Aquinas holds God outside of time since he knows all future contingents. He also says that although God primarily wills himself indepdently of other things, he can love things other than himself insofar as their relation to his goodness is their end. God loves all his creatures, but not equally, since they are differing in their actuality versus potentiality (God being pure form without potentiality, unmoved mover, primary cause independent of any other form which would condition it further into actuality, etc.). But doesn't this unequal love violate God's externality to time? How can he love something less for its lack of perfection, if perfection is a temporal process and God is outside of all temporality? To put it another way, Aquinas says God cannot create a better world in essence, but surely he can in existence. Essence is already perfect...so back again to God loving something less because of its existence, even though its essence is perfect. God's love is then temporal, right? But how can that be?