoiler Andeanismo : - Strongly emphasizes Anti-Imperialism, Europhobia - Rejects European models of governance - Views Communardism as fundamentally conservative - Embraces traditional and indigenous modes organization - Extremely popular and broadly appealing - Considered by most to not qualify as an ideology, but instead a collection of loosely related ideas without systematic coherence. - “That which is Andean has long been perfectly Communard! It is only European Arrogance that seeks to define Communardism otherwise.” – Marco DeLuna, 1879. Spoiler Progresismo : - Emphasizes Democratic Institutions as an unambiguous tenet of Communardism - Views Communardism as capable of empowering workers to find new modes of organization - Understands government as being ideally local - Supports large business institutions, provided they are democratic - Rejects hierarchy and "coercive power imbalances" - Strongly supports Unions - "The disruptive power of democratically run, collectively-owned enterprise will stagger the bloated, international capitalist regime!" - Herman Martín, 1885 Intellectual Renaissance (1886-1892) Foreign Communardism was the initial catalyst for the rapid development of Internacionalismo and Centralismo within the Andes. Inspired largely by forlorn Manhatten Communards losing hope for revolution within the Union (in addition to a few French Communards), these movements focused on the spread and defense of the Andean revolution, respectively. While Internacionalismo only really became popular among a growing cadre of educated, urban youths, Centralismo was rapidly seized upon by President DeLuna as the philosophical rationale for strengthening the central government. Notably, both movements emphasized the necessary class-solidarity of the proletariat, often internationally. This was an unpopular emphasis for the Andean people of this period relative to the Europhobia of Andeanismo, particularly in rural, isolated communities. Simultaneously, Indigenismo became distinct from Andeanismo during this period and matured into a cohesive ideology. The central idea of this movement, which advocates for the social and political status of Indigenous peoples, is "The Great Circle," first developed by José Carlos Promariátegui. A response to Hegelian and Marxist theories postulating a linear historical progression, Promariátegui rejected these ideas in favor of an understanding of human history which begins and ends in the Commune. A "societal journey" through Autocracy and Capitalism allows insight (such as technology, the destructive evils of capitalist imperialism, and the value of communal living) to be gained; society realizes its error, and returns to the Commune. This is infused with a powerful socio-spiritual dimension - proponents see themselves as part of an overarching cycle of life, for which the return to and maintenance of the traditional Commune is a holy endeavor. Within this movement, Indigenous ways of life, practices, and often even deities are seen as vital to Andean Communardism. Some version of The Great Circle has been adopted and co-opted by all Andean Communards in outline. This was done most notably, and ironically, by the Elitismo movement; despite favoring Hispanic culture, these proponents of the "Aristocratic Commune" claim that the "insights" gained from the Monarchy and Capitalism include the value of an educated elite, or that the Revolution requires "elite protection." Finally, though the Intellectual Renaissance was most notable for the proliferation of complex political ideologies, the Spiritual Renaissance was perhaps equally important. Catholicism was weakened in the Andes by 1) Propaganda denouncing the abuses of power of the Jesuit Order in Ecuador and the Portobrazilian "Divine" Monarchy, 2) An influx of protestant missionaries for the Union of North America, 3) The resurgence of Indigenous spirituality and worship, and in particular the rise of the more broad-based Order of the Circle. The heterogeneity of Andean spirituality grows only more pronounced, and it remains to be seen where this will lead. Spoiler Internacionalismo : - Advocates aiding revolutionaries internationally - Support from young, urban neighborhoods - Supports higher education, and is ideologically atheistic - Advocates for a strong, centralized state to support the Communard military - Considers Capitalism, rather than Europe, to be the true enemy - Condescendingly referred to as "Cappucinismo" - "Andea must be forged into a mighty Scythe of Justice, to cleave all autocratic oppressors who defy the liberation of the proletariat!" Nicolás Cantor, 1892 Spoiler Centralismo : - Understands a central government as essential for organizing the communal affairs of the nation - Advocates the fostering of a unified Andean culture separate from a European/Hispanic culture - Views the central government as essential for the defense of the proletariat - Supports large-scale infrastructure projects and redistribution of national resources - Very popular in unions, urban areas, and increasingly in growing rural townships - "It is only in Unity that the Andes may truly lift up its most desperate comrades and bring justice to all oppressed peoples." President Marco DeLuna, 1889 Spoiler Indigenismo : - Views Indigenous culture and identity as central and essential to the Andean identity - Advocates for technological improvements to be shared with remote and isolated communes - Advocates for the return of traditional indigenous land, in addition to the return of stolen proletarian labour from capitalists - Emphasizes similar Anti-European themes as Andeanism - Though popular in Indigenous Communities across the Andes, particularly in the North, Indigenismo also has a surprisingly large following in some urban Hispanic and Meztico communities - Understands Communardism as both the beginning and end of "The Great Circle" - Rejects efforts from the central government to dominate Indigenous Communes - "And in the final analysis, it is clear that it was the Native Peoples of the Andes, and of the Americas more broadly, who kept the sacred flame of the Commune alive; and it is to this that the European Man, having erred in his journey, must now return to be redeemed." José Carlos Promariátegui, 1887 José Carlos Promariátegui in Cuzco, 1891 Spoiler Elitismo : - Supported largely by the wealthy of the old regime - Advocates for higher education - Considers European and Hispanic cultures to be superior - Advocates for the "Aristocratic Commune" - Often excluded from mainstream Andean politics - "Who would you trust with a People's Government? The People, of course! Good people, with good backgrounds and a good educated." - Santiago Hidalgo, 1892 Radicalization (1892-Present) Following the flowering of new ideologies that marked the Intellectual Renaissance, crisis has sparked a flurry of new ideas which have yet to cohere into a particular ideology. The Second Atlantic War, Anti-Communard War, and the Fall of French Communardism to the "Plebian Council," immediately understood within the Andes as bourgeouis apologists and potential autocrats, provoked great alarm for the only remaining Communard Nation on the planet. It became clear to some that Capitalists were fundamentally untrustworthy and incapable of tolerating Communardism, which resulted in what some refer to as the Doctrine of Indefinite Class Struggle (ICS). While there was no specific doctrine, many writers from across the political spectrum argued that Communardism must be ruthlessly defended, be given buffers against foreign interference, and inspire violent revolution at every opportunity. Many others instead advocated for Communard Realism. Pointing to the success of the Manhatten Commune, they identified non-ideological partnerships as essential to keeping Communardism alive. International Communards, its proponents believe, should tolerate capitalist or autocratic governments while seeking to expand local Communes and build class solidarity. Both Realists and ICSers were appalled by the treatment of Communards in La Violencia and the Gran Colombian Civil War, however, and are united in the need for an Andean response. Finally, it should be noted that the rise of the popular Order of the Circle has lead to ideas about Class Struggle, Solidarity, and Communard Realism penetrating rural communities. The brutal Narco-Jesuit kill-squads of Ecuador has increased the fervor behind this communo-spiritual movement, which has in turn radicalized increasingly large swaths of the Andean countryside. The Order has also begun to incorporate aspects of Protestantism as it evolves and empowers individuals to interpret and debate the nature of The Circle.