History Questions Not Worth Their Own Thread VIII

the famed Siberians . Two front war keeps Russia from concentrating on Nazis , the existantial threat thing , allowing the Japanese to make a little show and get things . Siberia is too large and too tough . But if Japan manages to gain a foothold it can be a really useful addition to Manchuria ... Letting Japan to declare a truce with China . So that China can be invaded and destroyed later , say , by 1950 or 60 . Except the Russians in the Nomonhan Incident totally crushed the Japanese Army , which was a second rate force when you omit the fanaticism of the troops . On the other hand the IJN was indeed a major naval power , perhaps the best in the world , before the US defence industry got into high gear . Adolf wants a distraction , might even give parts of Siberia to America to make a peace in the West .
I ask all that because I have very little knowledge of ww2. I have to assume that since russians already felt safe from Germany in the Urals, they wouldn't bother much with an attack by Japan that had to literally reach the opposite edge of the largest continent.
Though I suppose US wouldn't as easily send them supplies if the Barents sea ports had fallen (after a fall of St. Petersburg).
100 million or 120 million Japanese are a lot of manpower . Russians had better tanks with much better models on the way and a working theory of armoured warfare in contrast to Japanese who had none of the above . A short sharp clash and the Japanese Army discovered it had no chance of winning . A thing to remember about Japan is the fall of the Shogunate , where the victors parcelled the spoils . One group gets the Navy , other gets the Army . Defence budget is roughly divided in half . Army tends to be traditional , everywhere , studying Napoleon . Navies are always in a tech race where a single shot can decide the fate of nations . IJN prospered , though it was still miniscule when the Allied potential was considered . IJA was backwards but it would have to improve . Exposure to real combat tends to bring about that . So , Russia could really NOT ignore millions of Japanese troops milling around in Soviet territory , extracting mines and stuff .

much the same with the Chinese in the 1960s and 70s . The Chinese nukes might have been delivered by donkey carts but they would have a lot , really a lot of infantry . So , the Russians feeling hopeless in the immensity of the task to deliver conventional weapons to stop all those hordes , tried to design supersonic aircraft to fly low and fast to fight the Chinese with breaking the sound barrier all day long . If you ever see F-16s over your home , they are probably slow to keep the noise down . While with the F-104s and F-4s in the 1980s , you would see the window panes rattling ... Like , gotta be much , much more louder to hurt the Chinese with sound .
Japan had 70 million people in ww2 (from a search online). Of those, it appears that around 1/10 were serving in the armed forces by the end.
But I doubt they had enough vehicles to carry a meaningful fraction of that force anywhere near european Russia?

151 million people in the Empire in 1940 or so . 74 million of them Japanese . Which would mean Japan could field a very large army through using the rest as slaves and whatnot . Even if a substantial part of that Army would have to oversee the slaves . Already countered by the notion that the Japanese would use and exploit them ruthlessly as slaves even in peacetime anyhow .

they do not need to go to European Russia . Falling victim to the Polish Bloc propaganda here , that Russians should divest themselves of territory and it will be allright .
Do we see today any influence of Eastern Germanic languages in various Romance languages?
Gothic, Suebi, Gepid?

Or did the Lombards leave a mark on late northern Italian langauges?

Beyond names...
Not a grammatical one, unless you count the incorporation of the -esco and -engo endings for adjectives and nouns respectively, but there's a small yet interesting influx of vocabulary. Do you want me to start digging up?

As a sidenote, the influx of Yiddish-speaking Jews into the River Plate area has resulted both in the language surviving as a minority 'Haussprache', and here in Buenos Aires you still see some books published in Yiddish.
Yes, Eastern Germanic impacted Romance languages, especially lexicon. Italian has a few hundred loanwords from Gothic and Lombard (the latter's classification is still not clear), mostly military terms or adaptations of concepts that existed in German law. For instance, faida (in English, 'feud') is directly lifted from Lombard, stalla ('stable' as a noun, a shelter for farm animals) is more or less taken from Gothic.

I don't suppose it would be possible to gauge a possible lasting influence of Germanic languages on present-day Northern Italian accents.
If China hadn't stopped its advance in the 1962 war with India, how far in could it have reached? (and what would the peace terms be like?)
Afaik China literally obliterated the Indian border army, but then moved back, largely because neither USSR nor US would diplomatically take its side.
the entire 1962 affair is about the surprise the Chinese pulled on the Indians . A junior American officer , a Captain or a Major was caught in the act of being within minutes of launching a nuclear tipped Matador cruise missile on China .

equally impressive was the attempt of de Gaulle to invade Monaco , to stop the hemorrage of French companies moving into the Principality as a tax haven .

no , the Chinese would not advance any further . They had had enough mountains already . But it did create a safer passage to Pakistan . Which has been truly important for Mao/China aa a conduit to the outer world .

Behind an Ancient Battle

A show examines a decisive conflict in Greece


Over the course of history, only a few single days can be said to have “changed the world,” but the day on which a coalition of Greek city-states was defeated by Philip II of Macedon, at the battle of Chaeronea, may well be among them. In a show that dramatizes that day—Aug. 2, 338 B.C., according to one reckoning—the Museum of Cycladic Art here advances a claim for the battle’s epochal meaning, and briefly raises the question of whether the world was changed for the better.

The issue decided at Chaeronea, some 70 miles northwest of Athens, was whether the Greek city-states could push back the huge, highly trained army led by Philip and his teenage son, Alexander (soon to be known as “the Great”). Philip had slowly encroached on the autonomy of those cities, especially Athens, and threatened to subjugate them entirely.

Athens united with Thebes, the other major power of mainland Greece, and contingents from other states, to take a stand against Philip. Before Aug. 2 was over, however, both leading cities had suffered horrific losses and Philip had made himself master of most of Greece. (The Spartans had stayed out of the fight and remained, at least in theory, independent.)

The Cycladic Museum offers two illustrations of how Aug. 2 played out: a traditional battle map at the show’s entrance, and then, near its conclusion, a whimsical model composed of Playmobil figures, including a blond-haired Alexander leading a cavalry charge. Opposite him stands the tightly grouped Sacred Band of Thebes, a corps made up, according to ancient sources, of paired male lovers fighting side by side. The band had been undefeated in battle for decades before this, but the model shows Alexander cutting them off from their line and preparing to destroy them, as he is known to have done. Unfortunately the toyland smiles on the soldiers’ faces seem out of step with their imminent fate.

The Sacred Band features prominently throughout the exhibition. Its mass grave, uncovered at Chaeronea in 1880, is explored in several displays, including one case containing bones and grave goods as they were found at the site. Remarkably, the band was interred with iron strigils, scrapers for cleansing the skin after exercise, rather than with shields or swords. The significance is unclear, but the curators remark, in an online text linked to the tomb display, that “they died as soldiers but were buried as civilians.” A set of drawings and notes made by the excavator, Panagiotis Stamatakis, evokes the excitement of the discovery of the band’s resting place, beneath the fragments of an enormous marble statue, later reconstructed as the Lion of Chaeronea.

The weaponless grave of the band contrasts with the wide range of arms and armor shown in other parts of the exhibit, connected to peoples involved in the fight at Chaeronea. An intact panoply of infantry gear, found in northern Greece, was buried with a man who lived at the time of the battle. The iron helmet is coated with silver, lending it a metallic sheen that must have terrified foes. Macedonian swords, spearheads and slingshot projectiles give a sense of Philip’s might, as does the metal spike that once tipped the butt end of a wooden sarisa, the fearsome infantry lance that Philip pioneered.

The significance of Aug. 2, as the show demonstrates, extends beyond the battle itself to longer-term or indirect consequences. Philip went on to forge a Panhellenic federation out of the Greek city-states, thereby helping to end the classical age defined by those smaller polities. When Philip was assassinated two years after the battle, Alexander cemented that union of states and then embarked on a grand invasion of Asia, following plans his father had laid down. In a sense then, the Hellenistic world—with its towering kings and vast empires that dwarfed the classical polis—was launched at Chaeronea, where Alexander first took on leadership of the army that went on to conquer what was then a great part of the civilized world.

Before deploying that army in Asia, against the Persian Empire, Alexander first hurled it against the city of Thebes. Unreconciled to the outcome of Chaeronea, Thebes tried to revolt from the Macedonian empire in 335, soon after the death of Philip. A case in the show containing a heap of pottery shards, recovered from the “catastrophe level” at Thebes, attests to what happened next. Alexander allowed his troops to sack and ravage the city, then razed what was left and had the entire populace killed or sold as slaves. A marble inscription seen on a nearby wall contains the names of donors who helped rebuild Thebes, some 20 years later, after Alexander had passed from the scene. At that point, it seems, the great marble lion was also erected atop the Sacred Band’s tomb.

In recent times the battle of Chaeronea, and the lion statue (rebuilt from its fragments in 1902), have taken on new importance, especially in Greece. Some have seen in Philip a national hero and in his victory the violent birth of a unified nation. In a final wall text the Cycladic Museum curators, Panagiotis Iossif and Ioannis Fappas, lean in this direction, claiming that 19thcentury excavations done at the battlefield “were essentially leading to the creation of a new identity for the newly established Greek state.”

That’s a strange transmutation of the view of Demosthenes, who fought in the battle and later delivered the eulogy over Athenian dead. In his view, preserved in that oration, the light of Greek freedom had been blotted out from the sky at Chaeronea. The Cycladic Museum show does not go far in dealing with these complexities, but its amazing array of finds helps put them squarely before us.

Chaeronea, 2 August 338 BC: A Day That Changed the World
Museum of Cycladic Art, through March 31
Mr. Romm is editor of the “Ancient Lives” series published by Yale.

PARIS TAVITIAN/ MUSEUM OF CYCLADIC ART ( 2) Playmobil diorama of the Battle of Chaeronea at the Museum of Cycladic Art in Athens.

Marble head of Alexander (2nd century), son of Philip II of Macedon.
Wikipedia says: In 982, Adud al-Dawla sent another envoy to Constantinople, this time, Abu Ishaq ibn Shahram, who, after spending three months in the city, concluded a 10-year peace treaty with them. One year later, a Byzantine envoy arrived back in Baghdad, but Adud al-Dawla was too ill to bring an end to the negotiations. In the end, the 10-year peace treaty was finally completed, and the Byzantines also agreed to mention Adud al-Dawla's name in the Friday prayer in Constantinople. Sahib ibn Abbad is known to have said the following about this event: "he [Adud al-Dawla] has done what no kings of the Arabs nor any Chosroes [kings] of the Persians could – he has Syria and the two Iraqs, and he is close to the Despot of Byzantium and the Maghribi by his continuous correspondence.
The bolded part is egregious. Was there a mosque in Constantinople in the 900s? Were there a significant population of Muslims?
a room is enough . If not an open area . And possibly some traders . Can't imagine a neighbourhood within the walls with a mosque and a minaret and 5 times a day calling of the faithful to pray . As a matter of fact and stuff Athens was the last European capital without a mosque , they might have opened one or are still building .
wait for guy to arrive to criticize Athens as a village in 1829 . And ethnic cleansing is new only as a phrase in newspaper reports .
a room is enough . If not an open area . And possibly some traders .
I was thinking that too, that it may be a mosque built by merchants. But besides this throwaway sentence on Wiki is there any evidence of it?

If the sentence is true, it implies that the prayer area was significant and large enough that both the Byzantine Despot and the ruler of Iraq knew about it, and that the Despot was somehow able to influence the Friday sermon?
Found this on the Wikipedia page of Athens:

The city was threatened by Saracen raids in the 8th–9th centuries—in 896, Athens was raided and possibly occupied for a short period, an event which left some archaeological remains and elements of Arabic ornamentation in contemporary buildings—but there is also evidence of a mosque existing in the city at the time.

I really want to read a good history on the low-level interactions between the Greeks and the Muslims
let me beat the guy first .

naturally open only for oil sheiks .

as for mentioning a ruler by name in a Friday sermon (if the word is acceptable) , your case indicates the East Roman Emperor as it was the case until 1453 accepts the Arabian ruler as his superior and stuff . Declares himself as a vassal to say . It depends on which one has more soldiers . Two Muslims , one the imam , other as the faithful attending prayers would be enough for it .

edit: Have to correct it to Persian ruler
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except it still wouldn't fit in with today's norms . Each and every example in the (not particularly long but ı had to randomly check due to time constraints) article involves the city somehow forced to accept or making a show of acceptance . Not an argument per se but there is some edge ı need to keep sharp for things .

yet truly beats my arguments too . At least 2 or 3 examples where the daily call to prayers was on .
When Yamnaya herders moved into Western Europe circa 4800ya, the ratio of men to women was about 7:1.
There are no signs of any conflicts, no mass graves, so war doesn't seem to be the cause.

Those herders replaced the Y chromosomes in Great Britain within 100 years, and in Iberia within 150 years, a staggeringly short time.

And nobody knows why.

The latest hypothesis is that there was a pneumonic plague in Western Europe that preceded the huge incursion and consequent massive cultural change.

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