An older post from @Victoria has made me see the light. For all this time, I had been wrong about how Chops are calculated, based on a faulty experiment of mine. Now that I incorporated her advice and did a test game (Rome, Standard, Deity), I have chopped better than ever before in my life. It's been the most rewarding experience in Civ 6 for a long time. I managed to get 5 (!) Wonders out before T100 and have gotten 2 after, and that while still expanding to 20 cities and chopping out 6 settlers. None of the wonders were hardbuilt. If you're curious, I got, in order: Pyramids, Oracle, Colosseum, Angkor Wat, Mausoleum, Forbidden, Kilwa and conquered the 'Henge. I have already been of the opinion that chopping is the opposite of a cheap/skillless mechanic, but now I'm convined it is one of the best intricacies of this game. So much thought goes into it and there are seemingly infinite variables to consult. People too often forget that one can build a lumber mill or other improvement, too, and wait for the chops to become much more effective. In fact, I find that brainless chopping slows down your games more than it speeds them up, in the longer run! So I will share with you some of the considerations I have myself that hopefully lead to better chopping: - In the early game, you want to hold off on finishing techs and civics, get to your districts of choice as fast as possible and lock them down instantly, but not necessarily build them. Locking them down fixes their cost, while chops will scale up. - Your first chops should be either Settlers (+50% efficiency) or a Military (same), everything else is better to hard-buy with gold or to hard build. - Magnus first is a totally viable choice and you can actually wait forever with giving him provision. Magnus first is not a must, quite the opposite, because chopping scales up massively as your science/culture increases and you get access to more techs and civics. I took Magnus fourth (!) this game and did not get Provision at all, yet still got my Settlers out super early! (Victorias post really helped me understand this, I rarely considered finishing techs/civics just before chopping and it helps so much). - For maximum efficiency chops and district cost you need to strike a balance between not finishing techs while you are still settling/placing districts and finishing many techs over a few turns in preparation for your Magnus tours. - Whether or not a city is worth a Magnus tour is really hard to determine. If you have only 2 Woods or 2 Jungles in a city, Magnus effectively adds a third chop to those two chops. That already seems worth it, but you have to take into account that you could otherwise get your cities online 5 turns earlier, and you miss out on those yields. I personally think Citys with more than 3 chops, especially production chops, are worth it for Magnus. - You should always prioritize wonders from older eras or your current era. Wonders from recent techs take an incredibly amount of chops. Just as an experiment I chopped Kilwa at T90 and even with 5 woods and 6 jungles I did not finish it. OTOH with the same chops and ~5 turns and a few techs later I managed to get Oracle, an Entertainment Complex, an Arena and the Colosseum. - It is often worth keeping builders with 1 or 2 actions around, even if they could improve a tile to help a city. Having those for Magnus tours vastly speeds up the rate at which you get a city done, meaning Magnus moves faster. I still have more thoughts and will perhaps edit in things later, but now I'll jump into my game and try some other stuff out. Happy chopping y'all, and again thanks to @Victoria for that eye-opening moment, all my life I thought chops were based on # of turns.. ouch Here is the post/table I was referencing: Update: Finished the game sub200! I actually got every single relevent wonder in the game, never had that before. only one I would've liked is Jebel, but it's hardly essential. I finished T196. This game I played much better than in the other Rome game where I finished T184, but sadly I had only a single cultural, scientific and industrial CS, which hurt me so so much and made my Kilwa sheer useless. Lots and lots of military and religious CS tho.. Also, this was a standard size map, while the other game was large. With proper CS, I might have finished this game sub t180, who knows. Still very enjoyable over all, wars went super well and so did wonderbuilding and expansion thanks to properly timed chops! also @Victoria I played this entire game without doing the 1 strategic for 1 GPT "bug" because I was interested in how much of a difference it made. honestly, I'm not even sure the "exploit" is worth it. you get more money, yes, but you get it slower, which sucks because snowballing is the #1 priority, and you also cripple the AI, and you cripple their economy long-term, which sucks, because then they'll be bad trading partners later. one thing I can say with confidence is that if you do not abuse 1 strategic for 1 GPT you guaranteed have better trading partners for late game. honestly, my prediction is that using or not using this mechanic will likely not change how fast you finish drastically in any way. both have advantages.