Thanks vadalaz. One spare GS can be a bit misleading. I waited for a T178 natural GS to use my GE on Hubble; I had very little 'extra' research, so there wasn't much room to improve on this specifically - maybe 1 turn? Two or more extra GS at the end, however, is a big deal! Bulbing I've been starting my bulbing too late. By extension, I've been continuing to build buildings too late, and to a lesser degree not working all specialist spots early enough. As I wrote previously, I'd been trying to build every specialist building in every city. In this game, I hit Plastics T154, waited until T155 for Mercantilism to purchase 5/6 Labs, and then a couple turns later purchased the 6th. In a previous play-through, I bought 3 and built 3 - this was a mistake. The cities I'd used to build labs (500 hammers) could have spent less turns building a bank or stock exchange (360 hammers), bought Labs a few turns later, and switched to building science earlier AND worked more specialist slots. Mid-game build, I've started thinking about how many more buildings I'll finish before bulbing and making decisions ~50 turns in advanced re: build order. For example, I used to try and get all +production buildings ASAP, which often led to no Stock Exchange (sometimes no Bank!) or building them as I bulb. Bearing in mind that I already had workshops, watermills, and stables (if worthwhile), in this final play-through I elected to build +gold buildings over windmill and factory in expos (capital still built every specialist building except musicians guild). Rough turn numbers T154 Plastics T155 bought 5/6 labs T158-159 bought 6th lab T164-165 started bulbing GS (I had planted 0 and used 1 on Plastics), so that's 16-17 turns from the finish and 27 turns from Plastics to finish I forget my # of GS, but I did produce one GE (and faith bought one) and faith-bought 3 GS. So, 2 GS from Hubble, 3 from faith, 1 each from Porcelain Tower and LToP = 7...probably 11 used late-game. In the future, I'll likely aim to start bulbing 16-20 turns out from expected finish, targeting 20 but willing to wait and finish up a 2-turn tech, ex. Flight. If things are going very well, that should be 8-10 turns after Plastics. Someday I might even start using RAs again, though I find so many other uses for gold for 90% of the game. I previously put more emphasis on purchasing buildings (Universities, Observatories, and Public Schools in particular), but have shifted that emphasis somewhat to putting cities in a position to build things quicker. For a lower production (ex. jungle) city, that means buying some riverside hills and, whereas I was in the habit of always working the highest yield food tiles, now balance that a bit more to ensure there is at least some production taking place. I'm not talking about early growth, but once the city is say 8+ pop and the decision is between production and a 2-3 yield food tile (as opposed to 4 food). Metal Casting before Education I was used to teching Education, Astronomy (if applicable), and then Metal Casting. I believe that got me to Printing Press earlier and made LToP secure; however, I think Metal Casting first (especially with 6+ cities) wins out in the long-run, and might catch up around Scientific Theory. I did have to replay and bribe-start 2 wars, as someone was building LToP T12x (I don't check what other capitals are building and play in Strategic view), so if playing without replays in the future I may have a tough decision on tech order. I went 6-city NC, rather than 4-city NC + 2. I had considerable gold from natural wonders (and knowing where they'd be), so that skews things, but I found things much smoother getting all cities planted before NC and getting Metal Casting before Education. THANK YOU to anyone posting awesome maps like this Spain one!!!