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Discussion: Unique Epics

Discussion in 'Rhye's and Fall - Dawn of Civilization' started by Publicola, Jan 15, 2019.

  1. Publicola

    Publicola Prince

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    Per Leoreth's request (here), this is a discussion thread for re-introducing the National and Heroic Epics back into the mod. Specifically, these would be actions performed by Great Artists ('Compose National Epic'/'Compose Heroic Epic') that would be intended to have a 'wide' effect on the entire civ (rather than the original 'tall' effect limited to a single city).

    Main points for discussion:

    1) What particular effect should these epics have? (These effects would be common to all civs; Leoreth didn't approve of giving each civ's epic a unique effect).

    2) Each civilization should be paired with at least one unique epic (Greece with the Iliad, India with the Ramayana, etc.) Ideally, each civ could be paired with two epics, one corresponding to the 'National Epic' model (culture and great people) while the other serves as a 'Heroic Epic' (military). What epics should be paired with each civ?

    3) Each unique epic should also be paired with a background image and text that could go on a splash screen for when the epic is completed. What images and quotes would you suggest for each epic?


    EDIT: Here's a Google Doc so we can collaborate on the final list. Thanks @freethink!
     
    Last edited: Mar 1, 2021
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  2. Publicola

    Publicola Prince

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    Reserved for the mega-list.

    Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5
    Civilization Type Name Image Quote
    Egypt National Book of the Dead or The Eloquent Peasant
    Egypt Heroic Story of Sinuhe At night, I strung my bow, shot my arrows, sharpened my dagger, and polished my weapons. When the day dawned, Retjenu had come. It had assembled its tribes and had gathered its neighbouring lands, planning this battle. Every heart burned for me, wives were jabbering, and every heart was sorry for me, thinking: "Is there another hero who could fight him?"
    Babylon National Seven Tablets of Creation
    Babylon Heroic Epic of Gilgamesh
    Harappa National
    Harappa Heroic
    China National Romance of the Three Kingdoms
    China Heroic Water Margin or Art of War
    Greece National Odyssey Odysseus Killing the Suitors "Sing to me of the man, Muse, the man of twists and turns, driven time and again off course, once he had plundered, the hallowed heights of Troy. Many cities of men he saw and learned their minds, many pains he suffered, heartsick on the open sea, fighting to save his life and bring his comrades home"
    Greece Heroic Iliad Procession of the Trojan Horse "But come now, change thy theme, and sing of the building of the horse of wood, which Epeius made with Athena's help, the horse which once Odysseus led up into the citadel as a thing of guile, when he had filled it with the men who sacked Ilion"
    India National Mahabharata Krishna and Arjuna "Tell me who you are, that wears this frightful form! Hail to thee, God of Gods; have mercy. I wish to understand you, the primal Being, for I do not understand your purpose." Then Krishna said, "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds. I am Time, reaper of men. No warrior shall leave this battlefield alive, save you."
    India Heroic Ramayana Battle at Lanka "Uncanny visions arise in my mind: of timeless evil, and a battle older than the earth, which has been fought before on countless worlds, in forgotten ages. Even after this battle of Lanka, the war shall be fought again and again; until time ends, and dharma and adharma with it."
    Phoenicia National
    Phoenicia Heroic Periplus of Hanno "In the bay was an island, which contained a lake with another island, inhabited by crude people our interpreters called Gorillae. We pursued but could take none of the males; they all escaped to the top of cliffs, which they mounted with ease, and threw down stones. We took three of the females, but they struggled so violently, biting and tearing, that we killed them and stripped the skins, which we brought back to Carthage."
    Polynesia National Sina and the Eel
    Polynesia Heroic
    Persia National Shahnameh
    Persia Heroic Memorial of Zarer "They saddled the iron-hoofed horse, which was the horse of Zarir, and Vidarafsh, the magician, rode upon it. He took that weapon which was operated upon with magic in the hell by the demons through anger and which was impregnated with the poison of the water of sin. He held it on in his hand and rushed into the battle."
    Rome National Aeneid "And haughty Juno's unrelenting hate, expell'd and exil'd, left the Trojan shore. Long labors, both by sea and land, he bore, and in the doubtful war, before he won the Latian realm, and built the destin'd town; his banish'd gods restor'd to rites divine"
    Rome Heroic Pharsalia Trajan's Column "Then, then, with all the world beneath thee, Rome, if for nefarious war such be thy passion, turn upon thyself: not yet was wanting for thy sword a foe. That crumbled houses and half-ruined homes now mark our cities; that the ancient streets scarce hear the footfall of the passer-by."
    Maya National Chilam Balam or Rabinal Achí
    Maya Heroic Popol Vuh
    Tamils National Silappadikaram
    Tamils Heroic Ramavataram
    Ethiopia National Kebra Nagast
    Ethiopia Heroic
    Korea National Songs of Emperors and Kings
    Korea Heroic Chasa Bonpuri
    Byzantium National Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom
    Byzantium Heroic Digenes Akritas
    Japan National Tale of Genji
    Japan Heroic Tale of the Heiki
    Vikings National Prose Edda
    Vikings Heroic Poetic Edda
    Turks National Book of Dede Korkut
    Turks Heroic Epic of Koroghlu Azerbaijani Musicians "Battalion by battalion, the enemy has come and lined up, The letters of dark fate are written on our foreheads. Valor has been lost whence guns were invented, the curved blade in its holster shall rust."
    Arabia National One Thousand and One Nights
    Arabia Heroic Romance of Antar
    Tibet National Bardo Thodol
    Tibet Heroic Epic of King Gesar
    Indonesia National Kakawin Ramayana
    Indonesia Heroic
    Moors National
    Moors Heroic
    Spain National Don Quixote Jousting at Windmills “Look, your worship,” said Sancho; “what we see there are not giants but windmills, and what seem to be their arms are the sails that turned by the wind make the millstone go.” “It is easy to see,” replied Don Quixote, “that thou art not used to this business of adventures.”
    Spain Heroic Poem of the Cid
    France National Les Miserables Liberty Leading The People What you fellows call progress moves by two springs, men and events. But sad to say, from time to time the exceptional is necessary. For events as well as for men, the stock company is not enough; geniuses are needed among men, and revolutions among events.
    France Heroic Song of Roland or The Three Musketeers Grand Chronicle of Roland A man should suffer great ills for his lord, Endure the bitter cold and bear great heat, And be prepared to lose both flesh and blood. Strike with your lance, and I with Durendal My trusty sword, given me by the king! If I die here, the man who takes it up can say: "A noble vassal wielded this!"
    Khmer National Reamker
    Khmer Heroic
    England National Morte d'Arthur
    England Heroic Henry V or Beowulf
    Holy Rome National Nibelungenlied
    Holy Rome Heroic Parzival
    Russia National War and Peace
    Russia Heroic Tale of Igor's Campaign
    Mali National Epic of Sundiata
    Mali Heroic
    Poland National Pan Tadeusz
    Poland Heroic Wojna Chocimska
    Portugal National Os Lusiadas
    Portugal Heroic
    Inca National Huarochirí Manuscript
    Inca Heroic Ollantay
    Italy National Divine Comedy
    Italy Heroic Orlando Furioso
    Mongolia National Secret History of the Mongols Genghis Khan
    Mongolia Heroic Epic of Jangar Mongol Warrior
    Aztecs National Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl or Cantares Mexicanos
    Aztecs Heroic Crónica Mexicayotl
    Mughals National
    Mughals Heroic
    Ottoman National Osman's Dream "Suddenly there arose a mighty wind, and turned the points of the sword-leaves towards the various cities of the world, but especially toward Constantinople. That city, placed at the junction of two seas and two continents, seemed like a diamond set between two sapphires and two emeralds, to form the most precious stone in a ring of universal empire."
    Ottoman Heroic
    Thailand National Thao Hung Thao Cheuang Chakri Maha Prasat
    Thailand Heroic Khun Chang Khun Phaen Wat Rong Khun "In a flash of flame, the mantra dummies turned into people, complete with various weapons in hand. The dummies prostrated before Khun Phaen who stood, legs apart, holding Skystorm, and pronounced a mantra ordering the spirits to serve as a vanguard army"
    Congo National
    Congo Heroic
    Iran National
    Iran Heroic Amir Arsalan
    Netherlands National Max Havelaar
    Netherlands Heroic Van den vos Reynaerde or Diary of Anne Frank
    Germany National Faust or The Ring of the Nibelung
    Germany Heroic William Tell
    America National Last of the Mohicans or To Kill A Mockingbird Last of the Mohicans "My day has been too long. In the morning I saw the sons of the Unamis happy and strong; and yet, before the sun has come, have I lived to see the last warrior of the wise race of the Mohicans."
    America Heroic Red Badge of Courage
    Argentina National Martín Fierro
    Argentina Heroic Facundo Death of Facundo Quiroga
    Mexico National Pedro Páramo
    Mexico Heroic La Adelita
    Colombia National One Hundred Years of Solitude La República "Wherever they might be they always remember that the past was a lie, that memory has no return, that every spring gone by could never be recovered, and that the wildest and most tenacious love was an ephemeral truth in the end"
    Colombia Heroic The Vortex or Doña Bárbara
    Brazil National Iracema or O Guarani
    Brazil Heroic O Uraguai
    Canada National The Hockey Sweater or Anne of Green Gables "The winters of my childhood were long, long seasons. We lived in three places – the school, the church and the skating rink – but our real life was on the skating rink."
    Canada Heroic In Flander's Field Vimy Ridge Memorial "In Flanders fields the poppies blow between the crosses, row on row, that mark our place; and in the sky the larks, still bravely singing, fly, scarce heard amid the guns below."
     
    Last edited: Jan 29, 2019
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  3. Publicola

    Publicola Prince

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    To start things off:


    Greece
    National Epic: Odyssey
    Background image: Odysseus Killing the Suitors
    Quote: "Sing to me of the man, Muse, the man of twists and turns, driven time and again off course, once he had plundered, the hallowed heights of Troy. Many cities of men he saw and learned their minds, many pains he suffered, heartsick on the open sea, fighting to save his life and bring his comrades home" (from Homer's Odyssey, Book 1)


    Heroic Epic: Iliad
    Background image: Procession of the Trojan Horse
    Quote: "But come now, change thy theme, and sing of the building of the horse of wood, which Epeius made with Athena's help, the horse which once Odysseus led up into the citadel as a thing of guile, when he had filled it with the men who sacked Ilion" (from Homer's Odyssey, Book 8)
     
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  4. trevor

    trevor Warlord

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    Can turn-limited effects (a la golden ages) be tied to a GP action?

    If so, how about culture/happiness boost (2 additional happy faces per city for x turns) & unit production modifier (+100% for 4 turns) for the respective epics?
     
  5. Orbii

    Orbii Warlord

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    No real idea for the National Epic, but for the Heroic Epic, I think it would be appropriate for Canada's to be the poem "In Flander's Fields". I don't know if this is universal in Canada, but throughout my 6 years of elementary school, we learned and had to recite the poem every Remembrance Day. I believe it is also symbolic of the Canadian contribution to World War I, which was one of the moments that really started Canada's development of a national identity. The first stanza (term?) is probably sufficient for the text:

    In Flanders fields the poppies blow
    Between the crosses, row on row,
    That mark our place; and in the sky
    The larks, still bravely singing, fly
    Scarce heard amid the guns below.

    Would also be a nice twist from the idea of the Heroic Epic as jingoistic to have a more somber one, particularly due to Canada's identity as peacekeepers.

    As for the image, maybe just a field of poppies? https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/...XMyZGOWhv3lQuNcnp6U6I9AD1ygi35LoRtNd9kmqJeg--

    Or the Vimy Ridge Memorial?
    https://www.warmuseum.ca/firstworldwar/wp-content/mcme-uploads/2014/07/e-19910181-036_22.jpg
     
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  6. Publicola

    Publicola Prince

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    Or one of the military cemeteries, with a field of crosses. Is there a cemetery that's particularly known as the resting place for many Canadian soldiers from WWI? (Here's a list from Wikipedia, if it helps).
     
  7. DC123456789

    DC123456789 Deity

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    As Orbii said, the Vimy Ridge Memorial is by far the most famous and iconic Canadian WWI memorial.
     
    Last edited: Jan 15, 2019
  8. cmakk1012

    cmakk1012 Prince

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    Could Rome’s Heroic Epic be De Bello Gallico, or should it be fictional?

    The obvious Heroic Epic if it must be fictional is the Aeneid
     
    Last edited: Jan 15, 2019
  9. TJDowling

    TJDowling King

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    Canada, National Epic "Anne of Green Gables", "Corner Gas", "Life of Pi" or anything by Margaret Atwood lol.... "The Wreck of Edmund Fitzgerald"? I guess I agree with "In Flanders Fields" for Heroic Epic... unless there are better ideas.

    Also, somewhat unrelated, where can I find the list of great people in the code? I'm curious to see who's listed for Canadian GPs. Cross-referencing the Great Artists for each civ in-game with their works would be a good place to start anyway.

    EDIT:
    Corner Gas is definitely a joke but if you think about it, it's 7 seasons, it starts in media res... I think it qualifies.
     
  10. Publicola

    Publicola Prince

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    Hmm,
    Considering how close I live to the Canadian border, I'd never really considered the question of, how does Canada define its national culture? What is the 'essence or spirit of that particular nation' (per the wiki definition). I'd consider Anne of Green Gables, given its cultural impact, but how widely is it seen as a distinctly Canadian work, rather than just a great story?

    This is a really great idea. I got a list of all the civs from @Leoreth, so he (or one of the other 'pull request' programmers) might be able to find a complete list of Great People somewhere in the code as well.
     
  11. DC123456789

    DC123456789 Deity

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    Anne of Green Gables is definitely most iconic as the Canadian story, IMO.
     
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  12. Publicola

    Publicola Prince

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    For India's national epic, I'm pretty sure it has to be the Mahabharata. However, I'm wondering about the quote. Given how famous it is, I really think we should include the line used by Oppenheimer for the Trinity nuclear test. However, it's apparently a mistranslation: pretty much every translation I can find has it read "You see Me as Time who kills, Time who brings all to doom." Would it be possible to do a bit of free translation, to get the Oppenheimer quote with a bit of context?

    Here's my best attempt, merging this (both the Chap. 11 quotes and the Oppenheimer quote at the bottom) with this (pg. 94) and this (pg. 277).

    National Epic: Mahabharata
    Background image: ?
    Quote: "Tell me who you are, that wears this frightful form! Hail to thee, God of Gods; have mercy. I wish to understand you, the primal Being, for I do not understand your purpose." Then Krishna said, "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds, reaper of men. No warrior shall leave this battlefield alive, save you."


    (Any suggestions for the background image? I imagine there should be countless depictions of the Bhagavad Gita in art, but I'm having trouble finding one with a historical pedigree. Any good temple friezes with this scene set in the stone?)


    Also, for India's heroic epic, I'm likewise pretty sure it needs to be the Ramayana. However, I'm not as familiar with that, so if anyone could suggest a good quote and/or background image, I'd appreciate it.
     
  13. Steb

    Steb King

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    Anne of Green Gables is iconic and well known, but is it an epic? As far as I can remember, it's very... local. To me it doesn't really capture the history or the spirit of Canada. Or maybe it's because I'm French Canadian and Anne of Green Gables isn't really part of our culture.

    I don't know what else to pick, though. Wikipedia suggests (among others) Evangeline, which could work although it's specifically about the Acadians and was in fact written by an American.

    The best is to look up the file GreatPeople.py in Assets/Python. Should be easy to find and it includes the whole list by civ and type. I think it's too long to paste here.
    EDIT: never mind, I managed to copy it in the spoilers below. Warning, it's a long list.

    Spoiler :

    iCivEgypt : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Ptah-Hotep", # 25th BC
    "Meryre", # 15th BC
    "Akhenaten", # 14th BC
    "fNefertiti", # 13th BC
    iClassical,
    "Petiese", # 7th BC
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Pehen-Ptah", # 27th BC
    "Thutmose", # 14th BC
    "Bek", # 14th BC
    "Ipuki", # 14th BC
    "Sennedjem", # 13th
    "Khaemweset", # 12th BC
    "Amenemope", # 12th BC
    iClassical,
    "fHelena", # 4th BC
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "fMerit-Ptah", # 27th BC
    "fPeseshet", # 26th BC
    "Ahmose", # 17th BC
    iClassical,
    "Harkhebi", # 3rd BC
    "Manetho", # 3rd BC
    "Ptolemaios", # 2nd
    "Diophantos", # 3rd
    "fHypatia", # 4th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Harkhuf", # 23rd BC
    "Maya", # 13th BC
    "fTiye", # 13th BC
    iClassical,
    "Piye", # 8th BC
    "Alara", # 8th BC
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Imhotep", # 27th BC
    "Sneferu", # 27th BC
    "Senenmut", # 17th BC
    "Ineni", # 15th BC
    "Amenhotep", # 14th BC
    iClassical,
    "Heron", # 1st AD
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Kagemni", # 26th BC
    "Amenemhat", # 20th BC
    "fHatshepsut", # 15th BC
    "Herihor", # 11th BC
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Narmer", # 32nd BC
    "Menes", # 30th BC
    "Khufu", # 26th BC
    "Mentuhotep", # 21st BC
    "Thutmosis", # 15th BC
    "Sethi", # 13th BC
    ],
    },
    iCivChina : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Lao Tzu", # 6th BC
    "Kong Fuzi", # 5th BC
    "Meng Zi", # 4th BC
    "Zhuangzi", # 4th BC
    "Han Fei", # 3rd BC
    iMedieval,
    "Bodhidharma", # 6th
    "Bukong", # 8th
    "fLin Moniang", # 10th
    "Wang Chongyang", # 12th
    "fSun Bu'er", # 12th
    "Zhu Xi", # 12th
    "Qiu Chuji", # 12th
    iRenaissance,
    "Wang Yangming", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "Hong Xiuquan", # 19th
    "Wang Jueyi", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Xiong Shili", # 20th
    "Sheng Yen", # 20th
    "Li Hongzhi", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Ling Lun", # legendary
    iClassical,
    "Li Bo", # 8th BC
    "Du Fu", # 8th BC
    "Wang Xizhi", # 4th BC
    "fCai Wenji", # 1st
    "Gu Kaizhi", # 4th
    iMedieval,
    "fShangguan Wan'er", # 7th
    "Han Yu", # 8th
    "Fan Kuan", # 10th
    "Su Shi", # 11th
    "fLi Qingzhao", # 12th
    "Huang Gongwang", # 14th
    "Luo Guanzhong", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Tang Yin", # 15th
    "Wu Cheng'en", # 16th
    "Cao Xueqin", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    "Qi Baishi", # 20th
    "Lu Xun", # 20th
    "Wu Guanzhong", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Li Fan", # 1st
    "fBan Zhao", # 1st
    "Liu Hui", # 3rd
    "Zu Chongzhi", # 5th
    iMedieval,
    "Shen Kuo", # 11th
    "Zhu Shijie", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "fTan Yunxian", # 16th
    "Xu Guangqi", # 17th
    "Song Yingxing", # 17th
    "fWang Zhenyi", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    "Li Yuanzhe", # 20th
    "Chen Ning Yang", # 20th
    "fTu Youyou", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Zhang Qian", # 2nd BC
    "Faxian", # 4th
    iMedieval,
    "Xuanzang", # 7th
    "Li Chun'an", # 10th
    "Wang Anshi", # 11th
    iRenaissance,
    "Zheng He", # 15th
    "Yishiha", # 15th
    "Pan Qiguan", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    "Zeng Junchen", # 20th
    "Deng Xiaoping", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "fLeizu", # 27th BC
    iClassical,
    "Lu Ban", # 5th BC
    "Cai Lun", # 1st
    "Zhang Heng", # 2nd
    "Ma Jun", # 3rd
    iMedieval,
    "Yi Xing", # 8th
    "Yu Hao", # 10th
    "Bi Sheng", # 11th
    "Su Song", # 11th
    "Wang Zhen", # 14th
    iGlobal,
    "Li Siguang", # 20th
    "fWu Jianxiong", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Gongsun Yang", # 4th BC
    "Li Si", # 3rd BC
    "Xiao He", # 2nd BC
    iMedieval,
    "Fang Xuanling", # 7th
    "fWu Zetian", # 7th
    "Di Renjie", # 7th
    "Fan Zhongyan", # 11th
    "Liu Bowen", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Zhang Juzheng", # 16th
    "Zhang Tingyu", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Li Hongzhang", # 19th
    "Sun Yat-sen", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Zhou Enlai", # 20th
    "fJiang Qing", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "fFu Hao", # 13th BC
    iClassical,
    "Sun Tzu", # 6th BC
    "Cao Cao", # 2nd
    "Zhuge Liang", # 3rd
    iMedieval,
    "fPingyang Gongzhu", # 7th
    "Guo Ziyi", # 8th
    "Yue Fei", # 12th
    iRenaissance,
    "Qi Jiguang", # 16th
    "Shi Lang", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "fChing Shih", # 19th
    "Zeng Guofan", # 19th
    "Zuo Zongtang", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Zhang Zuolin", # 20th
    "Zhu De", # 20th
    "Chiang Kai-shek", # 20th
    "Peng Dehuai", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "Zhou Xing", # 7th
    "Lai Junchen", # 7th
    "Yang Xian", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Liu Jin", # 15th
    "Wei Zhongxian", # 16th
    iGlobal,
    "Dai Li", # 20th
    "Kang Sheng", # 20th
    "fXu Lai", # 20th
    "Li Bai", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivBabylonia : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Utnapishtim", # legendary
    "Gilgamesh", # legendary
    "fAmat-Mamu", # 18th BC
    iClassical,
    "fAdad-guppi", # 6th BC
    "Ezra", # 5th BC
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "fEnheduanna", # 23rd BC
    "Gudea", # 22nd BC
    "Samsu-ditana", # 17th BC
    "Sin-leqi-unninni", # 13th BC
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "fTapputi", # legendary
    "Esagil-kin-apli", # 11th BC
    iClassical,
    "fEnnigaldi", # 6th BC
    "Nabu-rimanni", # 6th BC
    "Kidinnu", # 4th BC
    "Sudines", # 3rd BC
    "Bel-reu-su", # 3rd BC
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "fIltani", # 18th BC
    "Burna-Buriash", # 14th BC
    "Kadashman-Enlil", # 14th BC
    iClassical,
    "Itti-Marduk-balatu", # 6th BC
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Naram-Sin", # 22nd BC
    "Ur-Nammu", # 21st BC
    iClassical,
    "Nabopolassar", # 7th BC
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Urukagina", # 24th BC
    "Ur-Nammu", # 21st BC
    "Bilalama", # 20th BC
    "Lipit-Ishtar", # 19th BC
    iClassical,
    "fShammuramat", # 9th BC
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Tiglath-Pileser", # 10th BC
    iClassical,
    "Sennacherib", # 7th BC
    "Nebukanezar", # 7th BC
    "Shalmaneser", # 7th BC
    ],
    },
    iCivGreece : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "fEritha", # 12th BC
    iClassical,
    "Herakleitos", # 6th BC
    "Anacharsis", # 6th BC
    "Parmenides", # 5th BC
    "Philolaos", # 5th BC
    "fDiotima", # 5th BC
    "Epikouros", # 4th BC
    iIndustrial,
    "Emmanuel Metaxakis", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Georgios Karslidis", # 20th
    "Arsenios Eznepidis", # 20th
    "Porphyrios Bairaktaris", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Homeros", # 8th BC
    iClassical,
    "fSappho", # 6th BC
    "Sophokles", # 5th BC
    "Thoukydides", # 5th BC
    "Euripides", # 5th BC
    "Herodotos", # 5th BC
    "Aischylos", # 5th BC
    "Pheidias", # 5th BC
    "Anyte Tegeatis", # 3rd BC
    iIndustrial,
    "Dionysios Solomos", # 19th
    "Georgios Jakobides", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Nikos Kazantzakis", # 20th
    "fMaria Callas", # 20th
    "Odysseas Elytis", # 20th
    "Iannis Xenakis", # 20th
    "Mikis Theodorakis", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Pythagoras", # 6th BC
    "Sokrates", # 5th BC
    "Demokritos", # 5th BC
    "Anaxagoras", # 5th BC
    "Hippokrates", # 5th BC
    "Aristoteles", # 4th BC
    "Platon", # 4th BC
    "Eukleides", # 3rd BC
    "Eratosthenes", # 3rd BC
    "Galenos", # 2nd BC
    "fAglaonike", # 2nd BC
    "fHypatia", # 4th
    iIndustrial,
    "Eugenios Voulgaris", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    "Konstantinos Karatheodori", # 20th
    "Georgios Papanikolaou", # 20th
    "Fotis Kafatos", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Kolaios", # 7th BC
    "Sostratos", # 6th BC
    "Pytheas", # 4th BC
    "Androsthenes", # 4th BC
    "Megasthenes", # 4th BC
    "Hippalos", # 1st BC
    "Heroides Attikos", # 2nd
    iIndustrial,
    "fManto Mavrogenous", # 19th
    "Evangelos Zappas", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Aristotelis Onasis", # 20th
    "Stavros Niarchos", # 20th
    "fArianna Stasinopoulou", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Thales", # 6th BC
    "Empedokles", # 5th BC
    "Zenon", # 4th BC
    "Satyros", # 4th BC
    "Archimedes", # 3rd BC
    "Heron", # 1st
    iIndustrial,
    "Ernestos Tsiller", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Alexandros Issigonis", # 20th
    "Ioannis Travlos", # 20th
    "Ioannis Argyris", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Solon", # 6th BC
    "Kleisthenes", # 6th BC
    "fGorgo", # 5th BC
    "Alkibiades", # 5th BC
    "Kimon", # 5th BC
    "Isokrates", # 4th BC
    "Aresteides", # 4th BC
    iIndustrial,
    "Adamantios Korais", # 19th
    "Ioannis Kapodistrias", # 19th
    "Eleftherios Venizelos", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Ioannis Metaxas", # 20th
    "Konstantinos Karamanlis", # 20th
    "Michael Christodoulou Mouskos", # 20th
    "Andreas Papandreou", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Hektor", # legendary
    iClassical,
    "Leonidas", # 6th BC
    "Themistokles", # 5th BC
    "Lysandros", # 5th BC
    "Philippos", # 4th BC
    "Pyrrhos", # 3rd BC
    "fArtemisia", # 4th BC
    iIndustrial,
    "fLaskarina Bouboulina", # 19th
    "Alexandros Ypsilantis", # 19th
    "Theodoros Kolokotronis", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Konstantinos Bakopoulos", # 20th
    "Alexandros Papagos", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivIndia : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Mahavira", # 6th BC
    "Siddharta Gautama", # 6th BC
    "Ananda", # 6th BC
    "Mahakashyapa", # 6th BC
    "Nagarjuna", # 2nd
    iMedieval,
    "Adi Shankara", # 9th
    "Atisha", # 11th
    "Ramanuja", # 11th
    "Basava", # 12th
    "Kabir", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Chaitanya Mahaprabhu", # 16th
    "fMeera", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "Ramakrishna", # 19th
    "Swami Vivekananda", # 19th
    "Shirdi Sai Baba", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Paramahansa Yogananda", # 20th
    "fAnandamayi Ma", # 20th
    "fAnjeze Gonxhe Bojaxhiu", # 20th
    "Maharishi Mahesh Yogi", # 20th
    "fNirmala Srivastava", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Valmiki", # 4th BC
    "Asvaghosa", # 1st
    "Kapilar", # 1st tamil
    "Kalidasa", # 5th
    iMedieval,
    "Gunadhya", # 6th
    "fAvvaiyar", # 10th tamil
    "Abhinavagupta", # 10th
    "Nakkirar", # medieval tamil
    iRenaissance,
    "Purandara Dasa", # 15th
    "Tansen", # 16th
    "Nainsukh", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Muthuswami Dik****ar", # 19th
    "Raja Ravi Varma", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Rabindranath Tagore", # 20th
    "Raja Rao", # 20th
    "fAmrita Sher-Gil", # 20th
    "Satyajit Ray", # 20th
    "Ravi Shankar", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Yajnavalkya", # 8th BC
    "Panini", # 6th or 5th BC
    "Charaka", # 6th to 2nd BC
    "Pingala", # 3rd or 2nd BC
    iMedieval,
    "Aryabhata", # 6th
    "Dignaga", # 6th
    "Dharmakirti", # 6th or 7th
    "Brahmagupta", # 7th
    "Bhaskara", # 12th
    "Madhava", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Nilakantha Somayaji", # 15th
    "Kamalakara", # 17th
    iGlobal,
    "Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman", # 20th
    "Satyendra Nath Bose", # 20th
    "fAsima Chatterjee", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Nattal Sahu", # 12th
    "Jagadu", # 13th
    iIndustrial,
    "Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy", # 19th
    "Jamsetji Tata", # 19th
    "Ardeshir Godrej", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Kappalottiya Tamizhan", # 20th
    "fIndra Nooyi", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Baudhayana", # 8th BC
    "Lagadha", # 1st
    iMedieval,
    "Gundan Anivaritachari", # 7th
    iRenaissance,
    "Vidyadhar Bhattacharya", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Jagadish Chandra Bose", # 19th
    "Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya", # 19th
    "Jamsetji Tata", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fEulie Chowdhury", # 20th
    "Satish Dhawan", # 20th
    "Charles Correa", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Vishnu Sharma", # 12th BC to 3rd AD
    "Chanakya", # 4th BC
    "Thiruvalluvar", # 4th BC to 7th AD
    iMedieval,
    "Amoghavarsha", # 9th
    "Chavundaraya", # 10th
    "Rajaraja Chola", # 10th
    iRenaissance,
    "Ariyanatha Mudaliar", # 16th
    "Nana Fadnavis", # 18th
    "fBegum Samru", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Ram Mohan Roy", # 19th
    "Ranjit Singh", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fSarojini Naidu", # 20th
    "Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan", # 20th
    "Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar", # 20th
    "Jawaharlal Nehru", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Chandragupta Maurya", # 4th BC
    "Samudragupta", # 4th BC
    iMedieval,
    "Dhruva Dharavarsha", # 8th
    "Mihira Bhoja", # 9th
    "Rajaraja Chola", # 10th
    iRenaissance,
    "fRani Durgavati", # 16th
    "Shivaji Bhosle", # 17th
    "Kanhoji Angre", # 17th
    "Marthanda Varma", # 18th
    "Hyder Ali", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Nana Sahib", # 19th
    "fRani Lakshmibai", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Kodandera M. Cariappa", # 20th
    "Sam Manekshaw", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "Bahirji Naik", # 17th
    "fSharan Kaur Pabla", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Sarat Chandra Das", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fNoor Inayat Khan", # 20th
    "Rameshwarnath Kao", # 20th
    "Ravindra Kaushik", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivCarthage : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Sanchuniathon", # unknown date
    "fJezebel", # 9th BC
    iClassical,
    "Tertullianus", # 2nd
    "Cyprianus", # 3rd
    "Donatus", # 4th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "fSapanbaal", # 3rd BC
    "Micipsa", # 2nd BC
    "Ennion", # 1st AD
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Mochus", # 14th BC
    "Hiram", # 10th BC
    "Sanchuniathon", # unknown date
    iClassical,
    "Mago", # 4th BC
    "Hasdrubal Clitomachus", # 2nd BC
    "Abba", # 3rd
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Acerbas", # 9th BC / legendary
    iClassical,
    "Hanno", # 5th BC
    "Himilco", # 5th BC
    "Abdashtart", # 4th BC
    "Adherbal", # 2nd BC
    "Bocchus", # 2nd BC
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Gala", # 3rd BC
    "Zelalsen", # ?
    "Malchus", # ?
    "Gauda", # ?
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Ashtar-rom", # 9th BC
    "Ithobaal", # 9th BC
    "Pygmalion", # 9th BC
    "fElishat", # 8th BC
    iClassical,
    "Hanno", # 4th BC
    "Eshmuniaton", # 4th BC
    "Azelmelek", # 4th BC
    "Bomilcar", # 3rd BC
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Hasdrubal Barca", # 3rd BC
    "Hamilcar Barca", # 3rd BC
    "Mago Barca", # 3rd BC
    "Carthalo", # 3rd BC
    "Maharbal", # 2nd BC
    ],
    },
    iCivPolynesia : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Maui", # legendary
    "Kuamo'o Mo'okini", # 12th
    iIndustrial,
    "Te Kooti", # 19th
    "fAngata", # 19th
    "Rua Kenana Hepetipa", # 19th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Hawaiiloa", # legendary
    "Hotu Matu'a", # 4th-7th
    "Ui-te-Rangiora", # 7th
    "Kupe", # 10th-14th
    iIndustrial,
    "fKawena", # 20th
    "Uiliami Leilua Vi", # 20th
    "Rangi Hetet", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Nga'ara", # 19th
    "Te Rangi Hiroa", # 20th
    "Mau Piailug", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Tupaia", # 18th
    "Mai", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "fPiipi Raumati", # 19th
    "Tuilaepa Aiono Sailele Malielegaoi", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Olisihpa", # 12th
    "Tu'itatui", # 12th
    "Uluakimata", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Talatama", # 12th
    "fSalamasina", # 15th
    "fKa'ahumanu", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Haalilio", # 19th
    "fMeri Te Tai Mangakahia", # 19th
    "Apirana Ngata", # 19th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "fNafanua", # legendary
    "Momo", # 11th
    iRenaissance,
    "Kamehameha", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Te Rauparaha", # 19th
    "Hone Heke", # 19th
    "Seru Epenisa Cakobau", # 19th
    ],
    },
    iCivPersia : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Mahabad", # legendary
    "Zarathustra", # 18-10th BC
    iClassical,
    "Baga-data", # 3rd BC
    "Mani", # 3rd
    "Kartir", # 3rd
    "Mazdak", # 4th
    "Adurbad-i Mahrspandan", # 4th
    "Mar Aba", # 6th
    iMedieval,
    "Al-Muqanna", # 8th
    "Al-Ghazali", # 11th
    "Mevlana", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "Mulla Sadra", # 17th
    "Muhammad Baqir Majlisi", # 17th
    "Muhammad Baqir Behbahani", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    u"Bahá'u'lláh", # 19th
    u"Báb", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i", # 20th
    "Muhammad-Taqi Mesbah-Yazdi", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Pahlbod", # 7th
    "fNagisa", # 7th
    "Bamshad", # 7th
    iMedieval,
    "Rudaki", # 9th
    "Ferdowsi", # 10th
    "fRabia Balkhi", # 10th
    "Nizami Ganjavi", # 12th
    "Farid al-Din Attar", # 12th
    "Safi al-Din", # 13th
    "Saadi", # 13th
    "Rumi", # 13th
    "Nur ad-Din Abd ar-Rahman Jami", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Kamal ud-Din Behzad", # 15th
    "Reza Abbasi", # 17th
    "Mesrop", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Mihr 'Ali", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fForough Farrokhzad", # 20th
    "Hossein Amanat", # 20th
    "fHayedeh", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Ktesias", # 5th BC
    "Ardashir", # 4th
    "Borzuya", # 6th
    "Paulos-e irani", # 6th
    iMedieval,
    "Al-Khwarizmi", # 9th
    "Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi", # 9th
    "Ibn Miskawayh", # 10th
    "Ibn Sina", # 10th
    "Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi", # 10th
    "Omar Khayyam", # 11th
    "Kamal al-Din al-Farisi", # 13th
    "Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "Al-Birjandi", # 16th
    "Baha al-din al-Amili", # 16th
    "Qazi Sa'id Qumi", # 17th
    "Alavi Shirazi", # 17th
    iGlobal,
    "Mahmoud Hessaby", # 20th
    "Ali Javan", # 20th
    "Cumrun Vafa", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Kroisos", # 6th BC
    "Athurpat", # 4th BC
    "Kavadh", # 5th
    iMedieval,
    "Ahmad ibn Rustah", # 10th
    "Istakhri", # 10th
    iGlobal,
    "Manny Mashouf", # 20th
    "Nasser David Khalili", # 20th
    "Omid Kordestani", # 20th
    "Amir Ansari", # 20th
    "Pierre Omidyar", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Artakhshathra", # 4th BC
    "Bahram", # 3rd
    "Sanimar", # 6th
    iMedieval,
    "Naubakht", # 8th or 9th
    "Al-Khujandi", # 10th
    "Ibn al-Haitham", # 10th
    "Nasir al-Din al-Tusi", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "Sheikh Baha'i", # 16th
    "Ustad Mirza Shirazi", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Abdallah Khan", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Firouz Naderi", # 20th
    "Gholam Reza Aghazadeh", # 20th
    "Caro Lucas", # 20th
    "Siavash Alamouti", # 20th
    "fAnousheh Ansari", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Chithrafarna", # 5th BC
    "Tiribazus", # 4th BC
    "Bagoi", # 4th BC
    "Tiridat", # 1st
    "Bozorgmehr", # 6th
    "fPurandokht", # 7th
    iMedieval,
    "Ibn Miskawayh", # 10th
    "Nizam al-Mulk", # 11th
    iRenaissance,
    "Tahmasp", # 16th
    "Mirza Salman Jaberi", # 17th
    "Khalifeh Soltan", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Ebrahim Khan Kalantar", # 19th
    "Kuchik Khan", # 19th
    "Amir Kabir", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Reza Shah Pahlavi", # 20th
    "Mohammad Mossadegh", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Haxamanis", # 7th BC
    "Khashayarsha", # 5th BC
    "fMania", # 4th BC
    "Mithradata", # 1st BC
    "Shapur", # 3rd
    "Rostam Farrokhzad", # 7th
    iRenaissance,
    "Shah Ismail", # 16th
    "Mohammad Khan Qajar", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Ahmad Amir-Ahmadi", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Bahram Aryana", # 20th
    "Muhammad-Husayn Ayrom", # 20th
    "Ali-Reza Asgari", # 20th
    "Mohammad Ali Jafari", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivRome : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "fClaudia Quinta", # 3rd BC
    "Petrus", # 1st
    "Paulus Tarsensis", # 1st
    "Augustinus Hipponensis", # 4th
    "Aurelius Ambrosius", # 4th
    "Eusebius Pamphili", # 4th
    "fMarcella", # 4th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Publius Vergilius Maro", # 1st BC
    "fIaia", # 1st BC
    "Titus Livius", # 1st
    "Publius Ovidius Naso", # 1st
    "Plutarchus", # 1st
    "Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis", # 2nd
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Marcus Terentius Varro", # 1st BC
    "Titus Lucretius Carus", # 1st BC
    "Sosigenes", # 1st BC
    "Antonius Castor", # 1st
    "Gaius Plinius Secundus", # 1st
    "Strabo", # 1st
    "Lucius Annaeus Seneca", # 1st
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Marcus Crassus", # 1st BC
    "Publius Sittius", # 1st BC
    "Titus Pomponius Atticus", # 1st BC
    "Lucius Caecilius Iucundus", # 1st
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Sergius Orata", # 2nd BC
    "Marcus Vitruvius Pollio", # 1st BC
    "Celer", # 1st AD
    "Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa", # 1st AD
    "Sextus Julius Frontinus", # 1st AD
    "Apollodorus Damascenus", # 2nd AD
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Publius Valerius Publicola", # 6th BC
    "Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus", # 5th BC
    "Quintus Hortensius", # 3rd BC
    "Marcus Porcius Cato", # 2nd BC
    "Marcus Tullius Cicero", # 1st BC
    "Lucius Cornelius Sulla", # 1st BC
    "fLivia Drusilla", # 1st BC
    "fFulvia", # 1st AD
    "Diocletianus", # 3rd
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Scipio Africanus", # 2nd BC
    "Gaius Marius", # 2nd BC
    "Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus", # 1st BC
    "Vaspasianus", # 1st
    "Traianus", # 1st
    "fAgrippina", # 1st AD
    "Hadrianus", # 2nd
    "fAlbia Dominica", # 4th AD
    ],
    },
    iCivEthiopia : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Gabra Manfas Qeddus", # legendary
    "Fremnatos", # 4th
    "Abba Pantelewon", # 5th
    "Abuna Aregawi", # 6th
    iMedieval,
    "Tekle Haymanot", # 13th
    "Ewostatewos", # 14th
    "Abba Samuel", # 14th
    "fKristos Samra", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "fWalatta Petros", # 17th
    iGlobal,
    "Abune Tewophilos", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Yared", # 6th
    iMedieval,
    "Giyorgis Saglawi", # 14th
    iIndustrial,
    "Gebre Hanna", # 19th
    "Afevork Ghevre Jesus", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Gebre Kristos Desta", # 20th
    "Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin", # 20th
    "Adamu Tesfaw", # 20th
    "Afeworq Tekle", # 20th
    "Alexander Boghossian", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Zar'a Ya'aqob", # 16th
    "Abba Bahriy", # 16th
    "Walda Heywat", # 17th
    "Abba Gorgoryos", # 17th
    iGlobal,
    "Aklilu Lemma", # 20th
    "Kitaw Ejigu", # 20th
    "Sossina Haile", # 20th
    "Gebisa Ejeta", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Nigiste Saba", # legendary
    "Endubis", # 3rd
    iMedieval,
    "Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn", # 13th
    iGlobal,
    "Berhanu Nega", # 20th
    "Eleni Gebre-Medhin", # 20th
    "Mohammed Al Amoudi", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Ezana", # 4th
    iMedieval,
    "Gebre Mesqel Lalibela", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "Fasiladas", # 17th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Ezana", # 4th
    iRenaissance,
    "fEleni", # 16th
    "Susenyos", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Tewodros", # 19th
    "Menelik", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Mengistu Haile Mariam", # 20th
    "Meles Zenawi", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Gadarat", # 2nd or 3rd
    "Abraha", # 6th
    iMedieval,
    "fGudit", # 10th
    "Yekuno Amlak", # 13th
    "Amda Seyon", # 14th
    "Eskender", # 15th
    "Tewodros", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Lebna Dengel", # 16th
    "Iyasu", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Yohannis", # 19th
    "Alula Engida", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Aman Andom", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivKorea : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Jinul", # 12th
    "Uicheon", # 12th
    "Baegun", # 13th
    "An Hyang", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "Yi Hwang", # 16th
    "Yi I", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "Choe Je-u", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Sun Myung Moon", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Damjing", # 7th
    "Yi Nyeong", # 9th
    "Yi Je-hyeon", # 9th
    iRenaissance,
    "Hwang Jip-jung", # 16th
    "fHeo Nanseolheon", # 16th
    "Yan Duseo", # 17th
    "Kim Hong-do", # 18th
    "Jeong Seon", # 18th
    "Shin Yun-bok", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    "Im Kwon-taek", # 20th
    "Seo Tae-Ji", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Uisan", # 7th
    "Wonhyo", # 7th
    iRenaissance,
    "Jeong Inji", # 15th
    "Seong Sammun", # 15th
    "Yu Seong-won", # 15th
    "Heo Jun", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "Jeong Yakyong", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Hwang Woo-Suk", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Hyecho", # 8th
    "Kim Sa-hyeong", # 15th
    "Yi Mu", # 15th
    "Yi Hoe", # 15th
    iGlobal,
    "Lee Byung-chul", # 20th
    "Chung Ju-yung", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Choe Yun-ui", # 13th
    "Choe Mu-seon", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Jang Yeong-sil", # 15th
    "Song I-yeong", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Myeongnim Dap-bo", # 2nd
    "fSeondeok", # 7th
    "Kim Bu-sik", # 12th
    "Jeong Dojeon", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Yi Hwang", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "Kim Ok-gyun", # 19th
    "fMyeongseong", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fRyu Gwansun", # 20th
    "Kim Gu", # 20th
    "Kim Dae-jung", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Gim Yu-sin", # 7th
    "Gang Gam-chan", # 11th
    "Choe Woo", # 13th
    "Yi Seong-gye", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Yi Sun-sin", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "An Jung-geun", # 20th
    "Kim Chang-ryong", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivMaya : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Junajpu", # mythological
    "Xb'alanke", # mythological
    "Kukulkan", # 10th, named after the god
    "Ce Acatl Topiltzin", # 10th toltec
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Uaxaclajuun Ub'aah K'awiil", # 8th
    "Chakalte'", # 8th
    "Jun Nat Omootz", # 8th
    "Asan Winik Tu'ub", # 8th
    "Chan Ch'ok Wayib Xok", # 8th
    "Waj Tan Chak", # 8th
    iGlobal,
    "fMarisol Ceh Moo", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Itzamna", # mythological
    "Huematzin", # 8th toltec
    "Papantzin", # 9th toltec
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Ek Chuaj", # mythological
    "Apoxpalon", # 16th
    "Tabscoob", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Chan Imix K'awiil", # 7th
    "fK'ab'al Xook", # 8th
    "Ha' K'in Xook", # 8th
    "Itzam K'an Ahk", # 8th
    "K'inich Yat Ahk", # 8th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Yax Ehb Xook", # 1st
    "fYohl Ik'nal", # 6th
    "Yuknoom Ch'een", # 7th
    "Jasaw Chan K'awiil", # 8th
    iGlobal,
    u"fRigoberta Menchú", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Siyaj K'ak'", # 4th teotihuacan
    "K'inich Yo'nal Ahk", # 7th
    "fXochitl", # 9th toltec
    "Hunac Ceel", # 12th
    iRenaissance,
    "Napuc Chi", # 16th
    "Tecun Uman", # 16th
    ],
    },
    iCivByzantium : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Nestorios", # 5th
    "fTheodora", # 6th
    "Ioannis o Damaskinos", # 8th
    "Kyrillos", # 9th
    "Methodios", # 9th
    "Photios", # 9th
    "Nikolaos Mystikos", # 10th
    "Athanasios o Athonites", # 10th
    "Ioannes Xiphilinos", # 11th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "fAelia Eudocia", # 5th
    "Romanos o Melodos", # 6th
    "Flauios Dioskoros", # 6th
    "fKassia", # 9th
    "Theodoros Prodromos", # 12th
    "Eulalios", # 12th
    "Manuel Chrysoloras", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Theophanes Strelitzas", # 16th
    "Domenikos Theotokopoulos", # 16th
    "Petros Bereketis", # 17th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "fHypatia", # 4th
    "Stephanos Alexandrinos", # 7th
    "Theophylaktos Simokates", # 7th
    "Leon o Mathematikos", # 9th
    "Michael Psellos", # 11th
    "fAnna Komnene", # 12th
    "Nikephoros Blemmydes", # 13th
    "Niketas Choniates", # 13th
    "Nikephoros Gregoras", # 14th
    "Georgios Plethon", # 15th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Hierokles", # 6th
    "Zemarchos", # 6th
    "Kosmas Indikopleustes", # 6th
    "Georgios Kyprios", # 7th
    "fDanielis", # 9th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Anthemios", # 6th
    "Isidoros", # 6th
    "Eutokios", # 6th
    "Kallinikos", # 7th
    "Petronas Kamateros", # 9th
    "Tiridates", # 10th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Theodosios", # 4th
    "Tribonianos", # 6th
    "fEirene", # 6th
    "Irakleios", # 7th
    "Leon", # 9th
    "Michael Palaiologos", # 13th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Belisarios", # 6th
    "Ioannis Tzimiskes", # 10th
    "Nikephoros Phokas", # 10th
    "Ioannis Kourkouas", # 10th
    "Basileios Bulgaroktonos", # 11th
    "Georgios Maniakes", # 11th
    "Michael Palaiologos", # 12th
    "Nikephoros Bryennios", # 12th
    "Andronikos Kontostephanos", # 12th
    "Alexios Strategopoulos", # 13th
    ],
    },
    iCivJapan : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "En no Ozunu", # 7th
    "Kuukaii", # 8th
    "Saichou", # 8th
    "Abe no Seimei", # 10th
    "Myouan Eisai", # 12th
    "Shinran", # 13th
    "Nikkou", # 13th
    "Nichiren", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "Rennyo", # 15th
    "Ikkyuu Soujun", # 15th
    "Takuan Souhou", # 17th
    "Ryoukan", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Hirata Atsutane", # 19th
    "fMiki Nakayama", # 19th,
    "Kanzou Uchimura", # 19th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Kakinomoto no Hitomaro", # 7th
    "Yamanoue no Okura", # 7th
    "Ootomo no Yakamochi", # 8th
    "Ki no Tsurayuki", # 9th
    "fMurasaki Shikibu", # 10th
    "Unkei", # 12th
    "Saigyou", # 12th
    "Zeami", # 14th
    "Sesshuu", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Kanou Eitoku", # 16th
    "Sen no Rikyuu", # 16th
    "Ihara Saikaku", # 17th
    "Matsuo Bashou", # 17th
    "Chikamatsu Monzaemon", # 17th
    "Toushuusai Sharaku", # 18th
    "Yosa Buson", # 18th
    "Kobayashi Issa", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Kyokutei Bakin", # 19th
    "Katsushika Hokusai", # 19th
    "Utagawa Hiroshige", # 19th
    "fIchiyou Higuchi", # 19th
    "Masaoka Shiki", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fAkiko Yosano", # 20th
    "Osamu Dazai", # 20th
    "Miyazawa Kenji", # 20th
    "Yukio Mishima", # 20th
    "Yasunari Kawabata", # 20th
    "Osamu Tezuka", # 20th
    "Tsuburaya Eiji", # 20th
    "Hayao Miyazaki", # 20th
    "Toro Okamoto", # Contest Reward
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Yoshida Mitsuyoshi", # 17th
    "Takakazu Seki", # 17th
    "Aida Yasuaki", # 18th
    "Sugita Genpaku", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Ogata Kouan", # 19th
    "Shibasaburou Kitasato", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Hideyo Noguchi", # 20th
    "Kiyoshi Shiga", # 20th
    "Kumagusu Minakata", # 20th
    "Kiyoshi Itou", # 20th
    "Hideki Yukawa", # 20th
    "Shinichirou Tomonaga", # 20th
    "Masatoshi Koshiba", # 20th
    "Kenkichi Iwasawa", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Ruson Sukezaemon", # 16th
    "Yodoya Juutou", # 17th
    "Mitsui Takatoshi", # 17th
    "Shousuke Tanaka", # 17th
    "Kounoike Zenzaemon", # 17-20th (Zaibatsu hereditary name)
    "Sumitomo Kichizaemon", # 17-20th
    "Takadaya Kahei", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Torakusu Yamaha", # 19th
    "Outano Kouzui", # 19th
    "Yatarou Iwasaki", # 19th
    "Zenjirou Yasuda", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Masahisa Fujita", # 20th
    "Kiichiro Toyoda", # 20th
    "Soichiro Honda", # 20th
    "Yo****aka Fukuda", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Gyouki", # 8th
    "Yaita Kinbee", # 16th
    "Yasui Douton", # 16th
    "Hiraga Gennai", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Tanaka Hisashige", # 19th
    "Katayama Toukuma", # 19th
    "Takeda Ayasaburou", # 19th
    "Sakichi Toyoda", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Koutarou Honda", # 20th
    "Ken Sakamura", # 20th
    "Kyota Sugimoto", # 20th
    "Hidetsugu Yagi", # 20th
    "Shigeru Miyamoto", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Shoutouku Taishi", # 6th
    "Fujiwara no Michinaga", # 11th
    "Taira no Kiyomori", # 12th
    "fHoujou Masako", # 12th
    "Ashikaga Yoshimitsu", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Tokugawa Ieyasu", # 16th
    "Tsunenaga Hasekura", # 17th
    "Arai Hakuseki", # 17th
    "Tanuma Okitsugu", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Sakamoto Ryouma", # 19th
    "Oukubo Toshimichi", # 19th
    "Yukichi Fukuzawa", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Yukio Ozaki", # 20th
    "Korekiyo Takahashi", # 20th
    "Shigeru Yoshida", # 20th
    "fSadako Ogata", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Fujiwara no Kamatari", # 7th
    "Sakanoue no Tamuramaro", # 8th
    "Taira no Masakado", # 10th
    "Minamoto no Yoritomo", # 12th
    "Kusunoki Masashige", # 13th
    "Ashikaga Takauji", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Houjou Souun", # 16th
    "Takeda Shingen", # 16th
    "Shimazu Yoshihiro", # 16th
    "fTachibana Ginchiyo", # 16th
    "Toyotomi Hideyoshi", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "fNakano Takeko", # 19th
    "Tougou Heihachirou", # 19th
    "Yoshifuru Akiyama", # 19th
    "Gonnohyoue Yamamoto", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Isoroku Yamamoto", # 20th
    "Tomoyuki Yama****a", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "Kagetoki Kajiwara", # 12th
    "Hino Kumawaka", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Hanzou Hattori", # 16th
    "fChiyome Mochizuki", # 16th
    "Ishikawa Goemon", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "Mamiya Rinzou", # 18th
    "Nezumi Kozou", # 19th
    "Akashi Motojiro", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fYoshiko Kawashima", # 20th
    "Takeo Yoshikawa", # 20th
    "Keiji Suzuki", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivVikings : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Ansgar", # 9th swedish
    u"Haraldr Blátonn", # 10th danish
    "Erik den Helige", # 11th swedish
    "fBirgitta Birgersdotter", # 13th swedish
    iRenaissance,
    "Johannes Campanius", # 17th swedish
    "Emanuel Swedenborg", # 18th swedish
    iIndustrial,
    u"Søren Kierkegaard", # 19th danish
    iGlobal,
    u"Sveinbjörn Beinteinsson", # 20th icelandic
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Bragi Boddason", # 9th norwegian
    "Snorri Sturluson", # 13th icelandic
    u"Nils Håkansson", # 14th swedish
    iRenaissance,
    "Georg Stiernhielm", # 17th swedish
    "Johan Nordahl Brun", # 18th norwegian
    iIndustrial,
    "Hans Christian Andersen", # 19th danish
    "Olav Duun", # 19th norwegian
    "Johan Ludvig Runeberg", # 19th finnish
    "fJohanna Maria Lind", # 19th swedish
    "Edvard Munch", # 19th norwegian
    "Edvard Grieg", # 19th norwegian
    iGlobal,
    "Jean Sibelius", # 20th finnish
    "fKaren Blixen", # 20th danish
    "fAstrid Lindgren", # 20th swedish
    "Ingmar Bergman", # 20th swedish
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Tycho Brahe", # 16th danish
    "fSophia Brahe", # 16th danish
    "Mikael Agricola", # 16th finnish
    u"Ole Rømer", # 17th danish
    "Anders Celsius", # 18th swedish
    u"Carl von Linné", # 18th swedish
    iIndustrial,
    u"Jöns Jacob Berzelius", # 19th swedish
    "Niels Henrik Abel", # 19th norwegian
    "Johannes Rydberg", # 19th swedish
    u"Anders Ångström", # 19th swedish
    iGlobal,
    "Niels Bohr", # 20th danish
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    u"Eiríkr Rauði", # 10th norwegian
    u"Leifr Eiríksson", # 10th icelandic
    u"Håkon Sigurdsson", # 10th norwegian
    iRenaissance,
    "fSigbrit Willoms", # 16th danish
    "fChristina Piper", # 18th swedish
    "Niclas Sahlgren", # 18th swedish
    "Rutger Macklean", # 18th swedish
    iIndustrial,
    "Sven Hedin", # 19th swedish
    "Roald Amundsen", # 20th norwegian
    iGlobal,
    "Ole Kirk Christiansen", # 20th danish
    "Ingvar Kamprad", # 20th swedish
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Hercules von Oberberg", # 16th danish
    "Nicodemus Tessin", # 17th swedish
    "Christopher Polhem", # 18th swedish
    iIndustrial,
    "Johan Ericsson", # 19th swedish
    "Per Georg Scheutz", # 19th swedish
    "Alfred Nobel", # 19th swedish
    "Lars Magnus Ericsson", # 19th swedish
    iGlobal,
    "Arne Jacobsen", # 20th danish
    u"Jørn Utzon", # 20th danish
    u"Ivar Giæver", # 20th norwegian
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Gorm den Gamle", # 10th danish
    "Birger Jarl", # 13th swedish
    "fMargrete Valdemarsdatter", # 14th danish
    iRenaissance,
    "Gustav Vasa", # 16th swedish
    "Axel Oxenstierna", # 17th swedish
    "fKristina", # 17th swedish
    "Peter Estenberg", # 18th swedish
    "Arvid Horn", # 18th swedish
    iIndustrial,
    "Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt", # 19th finnish
    "Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig", # 19th danish
    iGlobal,
    "Trygve Lie", # 20th norwegian
    u"Dag Hammarskjöld", # 20th swedish
    "Olof Palme", # 20th swedish
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    u"Eiríkr Blóðøx", # 10th norwegian
    u"Sveinn Tjúguskegg", # 10th danish
    u"Harald Harðráði", # 11th norwegian
    "Knutr", # 11th danish
    iRenaissance,
    "Gustav Vasa", # 16th swedish
    "Lennart Torstensson", # 17th swedish
    "Peter Tordenskjold", # 18th norwegian
    "fIngela Gathenhielm", # 18th swedish
    iGlobal,
    "Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim", # 20th finnish
    "Carl Gustav Fleischer", # 20th norwegian
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "fBrita Tott", # 15th swedish/danish
    "fCharlotte Eckerman", # 18th swedish
    u"fEva Löwen", # 18th swedish
    iGlobal,
    "Carlos Adlercreutz", # 20th swedish
    "Kai Henning Bothildsen Nielsen", # 20th danish
    u"fAstrid Døvle", # 20th norwegian
    "Stig Bergling", # 20th swedish
    ],
    },
    iCivTurks : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Tatpar Qaghan", # 6th
    "Bulan", # 9th
    "Abu Mansur al-Maturidi", # 9th
    "Muhammad al-Bukhari", # 9th
    "Al-Ghazali", # 11th (also Persian)
    "Ahmad Yasawi", # 12th
    "fFatima al-Samarqandi", # 12th
    "Haji Bektash Veli", # 13th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Yusuf Balasaguni", # 11th
    "Suzani Samarqandi", # 12th
    "Nizami Ganjavi", # 12th (also Persian)
    "Rumi", # 13th (also Persian)
    "Izzeddin Hasanoglu", # 13-14th
    "Imadaddin Nasimi", # 14th
    "Alisher Nava'i", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Khasta Qasim", # 18th
    "Magtymguly Pyragy", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Qurmangazy Sagyrbaiuly", # 19th
    "Abai Qunanbaiuly", # 19th
    "fNodira", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Hamza Hakimzade Niyazi", # 20th
    "G'afur G'ulom", # 20th
    "Chinghiz Aitmatov", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Al-Farabi", # 10th (also Arab)
    "Ismail ibn Hammad al-Jawhari", # 10th
    "Ibn Sina", # 10th (also Persian)
    "Omar Khayyam", # 11th (also Persian)
    "Mahmud al-Kashgari", # 11th
    "Nizami Aruzi", # 12th
    "Qadi Zada al-Rumi", # 14th
    "Jamshid al-Kashi", # 15th
    "Ulugh Beg", # 15th (also Mongol)
    "Ali Qushji", # 15th (also Ottoman)
    iIndustrial,
    "Shoqan Walikhanov", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Kasym Tynystanov", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Maniakh", # 6th
    "Muqan Qaghan", # 6th
    "Sheguy", # 7th
    "Ahmad ibn Rustah", # 10th
    "Bar Sauma", # 13th
    "Yahballaha", # 13th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Omurtag", # 9th
    "Abu-Mahmud Khojandi", # 10th
    "Al-Biruni", # 11th
    "fSaray Mulk", # 14th
    iGlobal,
    "Kanysh Satbayev", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    u"Istämi", # 6th
    "Ishbara Qaghan", # 6th
    "Ashina Simo", # 7th
    "Nizam al-Mulk", # 11th
    "fTerken Khatun", # 11th
    "Aq Sunqur al-Hajib", # 11th
    "Abd-al-Razzaq Samarqandi", # 15th
    "Muhammad Shaybani", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Abdullah Khan", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "Alikhan Bukeikhanov", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Sopubek Begaliev", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Tong Yabghu Qaghan", # 7th
    "Qapaghan Qaghan", # 7th
    u"Kültigin", # 8th
    "Tughril", # 11th (distinct from Mongol Toghril)
    "Anushtegin Gharchai", # 11th
    "Nur ad-Din Zengi", # 13th (also Arab)
    "Uzun Hasan", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Ablai Khan", # 18th
    "Raiymbek Batyr", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    "Sobir Rakhimov", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivArabia : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Ali ibn Abi Talib", # 7th
    "Hasan ibn Ali", # 7th
    "Uthman ibn Affan", # 7th
    "Umar ibn al-Kattab", # 7th
    "fRabia Basri", # 9th
    "Al-Baqilanni", # 10th
    "Ibn al-Jawzi", # 12th
    iRenaissance,
    "Al-Suyuti", # 15th
    "Abdullah ibn Alawi al-Haddad", # 17th
    "Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Muhammad Abduh", # 19th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Ibn Muqla", # 10th
    "Ibn al-Nadim", # 10th
    "Al-Mutanabbi", # 10th
    "Muhammad ibn al-Zayn", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Ibn Furtu", # 16th
    iGlobal,
    "Muhammad al-Maghut", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Al-Kindi", # 9th
    "Al-Khwarizmi", # 9th (also Persian)
    "Al-Farabi", # 10th
    "Ibrahim ibn Sinan", # 10th
    "Ibn al-Jazzar", # 10th
    "Ibn al-Haytam", # 11th
    "Ibn al-Nafis", # 13th
    iGlobal,
    "Abdul Jabbar Abdullah", # 20th
    "Ahmed Zewail", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Muhammad ibn al-Zayyat", # 9th
    "Ibn Hawqal", # 10th
    "Abu'l Abbas al-Hijazi", # 12th
    "Yaqut al-Hamawi", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "Ahmad ibn Majid", # 15th
    "Sulaiman Al Mahri", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "David Sassoon", # 19th
    "Sassoon Eskell", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Jabir ibn Hayyan", # 8th
    "Mashallah ibn Athari", # 8th
    "Banu Musa", # 9th
    "Ibn Wahshiyah", # 10th
    "fMariam al-Astrulabi", # 10th
    "Al-Jazari", # 12th
    iGlobal,
    "Hassan Fathy", # 20th
    "fZaha Hadid", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "fFatimah bint Muhammad", # 7th
    "Al-Jahiz", # 9th
    "Al-Mawardi", # 11th
    "Izz al-Din Usama", # 12th
    iRenaissance,
    "Muhammad ibn Saud", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Hussein bin Ali", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan", # 20th
    "Yasser Arafat", # 20th
    "Hisham Nazer", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Khalid ibn al-Walid", # 7th
    "Muawiyah", # 7th
    "Ziyad ibn Abih", # 7th
    "Amr ibn al-As", # 7th
    "fKhawla bint al-Azwar", # 7th
    "Nur ad-Din Zengi", # 12th
    iRenaissance,
    "Rahmah ibn Jabir Al Jalhami", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    "Abd al-Karim Qasim", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "Hassan-i Sabbah", # 11th
    "Rashid ad-Din Sinan", # 12th
    iGlobal,
    "Ali Hassan al-Majid", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivTibet : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Gendun Drup", # 15th
    "Gendun Gyatso", # 15-16th
    "Sonam Gyatso", # 16th
    "Yonten Gyatso", # 16-17th
    "Tsangyang Gyatso", # 17th
    iGlobal,
    "Tenzin Gyatso", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "fYeshe Tsogyal", # 8th
    "Milarepa", # 11th
    iRenaissance,
    u"Chöying Dorje", # 17th
    "Situ Panchen", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    u"Gendün Chöphel", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Thonmi Sambhota", # 7th
    "Yuthog Yontan Gonpo", # 8th and 12th
    "Tsongkhapa", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Kunkhyen Pema Karpo", # 16h
    iIndustrial,
    "Khyenrab Norbu", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Sonam Rapten", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Tsarong", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Rinchen Zangpo", # 10th
    "Thang Tong Gyalpo", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Desi Sangye Gyatso", # 17th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    u"fThrimalö", # 7th
    u"Gar Tongsten Yülsung", # 7th
    iIndustrial,
    "Paljor Dorje Shatra", # 19th
    "Lhalu Tsewang Dorje", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Gar Trinring Tsendro", # 7th
    "Chimshang Gyalsig Shuteng", # 8th
    "Nganlam Takdra Lukhong", # 8th
    "Nanam Shang Gyaltsen Lhanang", # 8th
    iRenaissance,
    "Ngawang Namgyal", # 17th
    ],
    },
    iCivIndonesia : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Maha Rsi Agastya", # 5th
    "Buddha Pahyien", # 4th
    "Sakyakirti", # 7th
    "fGayatri Rajapatni", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Sunan Giri", # 15th
    "Sunan Gunung Jati", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "Ahmad Dahlan", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Albertus Soegijapranata", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Abdullah Abdul Kadir", # 19th
    "Raja Ali Haji", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Amir Hamzah", # 20th
    "Ismail Marzuki", # 20th
    "Pramoedya Ananta Toer", # 20th
    "Asep Sunandar Sunarya", # 20th
    "I Made Sidia", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Jayabaya", # 12th
    "Empu Tantular", # 14th
    iGlobal,
    "Herman Johannes", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Dewawarman", # 1st
    "fCri Kahulunnan", # 9th
    iRenaissance,
    "Raja Mudaliar", # 16th
    "Nahkoda Muda", # 18th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Gunadharma", # 9th
    "Samaratungga", # 9th
    "Rakai Pikatan", # 9th
    iGlobal,
    "Liem Bwan Tjie", # 20th
    "Soejoedi Wirjoatmodjo", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Gajah Mada", # 14th
    "Parmeswara", # 14th
    iIndustrial,
    "Mahmud Badaruddin", # 19th
    "fRaden Ayu Kartini", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Sukarno", # 20th
    "Agus Salim", # 20th
    "Chep the Magnificent", # Contest Reward
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Dharmawangsa", # 10th
    "Airlangga", # 11th
    "Ken Arok", # 12th
    "Raden Wijaya", # 13th
    "fTribhuwana Vijayatunggadewi", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "fMalahayati", # 16th
    "fMartha Christina Tiahahu", # 18th
    "Pattimura", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "fCut Nyak Dhien", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Oerip Soemohardjo", # 20th
    "Sudirman", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivMoors : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Ibn Masarra", # 10th
    "Ibn Hazm", # 11th
    "Musa bin Maymun", # 12th
    "fFatima bint al-Muthanna", # 12th
    "Ibn Arabi", # 12th
    iRenaissance,
    "Ahmad Zarruq", # 15th
    "Ahmad ibn Abi Jum'ah", # 15th
    iIndustrial,
    "Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi", # 19th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Ziryab", # 9th
    "fWallada bint al-Mustakfi", # 11th
    "fQasmuna", # 12th
    "Ibn Tufail", # 12th
    "Ibn Quzman", # 12th
    "Al-Shustari", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "Ahmad Ibn al-Qadi", # 16th
    "Mohammed Awzal", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Kaddour El Alamy", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Abdessadeq Cheqara", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Al-Zahrawi", # 10th
    "Ibn Zuhr", # 12th
    "Jabir bin Aflah", # 12th
    "Ibn Rushd", # 12th
    "Ibn Bajja", # 12th
    "Abu al-Salt", # 12th
    "Al-Qalasadi", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Abul Qasim ibn Mohammed al-Ghassani", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Ibrahim ibn Yaqub", # 10th
    "Al-Bakri", # 11th
    "Al-Idrisi", # 12th
    "Ibn Jubayr", # 12th
    "Ibn Battuta", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Hassan al-Wazzan", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Abbas ibn Firnas", # 9th
    "Ibn Bassal", # 11th
    "Al-Zarqali", # 11th
    "Al-Muradi", # 11th
    iRenaissance,
    "Ahmed el Inglizi", # 18th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "fZaynab an-Nafzawiyyah", # 11h
    "Ibn al-Khatib", # 14th
    "Ibn Khaldun", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "fLalla Aisha Mubarka", # 17th
    "Abu al-Qasim al-Zayyani", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    "Habib Bourguiba", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Tariq ibn Ziyad", # 8th
    "Muhammad ibn Abi Aamir", # 10th
    "Yusuf ibn Tashfin", # 11th
    iRenaissance,
    "fSayyida al Hurra", # 16th
    "Mohammed ash-Sheikh", # 16th
    "Ahmad al-Mansur", # 16th
    "Ismail ibn Sharif", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Abdelkader ibn Muhieddine", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Abd el-Krim", # 20th
    "Mohamed Meziane", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivSpain : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Juan de Ortega", # 11th
    u"Domingo de Guzmán", # 12th
    iRenaissance,
    "Ignacio de Loyola", # 16th
    u"Juan de Sepúlveda", # 16th
    u"fTeresa de Ávila", # 16th
    u"Francisco Suárez", # 16th
    u"Bartolomé de Las Casas", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    u"Junípero Serra", # 18th
    "fJoaquima de Vedruna", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"Josemaría Escrivá", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Gonzalo de Berceo", # 13th
    "Juan Manuel", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Miguel de Cervantes", # 16th
    "Garcilaso de la Vega", # 16th
    "Lope de Vega", # 17th
    u"Diego de Silva Velázquez", # 17th
    u"fJuana Inés de la Cruz", # 17th
    "Francisco de Goya", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    u"fGertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda", # 19th
    u"Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer", # 19th
    u"fRosalía de Castro", # 19th
    u"Isaac Albéniz", # 19th
    u"Benito Pérez Galdós", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Pablo Picasso", # 20th
    u"Joan Miró", # 20th
    u"Luis Buñuel", # 20th
    u"Salvador Dalí", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Gerardo de Cremona", # 12th
    "Yehuda ben Moshe", # 13th
    "Ramon Llull", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "Miguel Serveto", # 16th
    u"Carlos de Sigüenza y Góngora", # 17th
    "Antonio de Ulloa", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    u"José Celestino Mutis", # 18th
    u"Santiago Ramón y Cajal", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Severo Ochoa", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    u"Cristóbal Colón", # 15th
    "Fernando de Magallanes", # 15th
    u"Martín de Azpilcueta", # 16th
    "Hernando de Soto", # 16th
    u"José Penso de la Vega", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Salvador Fidalgo", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    "Juan March Ordinas", # 20th
    "Amancio Ortega", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Juan Bautista de Toledo", # 16th
    "Juan de Herrera", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    u"Agustín de Betancourt", # 18th
    "Alberto de Palacio y Elissague", # 19th
    "Esteban Terradas i Illa", # 19th
    u"Antoni Gaudí", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Leonardo Torres y Quevedo", # 20th
    "Juan de la Cierva", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Alfonso el Sabio", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    u"Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros", # 15th
    "Francisco de Vitoria", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    u"José de Gálvez", # 18th
    u"José Moniño", # 18th
    "Juan Prim", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"Lluís Companys", # 20th
    u"fDolores Ibárruri", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "El Cid", # 11th
    "Alfonso el Bravo", # 11th
    "Jaume el Conqueridor", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "Francisco Coronado", # 16th
    u"Hernán Cortés", # 16th
    "Francisco Pizarro", # 16th
    u"Álvaro de Bazán", # 16th
    u"fMaría Pacheco", # 16th
    u"Fernando Álvarez de Toledo", # 16th
    u"Ambrosio Spínola Doria", # 17th
    u"Bernardo de Gálvez", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    u"fAgustina de Aragón", # 19th
    "Fernando Villaamil", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Emilio Mola", # 20th
    "Vicente Rojo Lluch", # 20th
    "Mohamed ben Mizzian", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    u"Tomás de Torquemada", # 15th
    "Bernardino de Mendoza", # 17th
    u"fManuela Desvalls Vergós", # 18th
    "Ali Bey el Abbassi", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    u"Juan Pujol García", # 20th
    u"Ramón Mercader", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivFrance : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    u"Pierre Abélard", # 12th
    "Louis IX", # 13th
    "fJeanne d'Arc", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Jean Calvin", # 16th
    "Vincent de Paul", # 17th
    "fJeanne Mance", # 17th
    "fMarguerite Bourgeoys", # 17th
    u"Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    u"fThérèse de Lisieux", # 19th
    "Auguste Comte", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Albert Schweitzer", # 20th
    u"Marcel Légaut", # 20th
    u"Henri Grouès", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    u"Pérotin", # 12th
    u"Chrétien de Troyes", # 12th
    "fChristine de Pizan", # 15th
    "Jean Fouquet", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    u"François Rabelais", # 16th
    "Charles Le Brun", # 17th
    "Jean-Baptiste Lully", # 17th
    "Jean Racine", # 17th
    u"Molière", # 17th
    "Antoine Watteau", # 18th
    "Voltaire", # 18th
    u"fÉlisabeth Vigée Le Brun", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    u"Honoré de Balzac", # 19th
    "Alexandre Dumas", # 19th
    "Victor Hugo", # 19th
    "fGeorge Sand", # 19th
    "Charles Baudelaire", # 19th
    "Auguste Rodin", # 19th
    "Claude Monet", # 19th
    "Claude Debussy", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Henri Matisse", # 19th
    "Maurice Ravel", # 20th
    "Marcel Proust", # 20th
    u"fÉdith Piaf", # 20th
    "Albert Camus", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Gerbert d'Aurillac", # 10th
    "Nicole Oresme", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    u"René Descartes", # 17th
    "Pierre de Fermat", # 17th
    "Blaise Pascal", # 17th
    "Antoine Lavoisier", # 18th
    u"fÉmilie du Châtelet", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Pierre-Simon Laplace", # 18th
    "Sadi Carnot", # 19th
    "Louis Pasteur", # 19th
    "fMarie-Sophie Germain", # 19th
    "fMarie Curie", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Antoine Henri Becquerel", # 20th
    "Jacques Monod", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    u"Éloi de Noyon", # 7th
    u"fJeanne la Fouacière", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "Jacques Cartier", # 16th
    "Samuel de Champlain", # 17th
    "Antoine de Lamothe-Cadillac", # 18th
    u"fThérèse de Couagne", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    u"Frédéric Bastiat", # 19th
    "Ferdinand de Lesseps", # 19th
    "Louis Vuitton", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fCoco Chanel", # 20th
    "Marcel Dessault", # 20th
    "fMarie Marvingt", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Suger", # 12th
    "Villard de Honnecourt", # 13th
    "Pierre de Montreuil", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    u"Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban", # 17th
    "Jules Hardouin-Mansart", # 17th
    "Claude Perrault", # 17th
    "Charles-Augustin Coulomb", # 18th
    "Joseph-Michel Montgolfier", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Joseph Marie Jacquard", # 18th
    "Louis Daguerre", # 19th
    "Norbert Rillieux", # 19th
    "Alexandre Gustave Eiffel", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"Louis Lumière", # 20th
    "Le Corbusier", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    u"fAliénor d'Aquitaine", # 12th
    "Philippe de Beaumanoir", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "Jean Bodin", # 16th
    "Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu", # 17th
    "Jean-Baptiste Colbert", # 17th
    u"fAnne-Marie-Louise d'Orléans", # 17th
    u"Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord", # 18th
    "Montesquieu", # 18th
    "Maximilien Robespierre", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Adolphe Thiers", # 19th
    "Alexis de Tocqueville", # 19th
    "Pierre-Joseph Proudhon", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"Léon Blum", # 20th
    "fSimone de Beauvoir", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Charles Martel", # 8th
    "Godefroy de Bouillon", # 11th
    "fJeanne de Flandre", # 14th
    "Charles V", # 14th
    "fJeanne d'Arc", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    u"Louis de Bourbon-Condé", # 17th
    "Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne", # 17th
    "Louis-Joseph de Montcalm", # 18th
    u"Louis-René de Latouche-Tréville", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Louis-Nicolas Davout", # 18th
    "Joachim Murat", # 18th
    "Louis-Alexandre Berthier", # 19th
    "Gilbert de Lafayette", # 19th
    "Patrice de MacMahon", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Ferdinand Foch", # 20th
    "Joseph Joffre", # 20th
    u"Philippe Pétain", # 20th
    "Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    u"Bertrandon de la Broquière", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "fCharlotte de Sauve", # 16th
    "fCharlotte Corday", # 18th
    "Pierre Beaumarchais", # 18th
    u"Chevalier d'Éon", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "fMichelle de Bonneuil", # 19th
    "Charles Schulmeister", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"fJoséphine Baker", # 20th
    "Gilbert Renault", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivKhmer : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Sanghapala", # 6th
    "Kirtipandita", # 10th
    "Suryavarman I", # 11th
    "fJayarajadevi", # 12th
    "Tamalinda", # 12th
    iGlobal,
    "Chuon Nath", # 20th
    "Maha Ghosananda", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Udayadityavarman II", # 11th
    "fIndradevi", # 12th
    "Thommaracha", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Ang Duong", # 19th
    "Suttantaprija Ind", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Sinn Sisamouth", # 20th
    "Vann Nath", # 20th
    "Chath Piersath", # 20th
    "Chhim Sothy", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Semahatata", # 7th
    "Jayavarman V", # 10th
    "Yajnavaraha", # 10th
    "fSaptadevakula Prana", # 10th
    iGlobal,
    "Keng Vannsak", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Jayavarman IV", # 10th
    "Srindravarman", # 14th
    "fDaun Penh", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Chey Chettha", # 16th
    "Srei Meara", # 17th
    iGlobal,
    "Teng Bunma", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Indravarman I", # 9th
    "Yasovarman I", # 9th
    "fJahavi", # 10th
    "Udayadityavarman II", # 11th
    "Jayavarman VII", # 12th
    iGlobal,
    "Vann Molyvann", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Jayavarman II", # 9th
    "Harshavarman", # 10th
    iIndustrial,
    "Norodom", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Tou Samouth", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Bhavavarman", # 6th
    "Rajendravarman II", # 10th
    "Sangrama", # 11th
    "Vidyanandana", # 12th
    iGlobal,
    "Sak Sutsakhan", # 20th
    "Dien Del", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "fYun Yat", # 20th
    ]
    },
    iCivEngland : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Bede the Venerable", # 8th
    "Anselm of Canterbury", # 11th
    "Thomas Becket", # 12th
    iRenaissance,
    "Thomas More", # 16th
    "fAnne Hutchinson", # 17th
    "John Newton", # 18th
    "William Penn", # 18th
    "Jonathan Edwards", # 18th
    "fAnn Lee", # 18th
    "John Wesley", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "William Booth", # 19th
    "David Livingstone", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Gerald Gardner", # 20th
    "Aleister Crowley", # 20th
    "John Stott", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Geoffrey Chaucer", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "William Shakespeare", # 17th
    "John Milton", # 17th
    "John Vanbrugh", # 17th
    "George Frideric Handel", # 18th
    "fJane Austen", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "William Blake", # 18th
    "fMary Shelley", # 19th
    "Alfred Tennyson", # 19th
    "Charles Dickens", # 19th
    "Arthur Conan Doyle", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "James Joyce", # 20th
    "fAgatha Christie", # 20th
    "John R. R. Tolkien", # 20th
    "John Lennon", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Roger Bacon", # 13th
    "William of Ockham", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Francis Bacon", # 16th
    "Robert Boyle", # 17th
    "Isaac Newton", # 17th
    "David Hume", # 18th
    "William Herschel", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "John Dalton", # 19th
    "Michael Faraday", # 19th
    "fMary Anning", # 19th
    "Charles Darwin", # 19th
    "James Clerk Maxwell", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Ernest Rutherford", # 20th
    "Alexander Fleming", # 20th
    "Alan Turing", # 20th
    "fRosalind Franklin", # 20th
    "Stephen Hawking", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Alan Rufus", # 11th
    "Aaron of Lincoln", # 12th
    iRenaissance,
    "Francis Drake", # 16th
    "William Petty", # 17th
    "James Cook", # 18th
    "Adam Smith", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "George Hudson", # 19th
    "Richard Francis Burton", # 19TH
    "Thomas Sutherland", # 19th
    "Cecil Rhodes", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "John Maynard Keynes", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Henry Yevele", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Inigo Jones", # 17th
    "Robert Hooke", # 17th
    "Christopher Wren", # 17th
    "William Adam", # 18th
    "John Harrison", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "James Watt", # 18th
    "George Stephenson", # 19th
    "Isambard Kingdom Brunel", # 19th
    "Henry Bessemer", # 19th
    "Charles Babbage", # 19th
    "fAda Lovelace", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "John Logie Baird", # 20th
    "fVictoria Drummond", # 20th
    "Frank Whittle", # 20th
    "Tim Berners-Lee", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Thomas Becket", # 12th
    iRenaissance,
    "William Cecil", # 16th
    "John Locke", # 17th
    "Thomas Hobbes", # 17th
    "Robert Walpole", # 18th
    "William Pitt", # 18th
    "fMary Wollstonecraft", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "William Gladstone", # 19th
    "Benjamin Disraeli", # 19th
    "Robert Gascoyne-Cecil Salisbury", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Thomas Edward Lawrence", # 20th
    "fEmmeline Pankhurst", # 20th
    "Clement Atlee", # 20th
    "fDiana Spencer", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "William the Conqueror", # 11th
    "Richard the Lionheart", # 12th
    "Edward III", # 14th
    "fMargaret of Anjou", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Oliver Cromwell", # 17th
    "John Churchill Marlborough", # 17th
    "Horatio Nelson", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Arthur Wellesley Wellington", # 19th
    "Edmund Lyons", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Hugh Dowding", # 20th
    "Bernard Law Montgomery", # 20th
    "Harold Alexander", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "Francis Walsingham", # 16th
    "Guy Fawkes", # 16th
    "fElizabeth Alkin", # 17th
    u"John André", # 18th
    "Edward Bancroft", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "William Wickham", # 19th
    "William Melville", # 19th
    "Mansfield Smith-Cumming", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Sidney Reilly", #, 20th
    "fVera Atkins", #, 20th
    "fLise de Baissac", # 20th
    "fMelita Norwood", # 20th
    "Ian Fleming", # 20th
    "Kim Philby", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivGermany : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "fHildegard von Bingen", # 12th
    "Albertus Magnus", # 13th
    "Jan Hus", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Martin Luther", # 16th
    "Philip Melanchthon", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "Theodor Herzl", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Dietrich Bonhoeffer", # 20th
    "fEdith Stein", # 20th
    "Joseph Ratzinger", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "fRoswitha von Gandersheim", # 10th
    u"Albrecht Dürer", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Johann Sebastian Bach", # 17th
    "Ludwig van Beethoven", # 18th
    "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart", # 18th
    "Johann Wolfgang von Goethe", # 18th
    "Friedrich Schiller", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "fClara Schumann", # 19th
    "Johann Strauss", # 19th
    "Richard Wagner", # 19th
    "Gustav Klimt", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Stefan Zweig", # 20th
    "Paul Klee", # 20th
    "fLeni Riefenstahl", # 20th
    "Leoreth", # 21st
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Nikolaus von Kues", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Theophrastus von Hohenheim", # 16th
    "Gerhard Mercator", # 16th
    "Johannes Kepler", # 17th
    "Gottfried Leibniz", # 17th
    "Leonhard Euler", # 18th
    "fCaroline Herschel", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Alexander von Humboldt", # 19th
    u"Carl Friedrich Gauß", # 19th
    "Ignaz Semmelweis", # 19th
    "Gregor Mendel", # 19th
    "Ernst Haeckel", # 19th
    "Sigmund Freud", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Albert Einstein", # 20th
    "Werner Heisenberg", # 20th
    "fEmmy Noether", # 20th
    "Max Planck", # 20th
    u"Erwin Schrödinger", # 20th
    "fLise Meitner", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Jakob Fugger", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "fBarbara Uthmann", # 16th
    "Johann Hinrich Gossler", # 18th
    "Mayer Amschel Rothschild", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Friedrich List", # 19th
    "Carl Menger", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Joseph Schumpeter", # 20th
    "fMelitta Bentz", # 20th
    "Ludwig von Mises", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Heinrich Parler", # 14th
    "Peter Parler", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Alfred Krupp", # 19th
    "Nikolaus Otto", # 19th
    "Gottlieb Daimler", # 19th
    "Carl Benz", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Ferdinand Porsche", # 20th
    "August Horch", # 20th
    "Ludwig Mies van der Rohe", # 20th
    "Friedensreich Hundertwasser", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Immanuel Kant", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom Stein", # 19th
    "Klemens von Metternich", # 19th
    "Karl Marx", # 19th
    "fBertha von Suttner", # 19th
    "Wilhelm Liebknecht", # 19th
    "Friedrich Ebert", # 19th
    "fRosa Luxemburg", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Konrad Adenauer", # 20th
    "fHannah Arendt", # 20th
    "Helmut Kohl", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    u"Otto der Große", # 10th
    iRenaissance,
    "Albrecht von Wallenstein", # 17th
    "Eugen von Savoyen", # 17th
    u"Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Carl von Clausewitz", # 19th
    "Paul von Hindenburg", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Erwin Rommel", # 20th
    "Heinz Guderian", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    u"Christian Andreas Käsebier", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Georg Klindworth", # 19th
    "Wilhelm Stieber", # 19th
    "Alfred Redl", # 19th
    "fMaria de Victorica", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"fElsbeth Schragmüller", # 20th
    "Wilhelm Canaris", # 20th
    "Fritz Joubert Duquesne", # 20th
    "Klaus Fuchs", # 20th
    "Markus Wolf", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivRussia : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "fOlga", # 10th
    "Sergey Radonezhsky", # 14th
    "Paisiy Yaroslavov", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Feofan Prokopovich", # 18th
    "Seraphim Sarovsky", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "fHelena Blavatsky", # 19th
    "Grigori Rasputin", # 19th
    "Nikolai Rerikh", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Nikolai Berdyaev", # 20th
    "Georges Florovsky", # 20th
    "Alexei Losev", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Feofan Grek", # 14th
    "Andrei Rublev", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Alexander Sumarokov", # 18th
    "Fedot Shubin", # 18th
    "Gavrila Derzhavin", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Alexander Pushkin", # 19th
    "Fyodor Dostoyevsky", # 19th
    "Leo Tolstoy", # 19th
    "Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky", # 19th
    "Modest Mussorgsky", # 19th
    "Anton Chekov", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Wassily Kandinsky", # 20th
    "fAnna Pavlova", # 20th
    "fNatalia Goncharova", # 20th
    "Dmitri Shostakovich", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Mikhail Lomonosov", # 18th
    "Andrei Ivanovich Leksel", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Nikolai Lobachevsky", # 19th
    "Mikhail Ostrogradsky", # 20th
    "Dmitri Mendeleyev", # 19th
    "fSofia Kovalevskaya", # 19th
    "Konstantin Tsiolkovsky", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Pavel Cherenkov", # 20th
    "Yulii Borisovich Khariton", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Afanasiy Nikitin", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Vitus Bering", # 18th
    "Grigory Shelikhov", # 18th
    "Pavel Lebedev-Lastochkin", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Ivan Kruzenshtern", # 19th
    "Nikolai Chukmaldin", # 19th
    "Karl Faberzhe", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Nikolai Kondratiev", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Lazar Serb", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Postnik Yakovlev", # 16th
    "Vasily Bazhenov", # 18th
    "Ivan Starov", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Vladimir Shukhov", # 19th
    "Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Mikhail Kalashnikov", # 20th
    "Sergei Korolev", # 20th
    "Andrey Tupolev", # 20th
    u"Léon Theremin", # 20th
    "Vladimir Zvorykin", # 20th
    "Igor Sikorsky", # 20th
    "fValentina Tereshkova", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Vladimir Sviatoslavich", # 11th
    "Yaroslav Mudry", # 11th
    "fMarfa Posadnitsa", # 15th
    "Ivan Vasilyevich", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Vasily Tatishchev", # 18th
    "Nikita Panin", # 18th
    "fYekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Mikhail Speransky", # 19th
    "Vladimir Lenin", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Leon Trotsky", # 20th
    "fAlexandra Kollontai", # 20th
    "Andrei Sakharov", # 20th
    "Mikhail Gorbachev", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Alexander Nevsky", # 13th
    "Ivan Grozny", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Mikhail Romanov", # 17th
    "Alexander Suvorov", # 18th
    "Grigory Potemkin", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Pavel Nakhimov", # 19th
    "Mikhail Skobelev", # 19th
    "fVasilisa Kozhina", # 19th
    "fNadezhda Durova", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Mikhail Tukhachevsky", # 20th
    "Georgy Zhukov", # 20th
    "Vasily Chuikov", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "Fyodor Romodanovsky", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Aleksandr Benkendorf", # 19th
    "Pyotr Rachkovsky", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Ilie Catarau", # 20th
    "Felix Dzerzhinsky", # 20th
    "Ivan Serov", # 20th
    u"Sándor Goldberger", # 20th
    "Lavrentiy Beria", # 20th
    "Oleg Gordievsky", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivMali : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Wali Keita", # 13th
    "Sidi Yahya", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Seku Amadu", # 18th
    "Ali Coulibaly", # 18th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Nare Maghann Konate", # 13th
    iGlobal,
    "Lobi Traore", # 20th
    "Ibrahim Aya", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Gaoussou Diawara", # 14th
    "Abu al Baraaka", # 12-16th
    iRenaissance,
    "Mohammed Bagayogo", # 16th
    "Ahmed Baba", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "Ag Mohammed Kawen", # 19th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Tunka Manin", # 11th
    "Abubakari", # 13th
    "Abu Bakr ibn Ahmad Biru", # 12-16th
    iGlobal,
    u"Mandé Sidibé", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Sakura", # 13th
    "Al-Qadi Aqib ibn Umar", # 13th
    "Abu Es Haq es Saheli", # 14th
    "Mohammed Naddah", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Mohammed Bagayogo", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Askia Muhammad", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    u"Bitòn Coulibaly", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    u"Samori Touré", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Modibo Keita", # 20th
    u"Alpha Oumar Konaré", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "fYennenga", # 12th
    "Sundiata Keita", # 13th
    "Askia Muhammad", # 15th
    "Sunni Ali", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Askia Daoud", # 16th
    "fAminatu", # 16th
    "Ngolo Diarra", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "fSeh-Dong-Hong-Beh", # 19th
    ],
    },
    iCivPoland : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Wojciech", # 10th
    "Stanislaw Szczepanowski", # 11th
    "fJadwiga", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Piotr z Goniadza", # 16th
    "Piotr Skarga", # 16th
    "Israel Baal Szem Tow", # 18th
    "Eliasz ben Salomon Zalman", # 18th
    u"Jakub Józef Frank", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Albert Chmielowski", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"fUrsula Ledóchowska", # 20th
    "fFaustina Kowalska", # 20th
    "Stefan Wyszynski", # 20th
    "Karol Wojtyla", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Jan Kochanowski", # 16th
    "Jan Andrzej Morsztyn", # 17th
    "Ignacy Krasicki", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Adam Mickiewicz", # 19th
    "Fryderyk Chopin", # 19th
    "Jan Matejko", # 19th
    "Stanislaw Wyspianski", # 19th
    u"Józef Konrad Korzeniowski", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fTamara de Lempicka", # 20th
    "Witold Lutoslawski", # 20th
    "Andrzej Wajda", # 20th
    "fWislawa Szymborska", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Witelo", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "Mikolaj Kopernik", # 16th
    u"Michal Sedziwój", # 17th
    "Jan Brozek", # 17th
    "Stanislaw Staszic", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Ludwik Lejzer Zamenhof", # 19th
    "fMaria Sklodowska", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Kazimierz Funk", # 20th
    "Alfred Tarski", # 20th
    u"Józef Rotblat", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Konstanty Korniakt", # 16th
    "Antoni Protazy Potocki", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Henryk Lubienski", # 19th
    "Leopold Kronenberg", # 19th
    "Franciszek Ksawery Branicki", # 19th"
    iGlobal,
    "Maksymilian Faktorowicz", # 20th
    "Jan Kulczyk", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Kazimierz Siemienowicz", # 17th
    "Tylman Gamerski", # 17th
    "Laurynas Gucevicius", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Piotr Steinkeller", # 19th
    "Ignacy Lukasiewicz", # 19th
    "Stefan Drzewiecki", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Kasimiersz Proszynski", # 20th
    "Tadeusz Sendzimir", # 20th
    "Stefan Tyszkiewicz", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Wladyslaw Lokietek", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski", # 16th
    "Jan Zamoyski", # 16th
    "fElzbieta Sieniawska", # 17th
    "Stanislaw Staszic", # 18th
    "Scipione Piattoli", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Adam Jerzy Czartoryski", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Ignacy Daszynski", # 20th
    "Jozef Pilsudski", # 20th
    "Wladyslaw Sikorski", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Mieszko", # 10th
    "Wladyslaw Jagiello", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Jan Tarnowski", # 16th
    "Stefan Batory", # 16th
    u"Stanislaw Zólkiewski", # 16th
    "Stefan Czarniecki", # 17th
    "Tadeusz Kosciuszko", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Jan Henryk Dabrowski", # 18th
    "Ignacy Pradzynski", # 19th
    u"Józef Bem", # 19th
    "fEmilia Plater", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Wladyslaw Sikorski", # 20th
    "Kazimierz Sosnkowski", # 20th
    "Stanislaw Maczek", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "Jerzy Franciszek Kulczycki", # 17th
    "fZofia Potocka", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    u"fKarolina Sobanska", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Jan Kowalewski", # 20th
    "Jerzy Sosnowski", # 20th
    "Marian Rejewski", # 20th
    "Kazimierz Leski", # 20th
    "fKrystyna Skarbek", # 20th
    u"Ryszard Kuklinski", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivPortugal : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    u"António de Lisboa", # 13th
    u"fIsabel de Aragão", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    u"João de Deus", # 16th
    u"João de Brito", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "fRita Lopes de Almeida", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Agostinho da Silva", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    u"Fernão Lopes", # 15th
    u"Nuno Gonçalves", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    u"Luís de Camões", # 16th
    u"António Ferreira", # 16th
    u"João de Barros", # 16th
    "Machado de Castro", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Antero de Quental", # 19th
    u"José Maria de Eça de Queirós", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Fernando Pessoa", # 20th
    u"fAmália Rodrigues", # 20th
    u"José Saramago", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Garcia de Orta", # 16th
    "Pedro Nunes", # 16th
    "Amato Lusitano", # 16th
    "Bartolomeu de Gusmao", # 18th
    "Jacob de Castro Sarmento", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    "Froilano de Mello", # 20th
    "Abel Salazar", # 20th
    u"António Egas Moniz", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Vasco da Gama", # 15th
    "Francisco de Almeida", # 15th
    "Henrique o Navegador", # 15th
    "Bartolomeu Dias", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    u"Pedro Álvares Cabral", # 15th
    u"Fernão Pires de Andrade", # 16th
    "fGracia Mendes Nasi", # 16th
    u"Fernão Mendes Pinto", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "fAntonia Ferreira", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"António Champalimaud", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Mateus Fernandes", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Diogo de Arruda", # 16th
    "Diogo de Boitaca", # 16th
    u"João Antunes", # 17th
    u"Bartolomeu de Gusmão", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Carlos Amarante", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    u"José Marques da Silva", # 20th
    u"Álvaro Siza Vieira", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Henrique de Avis", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    u"Tristão da Cunha", # 16th
    u"João o Restaurador", # 17th
    u"fLuisa de Guzmán", # 17th
    u"Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    "Afonso Costa", # 20th
    u"António de Oliveria Salazar", # 20th
    u"António Guterres", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Geraldo sem Pavor", # 12th
    u"Nuno Álvares Pereira", # 14th
    u"Álvaro Vaz de Almada", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Afonso de Albuquerque", # 15th
    "Matias de Albuquerque", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    u"António José Severim de Noronha", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "Roderigo Lopez", # 16th
    iGlobal,
    u"Agostinho Lourenço", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivInca : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Yahuar Huacac", # 14th
    "fAsarpay", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Viracocha", # legendary
    "Ninan Cuyochi", # 16th
    "fPalla Chimpu Ocllo", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Sinchi Roca", # 12th
    "Mayta Qhapaq Inka", # 13th
    "Manqu Qhapaq", # 13th
    "Inka Roq'a", # 14th
    "Waskar Inka", # 16th
    "Titu Cusi", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Tupaq Inka Yupanki", # 15th
    "Felipillo", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Qhapaq Yunpanki Inka", # 14th
    "Sayri Tupaq Inka", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    u"Mayta Cápac", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Manco Inca Yupanqui", # 16th
    "fMama Huaco", # 16th
    u"Tápac Amaru", # 18th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Pachakutiq Inka Yupanki", # 15th
    "Atawallpa", # 16th
    "Manqu Inka Yupanki", # 16th
    "Thupaq Amaru", # 16th
    "Chalcuchimaq", # 16th
    "Quisquis", # 16th
    iRenaissance,
    "fBartolina Sisa", # 18th
    u"Túpac Amaru", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "fJuana Azurduy de Padilla", # 19th
    ],
    },
    iCivItaly : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Tommaso d'Aquino", # 13th
    "Francesco d'Assisi", # 13th
    "fGuglielma", # 13th
    "fCaterina di Giacomo di Benincasa", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Giuliano della Rovere", # 15th
    "Camillo Borghese", # 16th
    "Giulio de' Medici", # 16th
    "Matteo Ricci", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti", # 19th
    "Giovanni Bosco", # 19th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Dante Alighieri", # 13th
    "Giotto di Bondone", # 14th
    "Giovanni Boccaccio", # 14th
    "Donatello", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Michelangelo Buonarroti", # 16th
    "Raffaello Sanzio", # 16th
    "fSofonisba Anguissola", # 16th
    "Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio", # 16th
    "Claudio Monteverdi", # 17th
    "fArtemisia Gentileschi", # 17th
    "Antonio Vivaldi", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Alessandro Manzoni", # 19th
    "Giuseppe Verdi", # 19th
    "Giacomo Puccini", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Umberto Boccioni", # 20th
    "fGrazia Deledda", # 20th
    "Federico Fellini", # 20th
    u"Gian Maria Volontè", # Contest Reward
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "fTrotula di Salerno", # 12th
    "Francesco Petrarca", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Pico della Mirandola", # 15th
    "Giordano Bruno", # 16th
    "Galileo Galilei", # 16th
    "fElena Cornaro Piscopia", # 17th
    "Luigi Galvani", # 18th
    "Alessandro Volta", # 18th
    "fMaria Gaetana Agnesi", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Amedeo Avogadro", # 19th
    "Camillo Golgi", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fMaria Montessori", # 20th
    "Enrico Fermi", # 20th
    "fRita Levi-Montalcini", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Marco Polo", # 13th
    "Simone de' Bardi", # 13th
    "Giovanni de' Medici", # 14th
    "Donato Peruzzi", # 14th
    "Ciriaco de Ancona", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Giovanni Caboto", # 15th
    "Amerigo Vespucci", # 15th
    "fTullia d'Aragona", # 16th
    iGlobal,
    "Enzo Ferrari", # 20th
    "Gianni Versace", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Taccola", # 15th
    "Filippo Brunelleschi", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Leon Battista Alberti", # 15th
    "Leonardo da Vinci", # 15th
    "Donato Bramante", # 15th
    "Andrea Palladio", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "Alois Negrelli", # 19th
    "Antonio Meucci", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Guglielmo Marconi", # 20th
    "Giovanni Battista Caproni", # 20th
    "Angiolo Mazzoni", # 20th
    "Gabriele Trovato", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Giovanni Villani", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "fLucrezia Borgia", # 15th
    u"Niccolò Machiavelli", # 15th
    "fIsabella d'Este", # 16th
    "Francesco Guicciardini", # 16th
    "Giambattista Vico", # 18th
    "Cesare Beccaria", # 18th
    "Pasquale Paoli", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Giuseppe Garibaldi", # 19th
    "Giuseppe Mazzini", # 19th
    "Francesco Crispi", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Antonio Gramsci", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "fMatilde di Canossa", # 11th
    "Enrico Dandolo", # 13th
    "Simone Boccanegra", # 14th
    "Francesco Sforza", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Cesare Borgia", # 15th
    "Andrea Doria", # 16th
    "Sebastiano Venier", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "Alessandro Ferrero La Marmora", # 19th
    "Giuseppe Garibaldi", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Rodolfo Graziani", # 20th
    "Giovanni Messe", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "Andrea Gritti", # 15th
    "Gaspar Graziani", # 17th
    "Giacomo Casanova", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    "fLuisa Zeni", # 20th
    "Maurizio Giglio", # 20th
    "Rodolfo Siviero", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivMongols : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Abaqa", # 13th
    "Arghun", # 13th
    "Sartaq", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "Zanabazar", # 17th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Oghul Qaimish", # 13th
    "Tolui", # 13th
    "Uzbeg", # 14th
    iGlobal,
    "Siqin Gaowa", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Isa Khelmerchi", # 13th
    "Kaidu", # 13th
    "Nasir al-Din al-Tusi", # 13th (also Persian)
    "Ulugh Beg", # 15th
    "Mandukhai", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Nurhaci", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Hulagu", # 13th
    u"Güyük", # 13th
    "Mengu-Timur", # 13th
    "Gaykhatu", # 13th
    "Qawsun", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Altan", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Duwa", # 13th
    "Zhang Wenqian", # 13th
    "Toqta", # 14th
    "Ismail", # 14th
    iGlobal,
    "Li Siguang", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Batu Khan", # 13th
    "Urtu Saqal", # 13th
    "fOrghana", # 13th
    "Ghazan", # 13th
    u"Temür Khan", # 13th
    "Dayan Khan", # 15th
    iIndustrial,
    "Balingiin Tserendorj", # 19th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Toghril", # 12th
    "Ogodei", # 13th
    "Chagatai", # 13th
    u"Möngke", # 13th
    "fKhutulun", # 13th
    ],
    },
    iCivAztecs : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Tenoch", # 14th
    "Tlacateotl", # 15th
    "fPapantzin", # 15th
    "Ixtlilxochitl", # 15th
    "fYacotzin", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Cuacuauhtzin", # 15th
    "Nezahualcoyotl", # 15th
    "Xayacamach", # 15th
    "fMacuilxochitzin", # 15th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Axayacatl", # 15th
    "Ixtlilxochitl", # 16th
    "Coanacochtzin", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Cuauhtemoc", # 16th
    "Tlacotzin", # 16th
    "fTecuichpoch Ixcaxochitzin", # 16th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Itzcatl", # 15th
    "Tlacaelel", # 15th
    "Moquihuix", # 15th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Acamapichtli", # 14th
    "Quaquapitzahuac", # 15th
    "Tezozomoctli", # 15th
    "Nezahualcoyotl", # 15th
    "Nezahualpilli", # 15th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Tezozomoc", # 14th
    "Ahuitzotl", # 15th
    "Itzcoatl", # 15th
    "Maxtla", # 15th
    "Huitzilhuitl", # 15th
    "Chimalpopoca", # 15th
    ],
    },
    iCivMughals : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Guru Ram Das", # 16th
    "Guru Arjan", # 16th
    "Hiravijaya ji", # 16th
    "Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai", # 18th
    "Bulleh Shah", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Mirza Ghulam Ahmad", # 19th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Basawan", # 16th
    "fShahzadi Gulbadan Begum", # 16th
    "Abu al-Faiz ibn Mubarak", # 16th
    "Abd al-Samad", # 16th
    "Ustad Mansur", # 17th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Ali Kashmiri ibn Luqman", # 16th
    "Abu al-Faiz ibn Mubarak", # 16th
    "Abd-ul-Qadir Bada'uni", # 16th
    "Muhammad Salih Tahtawi", # 17th
    "Sawai Jai Singh", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Khwaja Nizam-ud-Din Ahmad", # 19th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Sher Shah Suri", # 16th
    "Raja Todar Mal", # 16th
    "Virji Vora", # 17th
    "Mir Jumla", # 17th
    "Yahya Saleh", # 16th
    "Khan Alam", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    "Mian Muhammad Mansha", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Fathullah Shirazi", # 16th
    "Ustad Ahmad Lahauri", # 17th
    "Muhammad Saleh Thattvi", # 17th
    iGlobal,
    "Abdur Rahman Hye", # 20th
    "Abdul Qadeer Khan", # 20th
    "Munir Ahmad Khan", # 20th
    "fYasmeen Lari", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "fRazia Sultana", # 13th
    "Ziauddin Barani", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Raja Birbal", # 16th
    "fMaham Anga", # 16th
    "Babur", # 16th
    "Abu'l-Fazl ibn Muhammad", # 16th
    iGlobal,
    "Muhammad Ali Jinnah", # 20th
    "Choudhry Ali", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur", # 15th
    "Mir Baqi", # 15th
    "Bayram Khan", # 16th
    "Abul Muzaffar Aurangzeb", # 17th
    "Abudullah Khan Barha", # 18th
    "Ali Vardi Khan", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "fBegum Hazrat Mahal", # 19th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "Hamid Gul", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivOttomans : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Sheikh Bedreddin", # 14th
    "Akshamsaddin", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Sabatai Zevi", # 17th
    "Yaakov Culi", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    u"Fethullah Gülen", # 20th
    u"Mustafa Çagrici", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Yunus Emre", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    u"Hayâlî", # 16th
    u"Fuzûlî", # 16th
    u"Gül Baba", # 16th
    u"Ahmet Nedîm Efendi", # 18th
    "Abdullah Buhari", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Osman Hamdi Bey", # 19th
    "fFatma Aliye Topuz", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fHalide Edib Adivar", # 20th
    "Mehmet Akif Ersoy", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Qazi Zada", # 14th
    "Serafeddin Sabuncuoglu", # 15th
    u"Ali Kusçu", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    u"Matrakçi Nasuh", # 16th
    u"Takiyüddin", # 16th
    u"Ibrahim Müteferrika", # 18th
    iGlobal,
    "Cahit Arf", # 20th
    "Oktay Sinanoglu", # 20th
    u"Feza Gürsey", # 20th
    "Aziz Sancar", # 21th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Piri Reis", # 16th
    "Seydi Ali Reis", # 16th
    u"Evliya Çelebi", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    u"Abdülmecid", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Hormuzd Rassam", # 20th
    "Nejat Eczacibashi", # 20th
    "Aydin Dogan", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Orban", # 15th
    "Atik Sinan", # 15th
    iRenaissance,
    "Mimar Sinan", # 16th
    "Davud Aga", # 16th
    u"Takiyüddin", # 16th
    iIndustrial,
    "Ishak Efendi", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Mimar Kemaleddin", # 20th
    u"Ekmel Özbay", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Sheikh Edebali", # 13th
    iRenaissance,
    "Pargali Ibrahim Pasha", # 16th
    "fHurrem Sultan", # 16th
    "Sokollu Mehmet Pasha", # 16th
    u"fKösem Sultan", # 17th
    iGlobal,
    u"Ismet Inönü", # 20th
    u"Süleyman Demirel", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Orhan", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Hayreddin Barbarossa", # 16th
    "Selim", # 16th
    "Turgut Reis", # 16th
    "Kara Mustafa Pasha", # 17th
    iGlobal,
    "fKara Fatma", # 20th
    "Ismail Enver", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    u"Süleyman Askerî", # 20th
    "fDespina Storch", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivThailand : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Lithai", # 14th (Mahathammaracha I)
    "Luang Pu Thuat", # 17th
    "Upali Thera", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Somdej Toh", # 19th
    "Paramanuchitchinorot", # 19th
    "Vajirananavarorasa", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Luang Pu Sodh Candasaro", # 20th
    "Phra Dharmakosacarya", # 20th
    "fChandra Khonnokyoong", # 20th
    "Ajahn Chah", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Si Prat", # 17th
    "Thammathibet", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Khrua In Khong", # 19th
    "Phra Phutthaloetla Naphalai", # 19th (Rama II)
    "Sunthorn Phu", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Pin Malakul", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Ramkhamhaeng", # 13th
    iIndustrial,
    "Dan Beach Bradley", # 19th
    "Damrong Rajanubhab", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Mahidol Adulyadej", # 20th
    "Phraya Anuman Rajadhon", # 20th
    "fKrisana Kraisintu", # 20th
    "Shaiwatna Kupratakul", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Uthong", # 14th
    "Yamada Nagamasa", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Low Kiok Chiang", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Puey Ungphakorn", # 20th
    "fLursakdi Sampatisiri", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Chettathirat", # 16th
    "Tok Kayan", # 17th
    iGlobal,
    "Ravi Ravendro", # 20th (a.k.a. Karl Döhring)
    "Ercole Manfredi", # 20th
    "Purachatra Jayakara", # 20th
    "Punya Thitimajshima", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Borommatrailokkanat", # 15h
    "Narai", # 17th
    "Kosa Pan", # 17th
    "Chaophraya Wichayen", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Prayurawongse", # 19th
    "Sri Suriwongse", # 19th
    "Chulalongkorn", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Pridi Banomyong", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Ramesuan", # 16th
    "Chaiyachetthathirat", # 16th
    "Taksin", # 18th
    "Phraya Phichai", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Thongduang", # 19th
    "Bodindecha", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Phraya Phahonphonphayuhasena", # 20th
    "Plaek Phibunsongkhram", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "fThao Suranari", # 19th
    ]
    },
    iCivCongo : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Nzinga a Nkuwu", # 15th
    "Kinu a Mvemba", # 16th
    "Ilunga Mbili", # 16th
    iRenaissance,
    "Nkanga a Lukeni a Nzenze a Ntumba", # 17th
    "fKimpa Vita", # 17th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "N'Gangue M'voumbe Niambi", # 17th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Mwata Yamvo", # 16th
    "Ng'anga Bilonda", # 16th
    "Kalala Ilunga", # 17th
    "fNzinga", # 17th
    iGlobal,
    "Patrice Lumumba", # 20th
    "Joseph Kasa-Vubu", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Lukeni lua Nimi", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "fNzinga", # 17th
    "Nusamu a Mvemba", # 18th
    "fKangala Kingwanda", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Mwenda Msiri Ngelengwa ****ambi", # 19th
    ],
    },
    iCivNetherlands : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Geert Grote", # 14th
    iRenaissance,
    "Desiderius Erasmus", # 16th
    "Menno Simons", # 16th
    "Jakob Hermanszoon", # 16th
    "Baruch Spinoza", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Abraham Kuyper", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fAlida Bosshardt", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Hendrick de Keyser", # 16th
    "Rembrandt van Rijn", # 17th
    "Johannes Vermeer", # 17th
    "Pieter Corneliszoon Hooft", # 17th
    "fTitia Bergsma", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Multatuli", # 19th
    "Vincent van Gogh", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Piet Mondrian", # 20th
    "Maurits Cornelis Escher", # 20th
    "fAnna Maria Geertruida Schmidt", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Willebrord Snel van Royen", # 16th
    "Christiaan Huygens", # 17th
    "Antonie van Leeuwenhoek", # 17th
    "Govert Bidloo", # 17th
    "fAnna Maria van Schurman", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Johannes Diderik van der Waals", # 19th
    "Hendrik Antoon Lorentz", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Jan Hendrik Oort", # 20th
    "Gerrit Pieter Kuiper", # 20th
    "Edsger Wybe Dijkstra", # 20th
    "Willem Johan Kolff", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Willem Barentsz", # 16th
    "Cornelis de Houtman", # 16th
    "fKenau Simonsdochter Hasselaer", # 16th
    "Antony van Diemen", # 17th
    "Abel Tasman", # 17th
    "Pieter Stuyvesant", # 17th
    "Jan van Riebeeck", # 17th
    "Jan Coen", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Clemens Brenninkmeijer", # 19th
    "August Kessler", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Freddy Heineken", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Simon Stevin", # 16th
    "Cornelis Corneliszoon", # 16th
    "Cornelis Drebbel", # 17th
    "Jan Leeghwater", # 17th
    "Menno van Coehoorn", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Adolphe Sax", # 19th
    "Cornelis Lely", # 19th
    "Hendrik Petrus Berlage", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Anton Philips", # 20th
    "Gerrit Rietveld", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Desiderius Erasmus", # 16th
    "Johan van Oldenbarnevelt", # 16th
    "Johan de Witt", # 17th
    "Adriaen van der Donck", # 17th
    "Hugo Grotius", # 17th
    "Cornelis de Graeff", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Johan Thorbecke", # 19th
    "fAletta Jacobs", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Willem Drees", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Maurits van Nassau", # 16th
    "Piet Pieterszoon Hein", # 16th
    "Michiel de Ruyter", # 17th
    "Frederik Hendrik", # 17th
    "Cornelis Tromp", # 17th
    iIndustrial,
    "Joannes Benedictus van Heutsz", # 19th
    "Henri Winkelman", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "fJohanna Brandt", # 19th
    "Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fMata Hari", # 20th
    "Dirk Klop", # 20th
    u"François van 't Sant", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivAmerica : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Joseph Smith", # 19th
    "fMary Baker Eddy", # 19th
    "fEllen G. White", # 19th
    "Charles Taze Russell", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Menachem Mendel Schneerson", # 20th
    "L. Ron Hubbard", # 20th
    "Billy Graham", # 20th
    "Malcolm Little", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Edgar Allan Poe", # 19th
    "Mark Twain", # 19th
    "fEmily Dickinson", # 19th
    "Herman Melville", # 19th
    "fMary Cassatt", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Howard Phillips Lovecraft", # 20th
    "Ernest Hemingway", # 20th
    "Charlie Chaplin", # 20th
    "Elvis Presley", # 20th
    "fHarper Lee", # 20th
    "Andy Warhol", # 20th
    "Miles Davis", # 20th
    "Jimi Hendrix", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Benjamin Franklin", # 18th
    "fNettie Stevens", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Arthur Compton", # 20th
    "Edwin Hubble", # 20th
    "John von Neumann", # 20th
    "Glenn Seaborg", # 20th
    "Robert Oppenheimer", # 20th
    "Richard Feynman", # 20th
    "fBarbara McClintock", # 20th
    "fGrace Hopper", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Cornelius Vanderbilt", # 19th
    "John D. Rockefeller", # 19th
    "Andrew Carnegie", # 19th
    "fHetty Green", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fHelena Rubinstein", # 20th
    "William Edward Boeing", # 20th
    "Bill Gates", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Thomas Edison", # 19th
    "Nikola Tesla", # 19th
    "Henry Ford", # 19th
    "Charles Goodyear", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Orville Wright", # 20th
    "Frank Lloyd Wright", # 20th
    "fLillian Moller Gilbreth", # 20th
    "fHedy Lamarr", # 20th
    "fMargaret Hutchinson Rousseau", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Thomas Paine", # 18th
    "Thomas Jefferson", # 18th
    "Benjamin Franklin", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Andrew Jackson", # 19th
    "fSojourner Truth", # 19th
    "Frederick Douglass", # 19th
    "fVictoria Claflin Woodhull", # 19th
    "fSusan B. Anthony", # 19th
    "fJane Addams", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fEleanor Roosevelt", # 20th
    "George Kennan", # 20th
    "Martin Luther King", # 20th
    "Henry Kissinger", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Andrew Jackson", # 19th
    "Ulysses S. Grant", # 19th
    "Robert E. Lee", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Dwight D. Eisenhower", # 20th
    "George Patton", # 20th
    "Douglas MacArthur", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "Benjamin Tallmadge", # 18th
    "Allan Pinkerton", # 19th
    "fBelle Boyd", # 19th
    "fElizabeth Van Lew", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "William J. Donovan", # 20th
    "J. Edgar Hoover", # 20th
    "James Jesus Angleton", # 20th
    "fVirginia Hall", # 20th
    "fElizabeth Friedman", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivMexico : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Juan Diego", # 16th
    "Francisco Javier Clavijero", # 18th
    u"Cristóbal Magallanes Jara", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"Rafael Guízar Valencia", # 20th
    "Miguel Pro", # 20th
    "Samuel Ruiz", # 20th
    u"Javier Lozano Barragán", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    u"fÁngela Peralta", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"José Clemente Orozco", # 20th
    "Diego Rivera", # 20th
    "fFrida Kahlo", # 20th
    "Octavio Paz", # 20th
    "fRemedios Varo", # 20th
    u"fDolores del Río", # 20th
    "Pedro Infante", # 20th
    "Carlos Fuentes", # 20th
    u"Vicente Fernández", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Gabino Barreda", # 19th
    u"Lucas Alamán", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Manuel Sandoval Vallarta", # 20th
    "Ricardo Miledi", # 20th
    u"Mario José Molina", # 20th
    "Rodolfo Neri Vela", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    u"Víctor Urquidi", # 20th
    u"Jerónimo Arango", # 20th
    "Carlos Slim", # 20th
    "Everardo Elizondo", # 20th
    u"Alberto Baillères", # 20th
    u"Emilio Azcárraga Jean", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    u"José Villagrán García", # 20th
    u"Luis Barragán", # 20th
    "Juan O'Gorman", # 20th
    "Mario Pani", # 20th
    u"Pedro Ramírez Vázquez", # 20th
    "Bernardo Quintana Arrioja", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    u"José María Pino Suárez", # 19th
    "Pascual Orozco", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"José Vasconcelos", # 20th
    "Octavio Paz", # 20th
    "fElvia Carrillo Puerto", # 20th
    "fRosario Castellanos", # 20th
    u"Alfonso García Robles", # 20th
    u"Gilberto Bosques Saldívar", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Miguel Hidalgo", # 18th
    u"Agustín de Iturbide", # 19th
    u"fJosefa Ortiz de Domínguez", # 19th
    u"Porfirio Díaz", # 19th
    "Pancho Villa", # 19th
    "Emiliano Zapata Salazar", # 19th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "fMargarita Ortega", # 19th
    ],
    },
    iCivArgentina : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Gauchito Gil", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Enrique Angelelli", # 20th
    "Carlos Mugica", # 20th
    "Jorge Mario Bergoglio", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    u"José Hernández", # 19th
    "fLola Mora", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Carlos Gardel", # 20th
    "fGabriela Mistral", # 20th
    "Jorge Luis Borges", # 20th
    "Antonio Berni", # 20th
    "Daniel Barenboim", # 20th
    u"Juan José Campanella", # 20th
    "Gustavo Cerati", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Francisco Moreno", # 19th
    "Florentino Ameghino", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Luis Federico Leloir", # 20th
    u"László Bíró", # 20th
    u"René Favaloro", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Juan Las Heras", # 19th
    "Otto Bemberg", # 19th
    "Ernesto Tornquist", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"José Ber Gelbard", # 20th
    "Roberto Alemann", # 20th
    "Jorge Wehbe", # 20th
    "Aldo Ferrer", # 20th
    "Antonio Cafiero", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Luis Huergo", # 19th
    "Jorge Newbery", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Amancio Williams", # 20th
    "Livio Dante Porta", # 20th
    "Clorindo Testa", # 20th
    u"César Pelli", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    "Juan Manuel de Rosas", # 19th
    "Domingo Faustino Sarmiento", # 19th
    "Estanislao Zeballos", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Carlos Saavedra Lamas", # 20th
    "Juan Atilio Bramuglia", # 20th
    u"fEva Perón", # 20th
    "Ernesto Guevara", # 20th
    u"fIsabel Martínez de Perón", # 20th
    "fEstela Barnes de Carlotto", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Cornelio Saavedra", # 18th
    "Manuel Belgrano", # 18th
    u"Juan José Castelli", # 18th
    u"Martín Miguel de Güemes", # 18th
    u"José Gervasio Artigas", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"Juan Carlos Onganía", # 20th
    "Jorge Rafael Videla", # 20th
    "Leopoldo Galtieri", # 20th
    "Jorge Anaya", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "Emilio Eduardo Massera", # 20th
    "Guillermo Gaede", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivColombia : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "fLaura Montoya", # 20th
    u"Félix Restrepo Mejía", # 20th
    "Camilo Torres Restrepo", # 20th
    u"Alfonso López Trujillo", # 20th
    u"Julio Enrique Dávila", # 20th
    u"fMaría Luisa Piraquive", # 20th
    u"César Castellanos", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Jorge Isaacs", # 19th
    u"Andrés de Santa Maria", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Rodrigo Arenas", # 20th
    u"Álvaro Mutis", # 20th
    u"Gabriel García Márquez", # 20th
    "Fernando Botero", # 20th
    "Rafael Orozco", # 20th
    u"Rodrigo García", # 20th
    "fShakira", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    u"José Jéronimo Triana", # 19th
    "Julio Garavito Armero", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"Rodolfo Llinás", # 20th
    "Jorge Reynolds Pombo", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "James Martin Eder", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Julio Mario Santo Domingo", # 20th
    u"Carlos Ardila Lülle", # 20th
    "Luis Carlos Sarmiento Angulo", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    u"Carlos Albán", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"Carlos Raúl Villanueva", # 20th
    "Rogelio Salmona", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    u"Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera", # 19th
    u"Rafael Núñez", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"Jorge Eliécer Gaitán", # 20th
    u"Nicolás Gómez Dávila", # 20th
    u"Mario Lanserna Pinzón", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "fAntonia Santos", # 19th
    u"Antonio Nariño", # 19th
    "Francisco de Paula Santander", # 19th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    u"fManuela Sáenz", # 19th
    ]
    },
    iCivBrazil : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    u"António Conselheiro", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"Hélder Câmara", # 20th
    u"fIrmã Dulce Pontes", # 20th
    "Chico Xavier", # 20th
    "Edir Macedo", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Aleijadinho", # 18th
    u"António Carlos Gomes", # 19th
    "Machado de Assis", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fTarsila do Amaral", # 20th
    "fCarmen Miranda", # 20th
    "Tom Jobim", # 20th
    "Romero Britto", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "Oswaldo Cruz", # 19th
    "Carlos Chagas", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Alberto Santos-Dumont", # 20th
    "Urbano Ernesto Stumpf", # 20th
    u"Aziz Ab'Sáber", # 20th
    "Marcelo Gleiser", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "Roberto Marinho", # 20th
    "Jorge Lemann", # 20th
    "Eike Batista", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    u"André Rebouças", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"Cândido Rondon", # 20th
    "Oscar Niemeyer", # 20th
    "Norberto Odebrecht", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    u"José Bonifácio de Andrada", # 18th
    iIndustrial,
    "Rodrigo Augusto da Silva", # 19th
    u"José Paranhos", # 19th
    u"fIsabel Bragança", # 19th
    "Miguel Reale", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Roberto Mangabeira Unger", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    u"Luís Alves de Lima e Silva", # 19th
    "Joaquim Marques Lisboa", # 19th
    u"fMaria Quitéria", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    u"João Baptista Mascarenhas de Morais", # 20th
    "Eurico Gaspar Dutra", # 20th
    "Artur da Costa e Silva", # 20th
    ],
    },
    iCivCanada : {
    iGreatProphet : [
    "Ignace Bourget", # 19th
    u"André Bessette", # 20th
    iGlobal,
    "Lionel Groulx", # 20th
    "George C. Pidgeon", # 20th
    u"fRúhíyyih Khánum", # 20th
    "Marshall McLuhan", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatArtist : [
    "Cornelius Krieghoff", # 19th
    u"Calixa Lavallée", # 19th
    "Tom Thomson", # 19th
    u"Émile Nelligan", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Lawren Harris", # 20th
    "fEmily Carr", # 20th
    "Jean-Paul Riopelle", # 20th
    "Neil Young", # 20th
    "fGabrielle Roy", # 20th
    "fAlice Munro", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatScientist : [
    "John William Dawson", # 19th
    "fMaude Abbott", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Frederick Banting", # 20th
    "Norman Bethune", # 20th
    "Wilder Penfield", # 20th
    "Pierre Dansereau", # 20th
    "fShirley Tilghman", # 20th
    "David Suzuki", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatMerchant : [
    "William McMaster", # 19th
    "Timothy Eaton", # 19th
    "Alphonse Desjardins", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "fElizabeth Arden", # 20th
    "Max Aitken", # 20th
    "Ted Rogers", # 20th
    u"Guy Laliberté", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatEngineer : [
    "Sandford Fleming", # 19th
    "William Cornelius Van Horne", # 19th
    "Alexander Graham Bell", # 19th
    "Reginald Fessenden", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Ernest Cormier", # 20th
    "Joseph-Armand Bombardier", # 20th
    "fElsie MacGill", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatStatesman : [
    u"George-Étienne Cartier", # 19th
    "Louis Riel", # 19th
    "Henri Bourassa", # 19th
    iGlobal,
    "Lester B. Pearson", # 20th
    "fEmily Murphy", # 20th
    "fNellie McClung", # 20th
    "Tommy Douglas", # 20th
    u"René Lévesque", # 20th
    "fLouise Arbour", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatGeneral : [
    "Arthur Currie", # 20th
    "Andrew McNaughton", # 20th
    "Billy Bishop", # 20th
    u"Roméo Dallaire", # 20th
    ],
    iGreatSpy : [
    "William Stephenson", # 20th
    "Guy D'Artois", # 20th
    "Igor Gouzenko", # 20th
    ],
     
    Publicola likes this.
  14. DC123456789

    DC123456789 Deity

    Joined:
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    It depends on exactly what you want for the Epics. I was coming from the angle that it doesn't necessarily have to be an epic poem per se, but rather any piece of literature more generally that's representative of the civilization involved (I mean, otherwise we'd be missing out on awful lot of rather iconic literature). I do agree that Anne of Green Gables doesn't really have the gravitas that I assume most other examples will, but I really cannot think of a single piece of Canadian literature that would even remotely compare to it. I mean you could still say something about how it's emblematic of how Canadian history (or at least how Canadians would like to think about it) is not really about great martial feats or a long glorious history, but rather focusing on the smaller (but more arguably relevant) parts of life. Could go along nicely with the inversion of In Flanders Fields as the Heroic Epic, actually.
     
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  15. ozqar

    ozqar King

    Joined:
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    Gender:
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    The Netherlands
    This is a very cool idea! If we get too strict about the definitions, we'll have problems finding suitable pieces of literature for each civ, so I'd say it's fine to select non-epic pieces that serve similar roles for those civs.

    Some suggestions to consider:
    Babylonia: The Epic of Gilgamesh (heroic) and Inanna's Descent into the Underworld (national)
    India: Ramayana (alternative to the Bahavarata?)
    Persia: Shahnameh (heroic)
    Vikings: Edda (heroic)
    Tamils: Aimperumkāppiyaṅkaḷ or Five Great Epics (national) (you can also choose one of the five)
    Maya: The Popol Vuh (heroic) and the Chilam Balam (national)
    Aztecs: The Crónica Mexicayotl (heroic) and either the Cantares Mexicanos or the Huei Tlamahuiçoltica (national) (The Huei Tlamahuiçoltica narrates events after the Spanish conquest, but it is much more telling of the formation of a later Mexican national identity, while the Cantares Mexicanos talks more about aztec culture before the conquest; I'd vote for the Cantares)
    Tibet: Epic of King Gesar (heroic) and the Bardo Thodol or Liberation Through Hearing During the Intermediate State (ie, the Tibetan Book of the Dead) (national)
    England: Beowulf (heroic) or the Historia Regum Britanniae (which talks about King Arthur, could be national or heroic)
    France: Chanson de Roland (heroic)
    Spain: Cantar de Mio Cid (heroic) and The Ingenious Nobleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha (national)
    Italy: Divine Comedy (national)
    Portugal: Os Lusiadas (heroic)
     
    Enyavar and Publicola like this.
  16. Publicola

    Publicola Prince

    Joined:
    Apr 26, 2014
    Messages:
    574
    Definitely Gilgamesh, but for the national epic, I was thinking of the Akkadian creation myth, Enûma Eliš. Is anyone familiar with these works, and can speak to which is more representative of Assyrian or Babylonian culture?

    I know we'll want to use the 'Prose Edda' as one and the 'Poetic Edda' (from the Codex Regius) for the other, but I have no idea which should be classified as national v. heroic.

    Any suggestions as to which one specifically? The Silappadikaram is listed prominently on the 'national epic' wiki page, and it was probably the first of the Five Great Epics to be written. None of the five seem to work as heroic epics, though.

    EDIT: the Ramavataram might be a decent 'heroic epic' candidate.

    Not familiar with either, but you sound like you know what you're talking about, so...

    Considering 'Aztec' and 'Mexico' are listed as different civs, the Aztecs should definitely stick with the Cantares. We can include the Huei one as Mexico's national epic. Any thoughts on what should be Mexico's heroic epic?

    It's not clear from the wiki that the Bardo Thodol had a significant cultural impact on Tibet, or would be considered the epitome of Tibetan culture. It's not even clear it's the most significant product of Nyingma, let alone Tibetan Buddhism.

    England has two strong candidates for heroic epic: Beowulf, and La Morte d'Arthur. The Arthurian Legend could pretty easily stretch to cover the 'national epic' slot, though. De gestis Britonum (the original name for the Historia) is another strong candidate, though.

    If we want to stick with a distinctive cultural product from the period when France was defining its identity and culture, then Romance of the Rose is a strong candidate. OTOH, it's pretty obscure nowadays, so something more like Les Miserables (defining the post-revolutionary identity) or another work by Hugo (or for that matter Dumas) might suit instead.

    Nice picks -- I definitely support these.

    For Italy's heroic epic, Orlando Furioso seems like a strong candidate, though it basically retells the Song of Roland, so it may not be distinctly Italian in character (as opposed to more 'medieval European', broadly defined). The Decameron is absolutely Italian in character, but it overlaps heavily with the Divine Comedy as a national (rather than heroic) epic.
     
    Last edited: Jan 16, 2019
  17. TJDowling

    TJDowling King

    Joined:
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    Messages:
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    You're not wrong. I'm not exactly excited about Anne of Green Gables. I think it has the most international fame of Canadian literature other than Life of Pi and some of Margaret Atwood's works and unlike those it has more of a historical setting. Unfortunately, French-Canada is often overlooked in questions of Canada's cultural identity and any works important to Quebec culture are probably not important to the rest of Canada. I am of mixed English and French Canadian background so I get your feeling.

    "The Hockey Sweater" ou rather "Le Chandail de Hockey" by Roch Carrier? Can French and English Canada agree on the importance of this cultural epic? Maybe that's just my French-Canadian side thinking it's important. I think though it talks about a singular boy's struggle. It speaks about the much larger picture of Canadian biculturalism. Simultaneously united and divided by our love of hockey. (Also fittng that the new Civ 6 expansion includes Canada with "Hockey rink" as the unique improvement, lol)
     
  18. merijn_v1

    merijn_v1 Black Belt

    Joined:
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    Maybe this helps:
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_epic

    For the Netherlands, I suggest Van den vos Reynaerde as Heroic Epic.
    For the National Epic, I suggest De Klucht van de Koe.

    For the images, the default size for wondermovies/images is 512x512. I think it is nice if all images do have the same size. For that, I think we should search for images at least that size.
     
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  19. DC123456789

    DC123456789 Deity

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    Location:
    Canada
    The Hockey Sweater actually does kind of work, although I'm not sure how well known it is outside of Canada. It might also be a bit too new, IMO.

    On the other hand, Wikipedia actually does list Anne of Green Gables as a National Epic... :lol:
     
  20. Steb

    Steb King

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    This is a good idea I think! Less internationally known than Anne of Green Gables, sure, but I don't think international fame should be that strong of a criterion. And we already have a ready quote, the one that used to be on the $5 bill: "The winters of my childhood were long, long seasons. We lived in three places – the school, the church and the skating rink – but our real life was on the skating rink." I'm not sure if there'd be copyright issues but there are nice pictures from the original book we could use.

    But if the consensus is that Anne of Green Gables is the national epic of Canada, I'm willing to accept that.

    Les Misérables is a good choice for the French national epic, with La Chanson de Roland as the heroic epic. In my opinion it's nice if both epics come from different periods (rather than both being medieval for instance).

    The Popop Vuh should be one for sure. The Chilam Balam seems to have been written after Spanish colonization; perhaps either the Rabinal Achí (a play that is still performed every year in Guatemala) or the Título de Totonicapán would be good choices instead.
     

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