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Senshi's Civs

Discussion in 'Civ5 - New Civilizations' started by senshidenshi, Apr 30, 2016.

  1. Guandao

    Guandao Rajah of Minyue and Langkasuka

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    Nurhaci's entry

    Spoiler :
    Nurhaci
    History

    Nurhaci was a Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. Nurhaci was part of the Aisin Gioro clan, and reigned from 1616 to his death in September 1626. Nurhaci reorganized and united various Jurchen tribes (the later "Manchu"), consolidated the Eight Banners military system, and eventually launched attacks on Ming China and Joseon Korea. His conquest of Ming China's northeastern Liaoning province laid the groundwork for the conquest of the rest of China by his descendants, who founded the Qing dynasty in 1644. He is also generally credited with ordering the creation of a written script for the Manchu language.
    Names
    The meaning of the name Nurhaci in the Manchu language is "the skin of a wild boar". Regarded as the founding father of the Qing dynasty, he is given the customary temple name of Taizu, which is traditionally assigned to founders of dynasties. His name is also alternatively spelled Nurgaci, Nurhachi, or Nu-er-ha-chi (the last of these simply the transcription of the Chinese characters used to write his name). Nurhaci was the last chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens and First Khan of the Later Jin dynasty. His title in Manchu as Khan was Geren gurun-be ujire genggiyen Han ("Brilliant Khan Who Benefits All Nations"). His regnal name was Tianming, in Mongolian Tengri-yin Süldetü. It means "The Emperor of Heaven's Mandate." He was given a posthumous name in 1736, the shortened form of which was "Emperor Gao".
    Early Life
    Nurhaci was born in 1559. Being a member of the Gioro clan of the Suksuhu River tribe, Nurhaci also claimed descent from Möngke Temür, a Jurchen headman who lived some two centuries earlier. According to Chinese sources, the young man grew up as a soldier in the household of the Ming dynasty general Li Chengliang in Fushun, where he learned Chinese. He named his clan Aisin Gioro around 1612, when he formally ascended the throne as the Khan of the Later Jin dynasty. In 1582, Nurhaci's father Taksi and grandfather Giocangga were killed in an attack on Gure (now a village in Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County) by a rival Jurchen chieftain, Nikan Wailan ("Nikan Wailan" means "secretary of Chinese people" in the Jurchen language, thus his existence is suspected by some historians.) while being led by Li Chengliang. The following year, Nurhaci began to unify the Jurchen bands around his area. In 1584, when Nurhaci was 25, he attacked Nikan Wailan at Tulun (today a village in Xinbin too) to avenge the deaths of his father and grandfather, who are said to have left him nothing but thirteen suits of armor. Nikan Wailan fled away to Erhun, which Nurhaci attacked again in 1587. Nikan Wailan this time fled to Li Chengliang's territory. Later, as a way to build relationship, Li gave Nikan Wailan to Nurhaci, who beheaded him immediately. With Li's support, Nurhaci gradually grew his strength in the following years.
    Unifying the Jurchen Tribes
    In 1593, an alliance of nine tribes composed of Yehe, Hada, Ula, Hoifa, Khorchin, Sibe, Guwalca, Jušeri, and Neyen attacked Nurhaci and were defeated at the Battle of Gure. From 1599 to 1618, Nurhaci sets out on a campaign against the four Hulun tribes. He began by attacking the Hada in 1599 and conquering them in 1603. Then in 1607, Hoifa was also conquered with the death of its beile Baindari, followed by an expedition against Ula and its beile Bujantai in 1613, and finally the Yehe and its beile Gintaisi at the Battle of Sarhu in 1619. In 1599, Nurhaci gave two of his translators, Erdeni Bagshi and Dahai Jarguchi, the task of creating a Manchu alphabet by adapting the Mongolian script. In 1606, he was granted the title of Kundulun Khan by the Mongols. At the Battle of Sarhu Nurhaci defeated a four pronged Chinese offensive intended to capture his capital of Hetu Ala by concentrating his forces in one column at a time. In 1616, Nurhaci declared himself Khan and founded the Jin dynasty (aisin gurun), often called the Later Jin in reference to the legacy of the earlier Jurchen Jin dynasty of the 12th century. He constructed a palace at Mukden (present-day Shenyang, Liaoning). The "Later Jin" was renamed to "Qing" by his son Hong Taiji after his death in 1626, however Nurhaci is usually referred to as the founder of the Qing dynasty. In order to help with the newly organized administration, five of his trusted companions were appointed as his chief councilors, Anfiyanggū, Eidu, Hūrhan, Fiongdon, and Hohori. Nurhaci captured Liaoyang in 1621 and made it the capital of his empire until 1625. Only after he became Khan did he finally unify the Ula (clan of his consort Lady Abahai, mentioned below) and the Yehe Nara clan, the clan of his consort Monggo. Nurhaci chose to variously emphasize either differences or similarities in lifestyles with other peoples like the Mongols for political reasons. Nurhaci said to the Mongols that "The languages of the Chinese and Koreans are different, but their clothing and way of life is the same. It is the same with us Manchus and Mongols. Our languages are different, but our clothing and way of life is the same." Later Nurhaci indicated that the bond with the Mongols was not based in any real shared culture, rather it was for pragmatic reasons of "mutual opportunism", when he said to the Mongols: "You Mongols raise livestock, eat meat and wear pelts. My people till the fields and live on grain. We two are not one country and we have different languages."
    Challenging Ming China and Death
    In 1618, Nurhaci commissioned a document entitled the Seven Grievances in which he enumerated seven problems with Ming rule and began to rebel against the domination of the Ming dynasty. A majority of the grievances dealt with conflicts against Yehe, and Ming favouritism of Yehe. In 1621, Nurhaci started the construction of a new palace for his Later Jin dynasty's capital in Mukden. Nurhaci led many successful engagements against the Ming Chinese, the Koreans, the Mongols, and other Jurchen clans, greatly enlarging the territory under his control. The first capitals of the state established by Nurhaci were Fe Ala and Hetu Ala. Han Chinese participated in the construction of Hetu Ala, the capital of Nurhaci's state. Defectors from the Ming side played a massive role in the Qing conquest of the Ming. Ming generals who defected to the Manchus were often married to women from the Aisin Gioro clan while lower-ranked defectors were given non-imperial Manchu women as wives. Nurhaci arranged for a marriage between one of his granddaughters and the Ming general Li Yongfang after Li surrendered Fushun in Liaoning to the Manchus in 1618. The Han prisoner of war Gong Zhenglu (Onoi) was appointed to instruct Nurhaci's sons and received gifts of slaves, wives, and a domicile from Nurhaci after Nurhaci rejected offers of payment to release him back to his relatives. Nurhaci had treated Han in Liaodong differently according to how much grain they had, those with less than 5 to 7 sin were treated like chattel while those with more than that amount were rewarded with property. Due to a revolt by Han in Liaodong in 1623, Nurhachi, who previously gave concessions to conquered Han subjects in Liaodong, turned against them and ordered that they no longer be trusted and enacted discriminatory policies and killings against them, while ordering that Han who assimilated to the Jurchen (in Jilin) before 1619 be treated equally as Jurchens were and not like the conquered Han in Liaodong. By May 1621, Nurhaci had conquered the cities of Liaoyang and Shenyang. In April 1625, he designated Shenyang the new capital city, which would hold that status until the Qing conquest of the Ming in 1644. Finally, in 1626, Nurhaci suffered the first serious military defeat of his life at the hands of the Ming general Yuan Chonghuan. Nurhaci was wounded by the Portuguese-made cannons in Yuan's army at the Battle of Ningyuan. Unable to recover either physically or mentally, he died two days later in Aiji Fort; in present-day Da'aijinbao Village, Dijia Township, Yuhong District, Shenyang) on 30 September at the age of 68. His tomb is located east of Shenyang.
    Post-Death
    The details of Hong Taiji's succession as the Khan of the Later Jin dynasty are unclear. When he died in late 1626, Nurhaci did not designate an heir; instead he encouraged his sons to rule collegially. Three of his sons and a nephew were the "four senior beiles": Daishan (43 years old), Amin (son of Nurhaci's brother Shurhaci; 40 or 41), Manggūltai (38 or 39), and Hong Taiji himself (33). On the day after Nurhaci's death, they coerced his primary consort Lady Abahai (1590–1626)––who had borne him three sons: Ajige, Dorgon, and Dodo––to commit suicide to accompany him in death. This gesture has made some historians suspect that Nurhaci had in fact named the fifteen-year-old Dorgon as a successor, with Daishan as regent. By forcing Dorgon's mother to kill herself, the princes removed a strong base of support for Dorgon. The reason such intrigue was necessary is that Nurhaci had left the two elite Yellow Banners to Dorgun and Dodo, who were the sons of Lady Abahai. Hong Taiji exchanged control of his two White Banners for that of the two Yellow Banners, shifting their influence and power from his young brothers onto himself. According to Hong Taiji's later recollections, Amin and the other beile were willing to accept Hong Taiji as Khan, but Amin then would have wanted to leave with his Bordered Blue Banner, threatening to dissolve Nurhaci's unification of the Jurchens. Eventually the older Daishan worked out a compromise that allowed Hong Taiji as the Khan, but almost equal to the other three senior beiles. Hong Taiji would eventually find ways to become the undisputed leader.
    Judgment of History
    In his conquest of parts of Northeastern Ming ruled territories, Nurhaci helped create the foundation for the later Qing Dynasty, whose rulers were his descendants. Among the most lasting contributions Nurhaci left his descendants was the establishment of the Eight Banners, which would eventually form the backbone of the military that dominated the Qing Empire. The status of Banners did not change much over the course of Nurhaci's lifetime, nor in subsequent reigns, remaining mostly under the control of the royal family. The two elite Yellow Banners were consistently under Nurhaci's control. The two Blue Banners were controlled by Nurhaci's brother Shurhaci until he died, at which point the Blue Banners were given to Shurhaci's two sons, Chiurhala and Amin. Nurhaci's eldest son, Cuyen, controlled the White Banner for most of his father's reign until he rebelled. Then the Bordered White Banner was given to Nurhaci's grandson and the Plain White was given to his eighth son and heir, Hong Taiji. However, by the end of Nurhaci's reign, Hong Taiji controlled both White Banners. Finally, the Red Banner was run by Nurhaci's second son Daišan. Later in Nurhaci's reign, the Bordered Red Banner was handed down to his son. Daišan and his son would continue holding the two Red Banners well into the end of Hong Taiji's reign.


    Bannermen entry

    Spoiler :
    Bannerman (Manchu Banner Cavalry)
    The Eight Banners were administrative/military divisions under the Qing dynasty into which all Manchu households were placed. In war, the Eight Banners functioned as armies, but the banner system was also the basic organizational framework of all of Manchu society. Created in the early 17th century by Nurhaci, the banner armies played an instrumental role in his unification of the fragmented Jurchen people and in the Qing dynasty's conquest of the Ming dynasty. As Mongol and Han forces were incorporated into the growing Qing military establishment, the Mongol Eight Banners and Han Eight Banners were created alongside the original Manchu banners. The banner armies were considered the elite forces of the Qing military, while the remainder of imperial troops were incorporated into the vast Green Standard Army. Membership in the banners became hereditary, and bannermen were granted land and income. After the defeat of the Ming dynasty, Qing emperors continued to rely on the Eight Banners in their subsequent military campaigns. After the Ten Great Campaigns of the Qianlong Emperor, the quality of banner troops gradually decreased, and by the 19th century the task of defending the empire had largely fallen upon regional armies such as the Xiang Army. Over time, the Eight Banners became synonymous with Manchu identity even as their military strength vanished. Initially, Nurhaci's forces were organized into small hunting parties of about a dozen men related by blood, marriage, clan, or place of residence, as was the typical Jurchen custom. In 1601, with the number of men under his command growing, Nurhaci reorganized his troops into companies of 300 households. Five companies made up a battalion, and ten battalions a banner. Four banners were originally created: Yellow, White, Red, and Blue, each named after the color of its flag. By 1614, the number of companies had grown to around 400. In 1615, the number of banners was doubled through the creation of "bordered" banners. The troops of each of the original four banners would be split between a plain and a bordered banner. The bordered variant of each flag was to have a red border, except for the Bordered Red Banner, which had a white border instead. The banner armies expanded rapidly after a string of military victories under Nurhaci and his successors. Beginning in the late 1620s, the Jurchens incorporated allied and conquered Mongol tribes into the Eight Banner system. In 1635, Hong Taiji, son of Nurhaci, renamed his people from Jurchen to Manchu. That same year the Mongols were separated into the Mongol Eight Banners. Between 1637 and 1642, the Old Han Army, mostly made up of Liaodong natives who had surrendered at Yongping, Fushun, Dalinghe, etc., were organized into the Chinese Eight Banners. The original Eight Banners were thereafter referred to as the Manchu Eight Banners. Although still called the "Eight Banners" in name, there were now effectively twenty-four banner armies, eight for each of the three main ethnic groups. Among the Banners gunpowder weapons, such as muskets and artillery, were specifically wielded by the Chinese Banners. During the Boxer Rebellion, 1899–1901, 10,000 Bannermen were recruited from the Metropolitan Banners and given modernized training and weapons. One of these was the Hushenying. Many Manchu Bannermen in Beijing supported the Boxers and shared their anti-foreign sentiment. The Manchu Bannermen were devastated by the fighting during the Boxer Rebellion, sustaining enormous casualties during the war and subsequently being driven into desperate poverty. By the late 19th century, the Qing Dynasty began training and creating New Army units based on Western training, equipment and organization. Nevertheless, the banner system remained in existence until the fall of the Qing in 1911, and even beyond, with a rump organization continuing to function until the expulsion of Puyi (the former Xuantong emperor) from the Forbidden City in 1924. At the end of the Qing dynasty, all members of the Eight Banners, regardless of their original ethnicity, were considered by the Republic of China to be Manchu.


    Green Standard Army entry

    Spoiler :
    Green Standard Army
    The Green Standard Army was the name of a category of military units under the control of Qing dynasty China. It was made up mostly of ethnic Han soldiers and operated concurrently with the Manchu-Mongol-Han Eight Banner armies. In areas with a high concentration of Hui people, Muslims served as soldiers in the Green Standard Army. After the Qing consolidated control over China, the Green Standard Army was primarily used as a police force. The original Green Standard troops were the soldiers of the Ming commanders who surrendered to the Qing in 1644 and after. Their troops enlisted voluntarily and for long terms of service; they usually came from the socially disadvantaged, and remained segregated from Chinese society, partly because of the latter's deep anti-military bias during the late Ming period, and partly because they were paid too poorly and irregularly to marry and support a family. The Qing relied on the Green Standard soldiers, made out of defected Han Chinese Ming military forces who joined the Qing, in order to help rule northern China. It was Green Standard Han Chinese troops who actively military governed China locally while Han Chinese Bannermen, Mongol Bannermen, and Manchu Bannermen who were only brought into emergency situations where there was sustained military resistance. From the 18th century onwards, the Green Standard Army served primarily as a gendarmerie or constabulary force, designed to maintain local law and order and quell small-scale disturbances. However, it also contributed the bulk of forces dispatched in major campaigns. The Green Standard Army was extremely fragmented, with literally thousands of large and small outposts throughout the empire, many with as few as twelve men. It was divided into garrisons of battalion size, reporting through regional brigade generals to commanders-in-chief in each province. Governors and governor-generals each had a battalion of Green Standard troops under their personal command, but their primary duties lay in the judicial and revenue areas rather than coping with invasion or rebellion. During peacetime, it was rare for one officer to command more than 5,000 men. Strictly speaking, the Green Standard Army was not a hereditary force, although the dynasty directed its recruiting efforts primarily at sons and other relatives of serving soldiers. Enlistment was considered a lifetime occupation, but it was generally very simple to be reclassified as a civilian. A system of rotation was used for Green Standard troops in frontier areas. In Kashgaria, troops of the Green Standard from Shaanxi and Gansu had to serve for three-year tours of duty, later increased to five years, then returned home.
     
  2. senshidenshi

    senshidenshi Switched the Red and Blue channels

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    These are excellent dude, great job! :D I can't think of a better way to hit 200 replies ;)

    Now all I need to do is to stop procrastinating on the Manchu lua. Oh, and to get someone to make me Decisions :p
     
  3. JFD

    JFD Kathigitarkh

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    *swoops in to procrastinate essay writing*

    Stop procrastinating! This is an imperial order. I will send a Lunaala after you if you do not comply. Resistance is futile unless you have a Zubat with Astonish because that will OHKO it.

    *swoops out to stop procrastinating essay writing*

    :D
     
  4. poom3619

    poom3619 Ping Pang Poom!

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    Why are you threaten people with Mega Olympia :p I tell you, I have Rattata. My Rattata is different from regular Rattata. It’s like my Rattata is in the top percentage of Rattatas., and he will use Bite and OHKO your Mega Olympia. :D

    Anyway Senshi, you might want to check out this link for Manchu music.

    http://thisplaylist.com/song/play-mp3/you-you-zha-man.html
     
  5. Guandao

    Guandao Rajah of Minyue and Langkasuka

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    So I assume Manchu will be released before the Nenets and Evenks?
     
  6. senshidenshi

    senshidenshi Switched the Red and Blue channels

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    Oh, almost certainly. I mean, I have practically all art and most of the code for the Manchu, while I don't even have a design for the Evenks.
     
  7. Klisz

    Klisz King

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    What about this?
     
  8. senshidenshi

    senshidenshi Switched the Red and Blue channels

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    I meant a good/completed design :p
     
  9. Hoop Thrower

    Hoop Thrower Cyberbolivarian Inkarri

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    What about this?

     
  10. senshidenshi

    senshidenshi Switched the Red and Blue channels

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    There's some good stuff here, but I feel the design is very reminiscent of the Nenets', which is something I want to avoid.

    If I could get someone to do the model, a Shevenchedek UI could be great.
     
  11. Guandao

    Guandao Rajah of Minyue and Langkasuka

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    Evenks pedia entry

    Spoiler :
    The Evenks
    History

    The Evenks are a Tungusic people of Northern Asia. They are recognized as an indigenous people in Russia, and are also one of the official 56 ethnic groups in the People’s Republic of China. The Evenki language is the largest of the northern group of the Manchu-Tungus languages, a group which also includes the Even and Negidal languages.
    Geography and Climate
    The Evenks are spread over a huge territory of the Siberian taiga from the River Ob in the west to the Okhotsk Sea in the east, and from the Arctic Ocean in the north to Manchuria and Sakhalin in the south. The total area of their habitat is about 2,500,000 km². In all of Russia only the Russians inhabit a larger territory. According to the administrative structure, the Evenks live, from west to east, in Tyumen and Tomsk Oblasts, Krasnoyarsk Krai with Evenk Autonomous Okrug, Irkutsk, Chita, and Amur Oblasts, the Buryat and the Sakha Republics, Khabarovsk Krai, and Sakhalin Oblast. However, the territory where they are a titular nation is confined solely to Evenk Autonomous Okrug, where 3,802 of the 35,527 Evenks live (according to the 2002 Census). More than 18,200 Evenks live in the Sakha Republic. Sakha is known for its climate extremes, with the Verkhoyansk Range being the coldest area in the Northern Hemisphere. Some of the lowest natural temperatures ever recorded have been here. The Northern Hemisphere's Pole of Cold is at Verkhoyansk, where the temperatures reached as low as −67.8 °C (−90.0 °F) in 1892, and at Oymyakon, where the temperatures reached as low as −71.2 °C (−96.2 °F) in 1926. According to the 2000 Census, there are 30,505 Evenks in China mainly made up of the Solons and the Khamnigans. 88.8% of China's Evenks live in the Hulunbuir region in the north of the Inner Mongolia Province, near the city of Hailar. The Evenk Autonomous Banner is also located near Hulunbuir. There are also around 3,000 Evenks in neighbouring Heilongjiang Province. Throughout the region, the climate is based off a four-season, monsoon climate. The winters in Inner Mongolia are very long, cold, and dry with frequent blizzards, though snowfall is so light that Inner Mongolia has no modern glaciers, even on the highest Helan peaks. The spring is short, mild and arid, with large, dangerous sandstorms, whilst the summer is very warm to hot and relatively humid except in the west where it remains dry. Autumn is brief and sees a steady cooling, with temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F) reached in October in the north and November in the south.
    Names
    The Evenks were formerly known as tungus. This designation was spread by the Russians, who acquired it from the Yakuts and the Siberian Tatars (in the Yakut language tongus) in the 17th century. The Evenks have several self-designations, of which the best known is evenk. This became the official designation for the people in 1931. Some groups call themselves orochen ('an inhabitant of the River Oro'), orochon ('a rearer of reindeer'), ile ('a human being'), etc. At one time or another tribal designations and place names have also been used as self-designations, for instance manjagir, birachen, solon, etc. Several of these have even been taken for separate ethnic entities. There is also a similarly named Siberian group called the Evens (formerly known as Lamuts). Although related to the Evenks, the Evens are now considered to be a separate ethnic group.
    Origins
    The Evenks or Ewenki are sometimes conjectured to be connected to the Shiwei people who inhabited the Greater Khingan Range in the 5th to 9th centuries, although the native land of the majority of Evenki people is in the vast regions of Siberia between Lake Baikal and the Amur River. The Ewenki language forms the northern branch of the Manchu-Tungusic language group and is closely related to Even and Negidal in Siberia. By 1600 the Evenks or Ewenki of the Lena and Yenisey valleys were successful reindeer herders. By contrast the Solons and the Khamnigans (Ewenkis of Transbaikalia) had picked up horse breeding and the Mongolian deel from the Mongols. The Solons (ancestors of the Evenkis in China) nomadized along the Amur River. They were closely related to the Daur people. To the west the Khamnigan were another group of horse-breeding Evenks in the Transbaikalia area. Also in the Amur valley a body of Siberian Evenki-speaking people were called Orochen by the Manchus.
    Historical Distribution
    The Evenks have most likely been in the Baikal region of Southern Siberia (near the modern-day Mongolian border) since the Neolithic era. The origin of the Evenks is the result of complex processes, different in time, involving the mixing of different ancient aboriginal tribes from the north of Siberia with tribes related in language to the Turks and Mongols. The language of these tribes took precedence over the languages of the aboriginal population. Elements of more modern Evenk culture, including conical tent dwellings, bone fish-lures, and birch-bark boats, were all present in sites that are believed to be Neolithic. From Lake Baikal, they spread to the Amur and Okhotsk Sea…the Lena Basin…and the Yenisey Basin.
    Contact with Russians and Qing Dynasty
    In the 17th century, the Russian empire began to expand enough to contact the remote Evenkis. Cossacks, men who served as a kind of “border-guard” for the tsarist government, imposed a fur tax on the Siberian tribes. The Cossacks exploited the Evenki clan hierarchy and took hostages from the highest members in order to ensure payment of the tax. Although there was some rebellion against local officials, the Evenks generally recognized the “great need of peaceful cultural relations with the Russians. Contact with the Russians and constant demand for fur taxes pushed the Evenkis east all the way to Sakhalin island, where some still live today. In the 19th, some groups migrated south and east into Mongolia and Manchuria. Today there are still Evenki populations in Sakhalin, Mongolia, and Manchuria, and to a lesser extent, their traditional Baikal region. The Manchu Emperor Hong Taiji conquered the Evenks in 1640, and executed their leader Bombogor. After the Manchu conquest, the Evenks were incorporated into the Eight Banners. In 1763, the Qing government moved 500 Solon Evenk and 500 Daur families to the Tacheng and Ghulja areas of Xinjiang, in order to strengthen the empire's western border. 1020 Xibe families (some 4000 persons) followed the next year. Since then, however, the Solons of Xinjiang have assimilated into other ethnic groups, and are not identified as such anymore.
    Traditional Life
    Traditionally the Evenks were a mixture of pastoralists and hunter-gatherers—they relied on their domesticated reindeer for milk and transport and hunted other large game for meat. Today, the Evenks are divided into two large groups…engaging in different types of economy. These are the hunting and reindeer-breeding Evenks and the horse and cattle pastoral Evenks as well as some farming Evenks. The Evenks lived mostly in areas of what is called a taiga, or boreal forest. They lived in conical tents made from birch bark or reindeer skin tied to birch poles. When they moved camp, the Evenks would leave the dwelling’s framework and carry only the more portable coverings. During winter, the hunting season, most camps consisted of one or two tents while the spring encampments encompassed up to 10 households. The skill of riding the domesticated reindeer allowed the Evenkis to colonize vast areas of the eastern taiga which had previously been impenetrable. The Evenks use a saddle unique to their culture which is placed on the shoulders of the reindeer which lessens the strain on the animal. Also, the Evenks traditionally did not use stirrups but used a stick to balance. Evenks did not develop reindeer sledges until comparatively recent times. They instead used their reindeer as pack animals and often traversed great distances on foot, using snowshoes or skis. The Evenki people did not eat their domesticated reindeer (although they did hunt and eat wild reindeer) but kept them for milk. Large herds of reindeer were very uncommon. Most Evenks had around 25 head of reindeer because they were generally bred for transportation purposes. Unlike several other neighboring tribes Evenk reindeer-breeding did not include herding of reindeer by dogs nor any other specific features. Very early in the spring season, the winter camps broke up and moved to places suitable for calving. Several households pastured their animals together throughout the summer, being careful to keep special areas fenced off to guard the newborn calves against being trampled on in a large herd.
    Clothing
    The Evenks wore a characteristic costume adapted to the cold but rather dry climate of Central Siberia and to a life of mobility. They wore brief garments of soft reindeer or elk skin around their hips, along with leggings and moccasins, or else long supple boots reaching to the thigh. They also wore a deerskin coat that did not close in front but was instead covered with an apron-like cloth. Some Evenkis decorated their clothing with fringes or embroidery. The Evenki traditional costume always consisted of these elements: the loincloth made of animal hide, leggings, and boots of varying lengths. Facial tattooing was also very common.
    Hunting
    The traditional Evenki economy was a mix of pastoralism (of horses or reindeer), fishing, and hunting. The Evenki who lived near the Okhotsk Sea hunted seal, but for most of the taiga-dwellers, elk, wild reindeer, and fowl were the most important game animals. Other animals included roe deer, bear, wolverine, lynx, wolf, Siberian marmot, fox, and sable. Trapping did not become important until the imposition of the fur tax by the tsarist government. Before acquiring guns in the 18th century, Evenks used steel bows and arrows. Along with their main hunting implements, hunters always carried a pike, which was a large knife on a long handle used instead of an axe when passing through the thick taiga or as a spear when hunting bear. The Evenks have deep respect for animals and all elements of nature: It is forbidden to torment an animal, bird, or insect, and a wounded animal must be finished off immediately. It is forbidden to spill the blood of a killed animal or defile it. It is forbidden to kill animals or birds that were saved from pursuit by predators or came to a person for help in a natural disaster.
    Belief Systems
    Prior to contact with the Russians, the belief system of the Evenks was animistic. Many have adopted Tibetan Buddhism. The Evenki, like most nomadic, pastoral, and subsistence agrarian peoples, spend most of their lives in very close contact with nature. Because of this, they develop what A. A. Sirina calls an "ecological ethic". By this she means "a system of responsibility of people to nature and her spirit masters, and of nature to people". Sirina interviewed many Evenks who until very recently spent much of their time as reindeer herders in the taiga, just like their ancestors. The Evenki people also spoke along the same lines: their respect for nature and their belief that nature is a living being. This idea, "the embodiment, animation, and personification of nature—what is still called the animistic worldview—is the key component of the traditional worldview of hunter-gatherers". Although most of the Evenkis have been "sedentarized"—that is, made to live in settled communities instead of following their traditional nomadic way of life—"many scholars think that the worldview characteristic of hunter-gatherer societies is preserved, even if they make the transition to new economic models. Although nominally Christianized in the 18th century, the Evenki people maintain many of their historical beliefs—especially shamanism. The Christian traditions were confined to the formal performance of Orthodox rites which were usually timed for the arrival of the priest in the taiga. The religious beliefs and practices of the Evenks are of great historical interest since these retain some archaic forms of belief. Among the most ancient ideas are spiritualization and personification of all natural phenomena, belief in an upper, middle, and lower world, belief in the soul (omi) and certain totemistic concepts. There were also various magical rituals associated with hunting and guarding herds. Later on, these rituals were conducted by shamans. Shamanism brought about the development of the views of spirit-masters. There are few sources on the shamanism of the Evenki peoples below the Amur river in Northern China. There is a brief report of fieldwork conducted by Richard Noll and Kun Shi in 1994 of the life of the shamaness Dula'r (Evenki name), also known as Ao Yun Hua (her Han Chinese name). She was born in 1920 and was living in the village of Yiming Gatsa in the Evenki Banner (county) of the Hulunbuir Prefecture, in the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region. While not a particularly good informant, she described her initiatory illness, her multiyear apprenticeship with a Mongol shaman before being allowed to heal at the age of 25 or 26, and the torments she experienced during the Cultural Revolution in the 1960s when most of her shamanic paraphernalia was destroyed. Mongol and Buddhist Lamaist influences on her indigenous practice of shamansim were evident. She hid her prize possession—an Abagaldi (bear spirit) shaman mask, which has also been documented among the Mondols and Dauer peoples in the region.
     
  12. Guandao

    Guandao Rajah of Minyue and Langkasuka

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    Bombogor's pedia entry

    Spoiler :
    Bombogor
    History

    Dular Bombogor was an Evenk chief and leader of the Evenk federation. His power base laid on the basin of the Amur river.
    Life
    Not much is known about Bombogor’s early life before his involvement with the Qing Dynasty. In 1638, the Qing Emperor Hong Taiji sent general Samshika against Bombogor but his campaign failed to subdue Evenk resistance. In December 1639, Hong Taiji sent another large force to the Amur. This force penetrated deep into Solon territory, reaching the Kumara River. The Battle of Gualar was fought between 2 Manchu regiments and a detachment of 500 Solons and Daurs led by Bombogor. In May of 1640, the Manchus assaulted the Evenk fortresses of Duochen, Asajin, Yakesa, and Duojin; capturing all four of them and large numbers of horses, cattle, pelts and slaves. Although Bombogor continued his resistance, he was losing support, the Evenks were no match for the powerful Manchu armies and many Solons switched their allegiance to the Manchu Khan. In August 1640, Hong Taiji sent his general Xiteku against Bombogor. The latter fled to Mongolia, but Xiteku caught up with him in the vicinity of Qiluotai, capturing his baggage train, wives and children. Bombogor was captured and taken to Mukden where he was executed. With Bombogor's death, Evenk resistance collapsed and the Manchu secured control of the Amur peoples. The Evenks and other local peoples were absorbed into the Eight Banners.
    Judgment of History
    It is hard to judge someone who appears in history so fleetingly. Bombogor was apparently a capable leader, heading the Evenk resistance against the Qing dynasty for a few years. With his death, the resistance fell apart and the Evenks were absorbed into Qing China.


    Reindeer rider's entry

    Spoiler :
    Evenki Reindeer Riders
    Unlike some other reindeer herders who used reindeer to pull sledges, the Evenks tamed reindeer and rode them using special saddles. Instead of stirrups, they used a stick for balance. They also used their reindeer as pack animals. When they weren’t riding the reindeer, they used skis to keep on the move. The Evenki people did not eat their domesticated reindeer but they did hunt and eat wild reindeer. Most Evenks kept about 25 reindeer since they used them mostly for transportation purposes. Unlike neighboring tribes, Evenks didn’t use dogs to help them herd the reindeer. In the spring, the winter camps broke up and moved to places suitable for calving. Special fenced off areas guarded the newborn calves against being trampled. Evenki alone have maintained the ancient Tungus culture.


    Shevenchedek's entry

    Spoiler :
    Shevenchedek
    The Evenki word for the Shaman’s tent (Shevenchedek) is glossed as the locale where the activity of spirits and totems take place, signaling that the shaman’s tent was not an inert shelter, but a place of spiritual encounter. Whether this encounter took place in an everyday dwelling or in a shevenchedek, a larch post was planted in the center of the structure and symbolized the world tree. The shaman would clamber up the world tree to journey to the upper worlds. His spirit-helpers rested in its branches. As the shaman meditated and fasted, his kinsmen built complex enclosures and totemic posts surrounding the tent.
     
  13. senshidenshi

    senshidenshi Switched the Red and Blue channels

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    Man, Guandao, you're a machine! Excellent job, and most appreciated! :D
     
  14. Guandao

    Guandao Rajah of Minyue and Langkasuka

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    Nenets pedia entry

    Spoiler :
    The Nenets
    History

    The Nenets, also known as the Samoyeds, are an indigenous people in northern arctic Russia. According to the latest census in 2010, there are 44,857 Nenets in the Russian Federation, most of them living in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Nenets Autonomous Okrug. They speak either the Tundra or Forest varieties of Nenets. The literal morphs samo and yed in Russian convey the meaning "self-eater", which appears as derogatory. Therefore, the name Samoyed quickly went out of usage in the 20th century, and the people bear the name of Nenets, which means "man".
    Geography and Climate
    The arctic ecology of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug has a number of unique features derived from the extreme temperatures and unique geologic province. Polar bears are found in this locale; in fact, the sub-population found here is a genetically distinct taxon associated with the Barents Sea region. The autonomous okrug has a size of approximately 177,000 km2, more than four times the size of Switzerland. The district is around 320 km from north to south and around 950 km from east to west, stretching from Mys Bolvansky Nos in the north to the source of the Oma River in the south and Cape Kanin Nos in the west to the banks of the Kara River in the east. The region has a subarctic climate with short, mild summers that may exceed +25 °C (77 °F) and very cold winters. Precipitation is somewhat greater in summer than in winter.
    Language
    The Nenets language is on the Samoyedic branch of the Uralic language family, with two major dialects, Forest Nenets and Tundra Nenets. Between 26,500 and 27,000 people in Siberia speak the language. Ethnalogue cites that in Siberia, Russian Federation, most young people are still fluent in Nenets, whereas in the European areas they tend to speak Russian. Overall, the majority of speakers are from older generations. UNESCO classifies it as an endangered language. There are two distinct groups of Nenets based on their economy: the Tundra Nenets (living far to the north) and the Khandeyar or Forest Nenets. A distinct third group of Nenets (Yaran people) has emerged as a result of intermarriages between Nenets and the Izhma tribe of the Komi peoples.
    Early History and Lifestyle
    The Nenets moved (from farther south in Siberia) to the northernmost part of what later became Russia before the 12th century. They ended up between the Kanin and Taymyr peninsulas, around the Ob and Yenisey rivers, with only a few of them settling into small communities like Kolva. Their main subsistence comes from hunting and reindeer herding. Using reindeer as a draft animal throughout the year enables them to cover great distances. Large-scale reindeer herding emerged in the 18th century. They bred the Samoyed dog to help herd their reindeer and pull their sleds, and European explorers later used those dogs for polar expeditions, because they have adapted so well to the arctic conditions. Tundra wolves can be a source of considerable economic loss, as they prey on the reindeer herds which are the livelihood of some Nenets families. Along with reindeer meat, fish is a major component in the Nenets' diet. Nenets housing is conical yurt(mya). They had a shamanistic and animistic belief system which stresses respect for the land and its resources, and a clan-based social structure. The Nenets shaman is called a Tadibya.
    Post Russian Revolution
    After the Russian Revolution, their culture suffered due to Soviet collectivization policy. The government of the Soviet Union tried to force the nomadic Nenets to become sedentary. They were forced to settle in villages and their children were educated in state boarding schools, which resulted in erosion of their cultural identity. Many, especially in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug lost their mother tongue and became assimilated. Since the 1930s, a few Nenets have come to express themselves through professionalized cultural media. For instance, Tyko Vylka and Konstantin Pankov became well-known painters. Anna Nerkagi is one of the most celebrated Nenets writers. Yuri Vella, though living as a reindeer herder, has become the first writer in the Forest Nenets language. Environmental damage to the Nenets' ancestral land is significant due to industrialization of their land, colonization and climate change. Because of the expansive gas and oil industry, reindeer pastures are shrinking, and some regions, such as the Yamal Peninsula are overgrazed, further endangering the Nenets way of life. It is documented that global warming and climate change affect nomadic Nenets reindeer herders, as certain lands they need to cross to follow migration patterns are only accessible during winter. Earlier spring melts compounded by delayed autumn freeze, affect the reindeer and herders’ ability to traverse the frozen tundra. The Arkhangelsk-based medical doctor, Leonid Zubov, has documented how this disables Nenets peoples access to medical facilities, causing them to wait until the next snow season for medical attention.

    Vavlyo's entry
    Spoiler :
    Vavlyo
    History

    Vavlyo Neniang, also known as Vauli Piettomin, was a Nenets shaman who led a combined group of Nenets and Khanty against the Russians.
    Movement and First Capture
    Vavlyo, a talented, powerful, and dynamic shaman of the Neniang (literally “mosquito”) clan, organized Nenets followers to make Robin Hood-like raids on huge herds of reindeer owned by the wealthy reindeer breeders in the Obdorsk region. It was a time of hardship, when famine and forest fires left many families poor and some facing starvation. At first, Vavlyo and his fiery brother Togompada attracted followers from related Nenets clans. They also gained Khanty adherents, including some who threatened to kill the Russians for pressuring them to become Russian Orthodox. As Vavlyo’s raids became increasingly successful, with deer and valuable furs being redistributed among followers, incensed Nenets and Khanty mobilized in opposition. Some Northern Khanty were readily attracted to Vavlyo’s growing wealth and power. Opposition to him centered around the Obdorsk Khanty “prince” Taishin and members of the Khudi clan of Nenets. In 1839, a plot to lure Vavlyo into arrest succeeded, when he and a few followers were surrounded in the tundra as they attempted to “liberate” a hundred reindeer from Khozobyko Khudi. Vavlyo and his friend Magari Vaitin were taken to the Obdorsk prison, then handed over to Russian authorities by Taishin. A special Berezovo tribunal sentenced Vavlyo and Magari each to twenty lashes with a knout and a year’s hard labor, with subsequent exile in the Surgut region. A higher Tobolsk court intervened, requesting that the governor himself sentence Vavlyo and Magari. The two were finally sent to Surgut, where they began working for a local trader, Nikifor Silin. Not long after, they escaped, taking with them a small boat laden with trade goods.
    Post-Return
    Vavlyo returned to the Obdorsk tundra, where he gathered more followers than ever before. He claimed that during his absence he spoked to the White Tsar, who restored his freedom. Followers began to look at him like some “superior being”, particularly because of his shamanic character and rank. Vavlyo was intent on revenge against three established figures of authority: the Khanty leader Taishin, the allegedly corrupt Russian judge at Obdorsk, Sokolov, and the police chief Skorniakov. Vavlyo ordered all loyal natives to withhold their fur tax until the Russian judge at Obdorsk was removed. He also gathered large numbers of families into a single camp. He continued to encourage poorer followers to appropriate reindeer from wealthy breeders. In 1840, at the height of his power, Vavlyo had an impressive circle of four hundred tents in his camp. His popularity was enormous, with rumors of his physical and charismatic prowess spreading throughout the land. His chief aides were still members of his own family and clan: his partner-in-exile, Magari Vaitin, his brother, Togompada, and his uncle Motti Task.
    Advance on Obdorsk
    When Vavlyo’s forces were strong enough, they approached Obdorsk during the January market of 1841. Vavlyo told his followers, armed with flintlock guns, rifles, spears, arrows, and knives, that their pressure could lower the prices of Russian trade goods, increase the value of native furs, and force Taishin to abdicate or to distribute government supplies of grain. When news of Vavlyo’s advance reached Obdorsk and Berezovo, many merchants fled, while frightened Russian inhabitants surrounded their homes with “every available defense”. Panicky rumors spread that Vavlyo’s camp had as many campfires “as the stars in the sky” and as many lances “as trees in the forest”. Obdorsk itself was poorly fortified, with only a small garrison of Cossacks, many of whom had become traders unaccustomed to police or military duties. Reinforcements were called from Berezovo, and an emergency council of merchants, Russian officials, and a few native elders, including Taishin, developed a plan to lure Vavlyo into Obdorsk without his full retinue. Key actors in the plan were the Nenets-speaking merchant Nikolai Nachaevskii (a trading partner of Vavlyo) and Taishin himself. Vavlyo and a band of four hundred to six hundred men were camped near Obdorsk. The group included the extended family and followers of a Khanty reindeer breeder named Yaptika Murzin, who Vavlyo wanted to place in Taishin’s position as primary elder and middleman for native relations with the Russians. On the encouragement of trader Nachaevskii, Vavlyo sent for Taishin, who arrived at Vavlyo’s camp on the thirteenth of January, with about ten elders. Taishin agreed to give up his “princely” inherited position to Yaptika Murzin, if Vavlyo would halt his advance on Obdorsk. He was to enter the town with only a few followers, in order to clinch the transfer of power. Vavlyo, suspecting danger, sent a small advance guard with at least one Russian-speaking Nenets into Obdorsk to learn of plots against him. Hearing nothing, he decided to risk a visit to Taishin. Taking only forty men, with sleds laden with guns under the furs, Vavlyo arrived at a government grain store, where he met Taishin. They proceeded to Taishin’s house, where a prominent group of Nenets and Khanty elders agreed to redistribute hundreds of reindeer and three hundred pounds of grain. Meanwhile, the house was surrounded by Cossacks and Obdorsk merchants, some disguised as Khanty. The police chief Skorniakov burst in and managed during a scuffle, to secure a few of Vavlyo’s men. Vavlyo escaped to the street but was caught and beaten up soon after. The rest of the retinue mingled with Obdorsk Khanty who were willing to shelter them. By daybreak, many escaped.
    Post- Arrest
    Berezovo Cossack reinforcements, arriving after Vavlyo’s arrest, staged a jubilant parade through Obdorsk. Skorniakov, concerned about rescue attempts, then had the Cossacks escort Vavlyo and his four arrested followers to prison in Berezovo. A local Russian blacksmith was commissioned to forge special irons to fetter Vavlyo. A special governor’s commission, headed by the governor’s adjutant Count Tolstoi, was sent to Obdorsk to investigate the uprising. Vavlyo was eventually sentenced to prison and hard labor in East Siberia. In Saint Petersburg, War Minister Chernyshev and Tsar Nicholas I were apprised of Obdorsk’s danger before Vavlyo’s arrest and of his successful imprisonment. Primary figures in Vavlyo’s demise, including Skorniakov and Nachaevskii, received medals from St. Petersburg. Taishin was summoned to Saint Petersburg, where he met the Tsar, received lavish gifts, and was awarded a gold medal “for bravery”. Vavlyo was never to return from Eastern Siberia, presumably dying there.
    Judgment of History
    Vavlyo Neniang was talented and charismatic enough to gather a large group of followers to conduct raids on wealthy reindeer breeders and to attempt an assault on Obdorsk. Though his plans ended in failure, Vavlyo would be remembered by his followers as a hero with shamanic powers. The rich natives and Russians may have despised him, but the poor Khanty and Nenets were grateful for his leadership.
     
  15. Guandao

    Guandao Rajah of Minyue and Langkasuka

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    Nenetsi dogsled entry (sorry, couldn't find the Nenetsi term for it)

    Spoiler :
    Nenetsi Dog Sled
    Near Salekhard (formerly called Obdorsk) and Labytnangy, dogs are seen everywhere. The majority of these dogs are pulling sleds in the winter, but in the summer they are allowed to wander free. They are not fed regularly and always looking for food. They chase anything trying to catch but reindeer. Their typical prey includes lemmings, voles and other rodents. Arctic fox and Arctic hare venturing close enough are always chased and sometimes make a meal of by the dogs. Nenets and Khanty people treat their dogs well. The typical number of dogs per household ranges from one to five. Nenets and Khanty allow their dogs inside their chum (a teepee-like conical house made of wooden poles and deer skins). During meal time dogs form a second circle behind people's backs. Occasionally, bones or pieces of fish are tossed for the dogs. Dogfights over the food are common even inside the chum, but people just laugh and do not intervene. Overnight dogs are allowed to stay inside and sleep with people keeping each other warm. Nenets highly value their adult dogs, but a puppy can be obtained at no cost or traded for a bottle of vodka.


    Mya entry

    Spoiler :
    Mya
    Usually the Nenets inhabited conical tents called mya, or chum in Russian. The mya has a design similar to a Native American tipi but it is less vertical, and it is very closely related to the Saami Lavvu in construction, but is somewhat larger in size reaching up to 30 feet (9.1 m) in diameter. The traditional mya consists of reindeer hides sewn together and wrapped around wooden poles that are organized in a circle. In the middle there is a fireplace used for heating and to keep the mosquitoes away. The smoke escapes through a hole on top of the structure. The canvas and wooden poles were usually quite heavy, but could be transported by using their reindeer. The mya is still in use today as a year round shelter.
     
  16. senshidenshi

    senshidenshi Switched the Red and Blue channels

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    Progress!

    Spoiler :

    (Unit models are being looked for [does anyone know of a Chinese gun unit?] and unit icons will be included once TPangs gives me the leader icon)


    After some debilitating failure, I've consigned myself to the fact I'm not very good with lua, so I'd like to make some simple (by my estimation) requests:
    • Cycle through each unit. If a unit has PROMOTION_SENSHI_BANNER_1, and an adjacent unit also has PROMOTION_SENSHI_BANNER_1, this unit receives PROMOTION_SENSHI_BANNER_BONUS. Likewise for PROMOTION_SENSHI_BANNER_2, PROMOTION_SENSHI_BANNER_3, up to PROMOTION_SENSHI_BANNER_8. Otherwise, if it has PROMOTION_SENSHI_BANNER_BONUS, remove the promotion.
    • If UNIT_SENSHI_BANNERMAN is adjacent to two or more units with the same Banner type (as above), it receives PROMOTION_SECOND_ATTACK. Otherwise, if it has PROMOTION_SECOND_ATTACK, remove the promotion.
    • UNIT_SENSHI_GREEN_STANDARD is 20% cheaper to build in cities with a Courthouse.

    There's also some Combat Listener shenanigans I have to do by myself ;)

    Oh, also, I changed the Nenets design (with some help/alteration from TPangs.) What do you lot think?

    Spoiler :
    UA: Sambadabts
    Each source of Deer worked by a city provides +1 Faith and causes one unfilled Great Work of Music slot to act as if it were filled. Over time, sources of Deer may appear on Snow tiles within your territory.

    UU: Tadibya
    Unlike the Great Musician which it replaces, the Tadibya may not be expended for a Great Work of Music. Has the ability to either spawn a source of Deer within your territory, preform a Musical Tour or spread Religion up to three times (unit is expended when undertaking any of these actions).

    UU: Samoyed Sled
    Weaker than the Horseman, which it replaces, the Samoyed Sled does not require Horses and is available earlier, at Animal Husbandry. Has the ability to relocate Deer from Snow tiles to unimproved non-snow tiles in the nearest City. Never obsoletes.
     
  17. tmxk2012917

    tmxk2012917 Prince

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    [16088.421] Runtime Error: C:\Users\mache\Documents\My Games\Sid Meier's Civilization 5\MODS\[BNW] Senshi's Korea (Seonjo) (v 1)\Core/SeonjoLua.lua:41: attempt to call method 'ChangeGoldenAgeProgress' (a nil value)

    not sure if this has any effect
     
  18. Chrisy15

    Chrisy15 Flower, Beautiful

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    Yup, that'll break the UA :p

    I'll get round to fixing Seonjo someday, dw :p
     
  19. NiaoMeow

    NiaoMeow Ximicacan? XIMICACAN?

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    NYC
    Is there any quick fix to this? Seonjo's free ship part of the UA has never worked for me and this could be the cause.
     
  20. Chrisy15

    Chrisy15 Flower, Beautiful

    Joined:
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    I've sent Senshi a fix for the mod; he should update it soon enough. I ended up rewriting that block, and there were quite a few other small issues aside from that. So yeah, kinda Senshi-dependent at the moment :p
     

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