Okay. Fair enough. Normal great generals cannot keep up with keshiks (or 5 movement cavalries). No matter how many great generals you have they cannot keep up with 5 movement units unless they get Lightning Warfare much later in the game. You want 5 movement khans around, not 2 movement great generals, when you're conquering your enemies with keshiks because that's the most vital period of every Mongolian game. Yes, khans' healing is much more powerful. (1) it heals more than Medic II right from the start. (2) khans have 5 movement versus your warrior that has 2. You can keep around a 4-5 movement unit around to act as a medic, but (3) khans can overlap with another military unit in the same tile which allows for more maneuverability and therefore doesn't get blocked or get in the way of other units. First of all, when it comes to combat, Mongolian units are arguably some of the least terrain-dependent in the game, so what you said about terrain should be considered an advantage for Mongolia. In other words, bad terrain (and the Great Wall) can mess up many other civs, but it messes up Mongolia less - the reasons why are obvious. Promotions are never a problem for keshiks, especially with Military Tradition and especially on higher difficulties due to the unit spamming by your enemies. One problem might be gaining too many promotions with keshiks (I'm talking level 10+) making getting promotions with cavalries and landships exceedingly time-consuming. But if you've already got Logistics and March then that's already good considering that cavalries are used to harass and mop up units not bum rush them. Furthermore, even if you have keshiks with no promotions, when upgraded to cavalries they will gain 10 experience per attack with Military Tradition (10 total attacks to get March). It's not an exaggeration to say that by the time you unlock cavalries you will have PLENTY of keshiks that have March and Logistics, and together with khans healing and bonus combat I would say that they're already uber. It's not just you that underrates melee horse (and armored units too I'm assuming) - I wouldn't go out of my way to use them over other choices of units if I were using most of the other civs, but when it comes to Mongolia you already have a horde of highly-promoted keshiks lounging around so you might as well continue to upgrade them and use them, especially considering that they synergize well with khans and have +1 movement. It's REALLY hard not to do a good job with keshiks... That's kinda like saying that Arabia may have difficulty getting gold or Korea may have difficulty getting science. Yes, there may be instances where such a thing happens, but more often than not they don't run into such problems. Later on, autocracy spies help with getting technologies, at least on higher difficulties.