Recently I've been thinking about the South American civs and how to improve them. Here I will focus Brazil, but soon I hope to share some ideas for Argentina and Colombia as well. While I consider that in general the mod does a good job with the Brazil (particularly in gameplay terms), I see several issues regarding historical and uniqueness aspects that I try to discuss here. I tried to be concise, but I was not successful, so that's the reason of the spoiler tag in the bellow section: UHVs Spoiler : One of issues already stressed here is the first UHV, named Golden Law that requires several slave plantations and pastures by 1880. There are both gameplay and historical reasons for change it. Slavery was an essential element in Brazilian history and society and have deep impacts even today. Giving its importance, I agree that we should represent it somehow, but I think that the UHV is not the ideal tool for it. Going back to the game, typically a Brazilian game will involve much trading slaves with other civs since the start, something that usually involves a degree of luck - since usually the African civs are already collapsed and generally you don't have a reliable source for it. This gameplay aspect led me to hunt native units in Africa, including taking cities there, to ensure that I will have at least some of them until the UHV. (Please note that it has been some time that I've last played with Brazil, but I feel that nothing much relevant regarding it changed since). The problem here, in my vision, is both the luck factor and the ahistorical behavior encouraged by the UHV. Historically speaking, the most intense period of slave trade was before Brazilian independence, during the 18th century. In 1831 - only 9 years after the declaration of independence - Brazil issued the first law prohibiting the slave trade, largely result of British pressure. The law had little practical effect by then, but the growing external (British) and abolitionist pressure in this issue led to increased repression to slave trade until 1850, when the transatlantic slave trade was officially (and in practice) abolished; slavery, though, only ended in 1888, when the last slaves were formally freed in Brazil. So, going back to the game, we have very few turns where the slave trade would be historically accurate. And Brazil never maintained a military force in Africa to ensure the transatlantic flow of slaves. I thought about some alternative UHVs, but honestly I didn't come with something very unique or particularly interesting to replace it. Two ideas popped in my mind: the founding of Brasília (1960), which was a major effort for Brazil, and the (until at least recently) international diplomatic reputation and soft power that Brazil have. The former could be included on UHV3, perhaps with additional requirements (certain culture or commerce values/outputs) and changing the deadline to 1960. The latter option could be somewhat similar to German UHV3, requiring positive relations with X civilizations (particularly other Latin American ones) and something related to the UN (Brazil was somewhat important in the UN creation, something reflected in the fact that Brazilian representative always make the first speech in the UN General Assembly). A minor note in the UHVs names: the first, Golden Law, is not quite good as already pointed. I think that even better than the Logoncal's option is just the Monarchy or Empire, which are the names more commonly used by the historiography. Pindorama is sure interesting (it is Brazil's name in the indigenous languages for those who don't know); a minor correction (if you want proper Portuguese) for the second UHV is Maracanã (with a "~"). UB: I think that the Fazenda is a good choice for Brazil, because these estates were not only common in all Brazil but also were the organizational basis of Brazilian society until the 20th century. Being said that, the fazenda has its roots more in colonial times than in independent Brazil. Also, perhaps using the name Casa Grande (literally "Big House", which was the main landowner's residence) may be better, since fazenda is commonly used as the name of all large estates and rural properties and not a particular building. I would also slightly change the effect: an increased (additional to the current existent) commerce yield to plantations and possibly other improvements if the player runs Slavery of Colonialism civics. That way we have an elegant way of representing the importance of slavery in Brazilian history and encourages the player to behave historically, maintaining these civics in late game without relying in luck or invading Africa to obtain new slaves. If you want a more modern UB, I think about two options: the Sambódromo (the special arena for carnival and large events that most large cities have; replaces the obsolete Arena but is available late in game. There is a possible art available in History Rewritten as the carnaval) or the churrascaria (a typical restaurant that serves Brazilian barbecue and food; I'm not sure about what building would replace or if we do have an adequate art). UU: While I think that the madeireiro is gameplay-wise adequate as UU, I honestly think that it is quite poor representing something unique for Brazil. Although deforestation was a common issue during all Brazilian history and still is, only in the first decades of colonization the logging economy (of brazilwood) was important to Brazil. Nonetheless, it may be somewhat difficult to choose an excellent UU replacement. I honestly don't see other good civilian UUs options. Military UU also presents some difficulties: Brazilian military forces were and are largely based in the Western military traditions, which are similar to many other civs in game. Civ 5 and 6 respectively chose the Pracinha (the nickname of Brazilian soldiers that fought WW2 in Italy) and the battleship class Minas Gerais as UU, but neither were truly unique Brazilian: the former were trained, equipped and fought under US command and model; the latter was British-built. Ironically, probably the most unique unit would be the bandeirante, a colonial unit that in game is a Portuguese UU. Fortunately, Brazil was one of the few Latin American countries that was able to develop a national arms industry, which offers us some possible (very) late-game UUs. There are two options more easily available here in download database: the Tucano and the Astros II. The first, which has art here, is a light attack aircraft that could be a very cheap replacement for one of the later aircraft (Jet Fighter or Stealth Bomber) units with worse stats. The latter, that has art here, is a replacement for the Mobile Artillery that also can be cheaper, but without the malus in combat strength. Finally, a last option is the Infantaria de Selva, the renowned jungle specialized corps of the Brazilian Army that operate mainly in the Amazon; the only problem here is that I couldn't find a good art for it, but we can easily make one with a reskinned Marine or Paratrooper with bonus fighting in jungle/rainforest tiles. One last suggestion for Brazil is to change some of the leaders civics preferences. Pedro II's favorites (Slavery and Catholicism) are ok (although could be Monarchy) representing 19th century Brazil, but Vargas favorite civics (Free Enterprise and Catholicism) seems weird to me. His policies, which resulted in major changes in Brazil's economy and society during 1930s-1950s, were quite the opposite of Free Enterprise: he favored economic nationalism, state-sponsored industrialization, and social welfare. I think that his favorite civic should be changed for this reason, probably to Nationhood or Central Planning. Edit: corrected the name/link of the Tucano. Originally I quoted the more modern version (Super Tucano) of the aircraft, but considering the art available, service history and production it is better to use the older one.