If you are new to CPP Vox Populi (CBO), it will take a while to understand what is happening with happiness. What is happiness good for? Up to 10 global happiness, all your city yields get a bonus. Happiness add to golden era points, so a happier empire will have more golden ages too. Up to 10 global unhappiness city yields get a malus. From there on, revolters appear (like barbarians), and cities may secede. Happiness is critical for any player pursuing a domination victory, because conquests and wars put a heavy toll on happiness. How is my city going? Inside city screen, hover to city name and wait. A tooltip will show how unhappy your city is. If using EUI you may see this tooltip hovering over the banner city in map mode. Expect to see some unhappy people. Why are they unhappy? CPP Vox Populi citizens are jealous. If they see other cites get better things per citizen, they get angry. They are also unhappy if they see their working tiles plundered, if the city is isolated and if they are citizens conquered of other civilizations. Religion, war weariness and ideologies are a source of unhappiness too. How can I make them happier? You can look for things that can make them happier, like luxuries and happiness buildings, and you can remove what make them unhappy, checking the happiness tooltip. Some of the happiness bonuses are global, so you won't be able to see them in the city screen, hover over golden age points in the top bar of the map screen instead to see a description of the net global happiness of your civilization. Ok, guess I better go after luxuries. Beware luxury happiness bonus is proportional to city population. They are not a must have, like in BNW, but they are good nonetheless. You can get them by having any improvement over the luxuries inside your territory, or you can trade them with other civs. Some buildings and wonders also give happiness, and if you go religious, some beliefs also grant some happiness, but it's somewhat scarce (unless you manage to stock them all). How can I remove their unhappiness, then? Isolation, war weariness and plundered unhappiness is pretty straightforward, make a city connection, make peace and repair tiles with workers. Rule over other civ citizens needs to build a specific building that remove their unhappiness (consulate?). For other kinds of unhappiness, I need to elaborate. Jealousy. It depends on the mean yield per citizen and the Era. As you have more citizens it is more difficult to work on good tiles, so if you just grow your city for the sake of growing and forget about infrastructure, your citizens are going to be unhappy. If your city isn't well developed for the Era you are in, they'll ask for improvements too! For science and culture, just try to improve science and culture city yield. For gold, make the city gain more gold per turn. Beware that some buildings offer gold per citizen, so you might be tempted to increase population, but remember that needs increase with pop size. Defence is a little tricky. You can improve it with a garrisoned unit, the stronger the better and you can build defensive buildings like walls that directly increase city defence. Some buildings directly decrease the city needs, like barracks that reduce defence needs and library that reduce literacy needs, so they are worthy by themselves. Religious unrest. One way to remove religious unrest is to use missionaries and inquisitors in your own cities so every citizen follows the same faith. A cheaper one is to build shrines and temples, but it will take a while to effect: The higher your religious pressure, the sooner your citizens will follow the same faith. Another way is picking Rationalism policy tree, where one of its policies makes your cities completely ignore religious unrest, although it comes a little late. Ideology unrest. When civs that share your ideology (or you yourself) aren't faring well, you get unhappiness. So either join the winners party or help civs that share your ideology while hurting others. By faring well I mean scoring. Read merill's further explanation: Spoiler : ideological unhappiness is tied to tourism influence. If your population admire greatly an other civilization, they want to share their ideology. I can't remove unhappiness completely. Don't worry, some unhappiness is expected in every city. What matters is the net global happiness. Every city has a local happiness made of the happiness that is produced in the city minus the unhappiness of the city. Then, your civilization has a global happiness made of the sum of all local happiness and any global happiness you may have. This is the global happiness that is used for the empire bonuses and golden age points. Also don't panic if your global happiness is negative; as long as you cities aren't revolting you can play the way you feel more confident. Address happiness only if it becomes an issue or if you are pursuing more golden eras (happiness over 10 doesn't give anything else but golden era points).