I looked into this and it is technically working as intended, but this helped me discover a number of issues. What happened here is that in both cases, Poland and Italy collapsed and Holy Rome/Austria had a claim on their cities. In the first situation, they had the best claim to get Gdansk and Krakow, which brought them back. They then received Vienna and Budapest because they were independent at the time. Same situation with Italy, they had the best claim on Venica and could then also take Vienna and Budapest on top. I see multiple issues with this: - Poland should not be in the Holy Roman respawn area - Venice should not be in the Austrian respawn area - in the Poland case, I don't think the initial respawn (not considering extra cities awarded later) should succeed if it has no own core cities and only core cities of the collapsing civ (this also applies to the Italy case) - in the Italy case, I also don't think a respawn should succeed when it only has one city (unless the full respawn area has only one city) I corrected these issues in 1.16.2, but they only further complicated the "respawn from collapse" code. The problem here is also in part that these limitations were already in place for "normal" respawns, but the code handling collapses wasn't using it. So on develop I will probably reimplement the respawn from collapse code to share more logic with the normal respawn code, including these new rules.