I believe that's from the CCM Mod for Civ3, not the basic game. It's been a lot of years, but I don't remember any Civ game since Civ 2 having depleting resources. I'm sure somebody with more recent knowledge of the older, pre-Civ V games can correct me on that if necessary.
Well that's a city builder so I didn't know that we were counting that. I do agree that putting city building economics into a 4x or other tbs strategy game is cool, I did it myself after all, but there are absolutely reasons most game don't do it.
City Builders, allowing, of course, for completely different scales of activity (Farthest Frontier, like many, allows you to move individual people, not just population Points and Units) have a lot of similarities to 4X games: you have to Exploit the surrounding terrain and biome, Exterminate or at least drive off intruders, and frequently Expand, even to starting Trade Routes with off-map destinations. The different emphasis and scale (especially Time Scale when related to History-spanning games like Civ, Humankind, an Ara, and Millenia) means they have to be consulted very carefully, but the idea of mineral Resources that deplete, as the example from CCM Mod for Civ 3 indicates, is not that difficult or hard to understand. One Basic Thing is that depleted resources cannot be a Game Ender: if Iron remains an absolute requirement to build any Melee or basic infantry unit stronger than a Warrior, depleting Iron is a non-starter in game terms. It all has to be balanced in some way, and those ways have been discussed here at some length.