The Khmer card (next week?) is colorful enough for two... Well, as Bernd Roeck put it: "Great cultures never have autochthonous or national roots." Sure, people and traditions from different places are involved with the scriptoriums and it's not a Frankish invention at all (Western European monasteries are of course as you point out heavily influenced by Benedictus' rules and life, and the monastic life in turn comes, via some detours, from the Egyptian desert fathers). That was not quite my point. The Carolingian Minuscule is also not a sudden invention, it's a development lasted over several decades. Early forms of it appear in French monasteries (e.g. Corbie) before Charlemagne was even crowned, possibly influenced by Irish monks. It's 'final' form appears in Tours with Albinus/Alkuin. So, the development happened within Frankish land and culture, and heavily relied on the present infrastructure and circumstances (Charlemagne's goals) at this time and place. That is what I meant to point out. I understood the scriptorium EQ in HK as an architectural manifestation of said events, which turned out to have utmost importance for medieval Europe, allowing written discourses and shared heritage detached from still-alive individuals over a larger part of the continent again (although not with quite the same world-changing impact as Gutenberg's milestone later on) - until today, as we know a substantial amount of classical works from versions written in this script during Frankish rule. A different story than the 'borrowed" longbows.