Traitorfish - which part was hard to understand for you? Try this article maybe: "English or Irish? Cultural nationalist ideology in late 19th-century Ireland": http://webbut.unitbv.ro/BU2010/Series IV/BULETIN IV PDF/CULTURAL STUDIES/33_Pinter.pdf Today Irish language is being taught in all schools in Ireland: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_language#Republic_of_Ireland And what I was talking about was, that this situation resembles a hypothetical situation in which all East Germans must learn Sorbian and Sorbian is adopted as the first official language in East Germany, and lessons of Sorbian are obligatory in all schools in East Germany, etc., etc. Compared to year 1900, a very significant increase in the number of people who can speak Irish has occured by now: Proportion of respondents who said they could speak Irish in the Ireland census in 2011 or the Northern Ireland census in 2011: Number of people who can speak Irish is of course higher than number of people who actually do this on a regular basis. And according to the National University of Ireland, nowadays already ca. 25% of population of the Rep. of Ireland speak Irish regularly. ============================================== So much for your claim that Irish identity is not related to Irish language... Tell this again after reading everything posted above. It is like saying that Jewish identity is not related to Hebrew language. No matter what other languages Jews speak, they also consider Hebrew as their own language. And that has always been the case. A similar case to Ireland is the nation-state of Lithuania, and Lithuanian nationalism. Modern Lithuanian identity is based on Baltic Lithuanian language, which - pretty much like Irish - was spoken only by some peasants during the late 19th century. Vast majority of Catholic members of middle and upper classes of Lithuania, as well as majority of Catholic peasants in some regions of Lithuania, used to speak Polish. Polish-speakers in Lithuania - who nowadays are still the majority of population in the southern part of Lithuania, known as the Vilno Region (and during the first 40-45 years of the 20th century they were majority in an even larger area), do not identify themselves as ethnic Lithuanians, but as ethnic Poles, and they link themselves with the Polish political nation. Compare the Vilno Region to Ulster, where most of people also have very distinct identities to identities of people in the rest of Ireland. But Northern Ireland is still part of the UK, while the Vilno Region was taken away from Poland and given to Lietuva. Apart from Vilno Region, Polish-speakers were also over 50% of population in the region of Lauda (Liaudė, and over 25% of population in the Kovno Region (of which Lauda was part) at the turns of the 19th and the 20th centuries. But those Poles became largely assimilated into the Lithuanian nation, adopting Lithuanian identity and their Baltic language - like Douglas Hyde adopted Irish Gaelic, despite being born to English-speaking parents. Lietuva is a nation-state based on the heritage of Pagan Baltic Lithuania, not on the heritage of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.