Something else that might help both with history and to encourage Roman expansion, particularly across the Bosphorus into Asian Minor: I believe that the Roman Empire "inherited" both Bythnia and Pergamon, culture flipping could accomplish this. 1. Allow a great wonder, sometime between Dictator and Julian & Flavian Dynasties, to be built along the Bosphorus. In Byzantium would be easiest, since it already has a dedicated resource. This wonder is nothing but a culture generator, generating enough to make it very likely that one or two Asian Minor cities will flip. Set it to expire after 50 years or so. Call it "Roma nos vin cere posse" : You the Romans Can Conquer- Strictly the advice that the Delphic Oracle gave to Pyrrhus, but fitting. 2. To increase the likelihood that some of these will flip: a. Don't give Bythnia or Pergamon palaces. Yes, this would keep them from trading, but since they're really just minor flavor civs in this mod (most of the time one or both get knocked out by Persia, the Antigonids or Pontus rather early), its not a big deal. b. Don't give them any culture buildings, maybe even give them negative culture and unhappiness buildings. c. Limit their unit production. The AI, particularly when it only has 2 cities, tends to stockpile in the capital. To protect them from being overrun by Rome or other civs, either lock them into an alliance with Syria or Pontus or give them a couple very strong non-buildable defenders from the begining. I've never seen either of these civs attack anyone, so making theme weaker really won't harm game balance. d. Ethnicity: Doesn't similar ethnicity (i.e. Japanese and Chinese in Vanilla Civ) increase likeliness of conversion? Do the same with Rome and Bythnia/Pergamon. By doing this, a couple of Asia Minor cities will flip, expanding the Roman Empire without having to increase the army size and being hisotrically accurate. It will also put Rome and the Asian powers into contension sooner.