The oldest know phonetic alphabet is from around 2000-1800 BC, called Proto-Sinaitic\Canaanite script, and was based on Egyptian hieroglyphs. The Phoenician alphabet was based on it, and appeared around 1200-1100 BC. Pretty much every western and middle eastern alphabets developed from the Phoenician alphabet, e.g. greek, latin, cyrillic, arabic, hebrew, etc. There are east Asian alphabets that did not develop from the above, Man'yōgana is a possible root for most of the east Asian alphabets, based on Chinese characters. and appeared around 300-500 AD.