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SKNES III: Bullets with Butterfly Wings

Discussion in 'Never Ending Stories' started by SouthernKing, Feb 5, 2014.

  1. SouthernKing

    SouthernKing crickety cricket

    Joined:
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    1229-1230 AH, 1907-1908 VS, 4547 (Yang Metal Dog) – 4548 (Yin Metal Pig)

    The Future of the Navy

    1851 will go down in naval history as a significant year, as the British, already the holders of the uncontested most powerful navy in the world, constructed a new class of larger, more powerful battleships, their hulls specifically modified with iron plating – ironclads, the consensus term for the new vessels seems to be. Advances in metallurgy and naval tactics have made these new developments possible. In addition, the Russians and the Koreans both purchased some of the new vessels from the British, which have since served as additions to their own fleets. Other nations’ admiralties have taken notice, and look to the British with a keen eye.

    (Korea, Russia: +1 Navy Development)

    Events in Europe​


    London, Great Britain

    An article was published in a British newspaper, stating what almost everyone had already known – that Britain is the world’s center of scientific progress, and the technologically most advanced nation in the world. Very few people dispute this claim.

    (Great Britain: +1 Academia Development)

    Lisbon, Portugal

    The Portuguese and Russian governments reached an agreement wherein the two countries would aid each other in military development. Specialists from within the Portuguese officer corps were appointed to teach at Russian military academies, particularly to help teach the Russians advanced tactics in naval warfare at the newly expanded Peter the Great Naval Institute in St. Petersburg, while Russian army officers have been given teaching positions at respective Portuguese military academies. There was little noise made about the deal, although both countries have celebrated the agreement as a step forward in Portuguese-Russian relations.

    Treaty of Olivenza

    Portugal and Spain in 1851 signed an agreement of friendship, the Treaty of Olivenza. This treaty establishes a mutual defensive alliance, a joint reduction of tariffs, and an assurance that any border dispute, colonial or otherwise, would be mutually resolved without conflict – in the meantime, the territory in question would be under joint control. The treaty has proven popular in both nations, as an expression of pan-Iberian friendship moving foward, and a recognition that since the two countries ended their war in the 1840s, relations have significantly improved.

    Madrid, Spain

    This year saw the Partido Demócrata-led government in Madrid pass the Ley de Ciudadanía, a law which established full Spanish citizenship to any child born in territory of the Republic of Spain, including Cuba and Puerto Rico; this was a move popular in Cuba and Puerto Rico, although the loose wording of the law has raised questions as to whether natives in Africa or the East Indies are subject to the law. In addition, the government passed the Ley del Retorno, a law which would provide citizenship to the Republic of Spain for any Jew who could provide documentation that his or her ancestor was expelled from Spain by the Alhambra Decree of 1492, or to any Jew who could prove fluency in the Spanish language, so long as they live in Spain or in a Spanish colony for a set period of time. This law has proven popular and applauded as a show of distancing present-day Spain from the old monarchy, although it has ruffled anti-Semitic sentiments among some of the more conservative and relgious elements in the country.

    The government also entered negotiations with opposition leaders over the possibility of creating a new constitution that would effectively transform Spain into a federal republic, in order to give the various local regions of the country – and especially Cuba and Puerto Rico – a greater degree of autonomy while maintaining a single, unified state. A majority of Cuban and Puerto Rican autonomists have proven surprisingly cordial to the proposal, which would give their respective territories a good deal of self-rule, but the conservative opposition has not been so amicable; they claim it is an unnecessary change to a functional system. They have countered with a much more limited proposal, which would provide federal-level autonomy merely to Cuba and Puerto Rico, while leaving the homeland a unitary state.

    Taxes were slightly lowered on Spanish small businesses, with the hopes of fostering economic expansion; the effects of this have been somewhat limited, although there was a small increase in growth recorded throughout the economy.

    Paris, France

    Even as war raged on in Vietnam, it was barely felt at home, and the French government set about on a major reformation of the French educational system. The National Assembly and the Crown jointly funded the expansion of several existing Catholic institutions, including monasteries and nunneries, into full educational institutions, providing a charitable Catholic education to some of the lower strata of French society, hopefully elevating some of the poor into productive and useful French citizens, while somewhat alleviating the problems of homeless children in French cities. The initiative has been popular, and has helped improve the opinion of the Catholic Church in some eyes.

    Copenhagen, Oslo, and Visby, Denmark

    With the quick ratification of the Visby Proclamation, the Duchy of Gotland was finally and effortlessly integrated into the greater Danish state this year, with the Duke agreeing to abdicate without attempting to argue otherwise. Multiple special rights were given to the locals in order to keep Gotland’s Swedish-speaking people content with Danish rule: Swedish has been made the local administrative language, a ferry service between Visby and Karlskrona was established, freedom of movement between Gotland and Sweden has been guaranteed, and the King has agreed to spend one week a year in Gotland.

    Programs enacted last year consisting of tax incentives and subsidies to encourage urban industrial growth in several Danish cities were extended to the Norwegian cities of Oslo and Malmo, to some success.

    Danish and Norwegian intellectuals at universities this year began discussing, with increased fervor, the idea of a potential unified Scandinavian state, including both the current states of Denmark and Sweden. While the idea is increasingly popular in academic and intellectual circles, some of which have a degree of influence on Danish politics and King Frederick’s court, outside of them the idea has not gained much traction whatsoever, and even with that removed, a major stumbling block exists in that the King of Sweden is virulently opposed to the idea, or any mention of it.

    A moderately sized bloc of Danish members in the current Liberal government, unhappy with the King’s pandering to minorities within the state, has defected from the party. The Liberals remain in power and in majority in the Rigsdagen, but their government’s stability has been significantly undermined.

    Dortmund and Hanover, League of the Rhine

    To a great deal of pomp and fanfare, the nascent Republic of Hanover was admitted into the League of the Rhine following a successful measure voted on by both the Hanoverian provisional government and the League central government in the summer of 1851. Administration of the republic remained in the hands of the local government, which held its own elections simultaneously – unsurprisingly, bringing a liberal party to government. The Hanoverian army was incorporated into the League army. The Hanoverians’ arms and tactics were noted to be some years outdated, but the transition was largely seamless. Prior to the annexation, the Hanoverian provisional government released the imprisoned former king George and his family, from where they left the country for a residence in Prussia. George has apparently survived his imprisonment not merely unfazed but indeed more stubbornly reactionary than before, he and continues to argue unflaggingly against the “illegal annexation” of his former country.

    Some of the monarchs within the League had raised strong objections to the Hanoverian annexation, being reluctant to add yet another republic to the ranks of the Leagues members. Conceding to the monarchs, the Grand Marshal, being a monarch (of the duchy of Lippe) himself, formally established the Inner Privy Council, a body consisting of the League’s monarchs, located at the center of the League’s political sphere. All monarchs within the League were invited to join, in exchange for being required to remain in the capital, although they still maintained their former powers and privileges and were allowed to select who they wanted to administer their respective states in their steads. The Grand Marshal also dispatched some of his own personnel to advise their representatives in governance.

    Berlin, Prussia

    The only major event to cause a major reaction in Berlin this year was the completion of the tasks provisioned for under last year’s funding of university reform. The results have been positive, and greatly promoted by the crown.

    (Prussia: +1 Academia Development)

    Bern, Switzerland

    In Switzerland, an amendment was passed to last year’s education law allowing for the teaching of French and Italian in their respective cantons, which has alleviated some people’s concerns. Although the situation remains tense, the military has been able to keep any revolts successfully suppressed, and the pro-German intentions of the law’s writers seem to be moving forwards.

    Cagliari, Sardinia

    Little of note occurred in Sardinia. The sanitation improvements begun the previous year were completed, to all accounts succeeding in their goal of improving the urban lower classes’ opinions of the King.

    Rome, Papal States

    The aged Pope Sixtus VI fell deeply ill early in the year, never truly recovered, and ultimately died. The College of Cardinals convened in the spring of 1851 to elect a new Pope. Unlike the last several papal elections, this one was relatively heated, between a faction favoring a warming of relations with the Italian and Spanish republican governments and the acceptance of some reform as an option, and a reactionary faction favoring a continuation of the status quo opposition to any reform. Ultimately, the reactionaries won out, electing a prominent Sardinian cardinal as the new Pope. Pope Julius IV, as he has named himself, is known to be in good standing with figures within the Aragonese and Sardinian governments, although his influence is limited beyond that.

    But among the former faction, there is an idea that has begun to grow. With many of the traditionally Catholic areas of Europe – Portugal, Spain, and Italy in particular – becoming increasingly secular, liberal, and antipathetic to the Catholic Church, and the Papacy’s seat under direct threat from Italian incursion, there is not particularly covert talk within certain elements of the Church hierarchy to leave Rome, or even Europe, entirely behind and reestablish a new Holy See elsewhere, such as South America.

    Krakow and Warsaw, Poland

    The Polish government in 1851 began the reconstruction of Palanga on the Lithuanian coast, a harbor that had been destroyed by the Swedish army in 1701, during the Great Northern War, in the intention of transforming it into a modern port capable of giving Poland a trade and other presence in the Baltic.

    In addition, this year saw Poland diplomatically drawn further from the German states to its west and closer towards Russia. A customs union was formed between the two countries, including a joint lowering of tariffs. Additionally, construction was completed on a railroad line connecting Minsk in Russia to Krakow in Poland. In turn, construction has begun on planned connections to other cities in Poland, including Warsaw, Vilnius, and the to-be-reconstructed port of Palanga.

    More publicly, a measure was passed shifting the Polish capital from its traditional location at Krakow to a new location in the city of Warsaw. This was more controversial; few people saw a necessity to do this, despite the government’s stated reason to move it to a more defensible location in event of war with Austria-Hungary or Prussia. There was great resistance from the Polish establishment, but support for the move by the military brass was critical in bringing both public and backbencher support behind the move.

    Tax breaks and similar incentives were provided to people and firms in the agricultural and mining sectors of the Polish economy, which paid off to agree.

    Vienna, Austria-Hungary

    A pair of interior projects was announced by the Austro-Hungarian government this year. The first was an extension of efforts that had been ongoing the past several years, that being an expansion of rail networks in Hungary and the industrial region of Silesia. The second was a government initiative to construct state-owned industries, particularly canneries and munitions factories, in various locations throughout the Empire. The military has been heavily involved in the projects.

    The government has also continued to separate the Austro-Hungarian state from the perceived mess in Germany, promoting a singular national identity throughout the Empire; the Empire has been promoted as a “bold experiment in Christianity not seen since the Romans,” with rallies held in numerous cities across the nation. The various minorities’ nationalist leaders have loudly scoffed at this, but the minorities themselves, content with being in the Empire, were seemingly receptive to the ideals promoted by the government. Internationally, this separation from Germany in the wake of the Customs Union and the Hanoverian debacle may indeed be foreshadowing the ultimate break between Vienna and Berlin, something that has already seemed to happen.

    Balkan Rail

    The Serbian and Danubian sections of the international Balkan rail were completed in late 1851, to great fanfare and scattered heralds of “a new era of Balkan cooperation, peace, and prosperity.” As of New Year’s Day 1852, one can now travel from Russia to Greece, or any country in between, with relative ease, something that is certain to be of use in the future.

    Belgrade, Serbia

    With the number of influential Serbian nationalists, formerly supportive of the king, began blasting him for opening itself to the Russians, and to a lesser extent, the Austro-Hungarians. Those same nationalists also criticized the government for selling itself out to non-Serbians within the Kingdom, through the “Council of Peoples” that was established last year. That Council has so far made little headway in implementing any proposed reforms; one thing that emerged from its discussions was the proposal for reforming the Serbian state into a pan-Balkan state, looking to the Austro-Hungarian reforms as inspiration; the king has floated the idea around, and it has gained traction amongst intellectual types.

    St. Petersburg, Russia

    1851 also saw the passage of a large package of liberalizing financial reforms. First amongst them was the so-called February Act, which greatly lowered the requirements for incorporation, allowing effectively any Russian willing to pay a small registration fee to form a public corporation. The February Act was followed up by the March Act, which allows shareholders in companies with more than twenty-five shareholders to hold only limited liability in event of failure, making the purchase of company stock a more attractive option to Russia’s upper class, and its burgeoning middle class. The Russian government’s shares of the Balkan and Kemorovo rail lines were privatized, and a “Bankers’ Trading House,” an institution located near the St. Petersburg stock exchange to facilitate communication between banks from across the country,

    The Russian government also established the Novosibirsk National Polytechnic Institute, a place of higher education dedicated to science, engineering, and technology, with a focus on machinery and metallurgy thanks to its location. Baron Pavel Shilling, best known for his demonstrations of the telegraph in the 1830s, was appointed the institute’s first headmaster. Simultaneously, the existing Peter the Great Naval Institute in St. Petersburg was expanded, with the intention of expanding Russia’s future naval expertise and capabilities.
     
  2. SouthernKing

    SouthernKing crickety cricket

    Joined:
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    Events in the Americas​


    Boston, New England

    The incumbent Tory First Minister Edward Murdoch came into this year’s elections facing increasing pressure from backbenchers and the Federalist Party opposition over his response to the Tejan crisis and the increasing over labor conditions. The Federalists, calling for the institution of a ten hour work day and other labor reforms, were able to successfully portray the Conservatives as incompetent and out of touch with the needs of the common New Englander, and won a razor-thin majority in elections, with their leader Howard Ashland becoming the new First Minister. Simultaneously, the nationalist White Pine Party, the main plank of its platform calling for New English expansion throughout the North American continent, gained a significant number of seats, elevating it from a fringe party to a noticeable force in New English politics.

    Prior to the elections, one of the last acts of Murdoch’s Conservative government, and act carried through by the new Federalist government, was the funding of a large infrastructural project in the more recently settled western parts of New England. The project includes a major expansion of the existing railroad network to some of the newer large towns and cities in the region, as well as the construction of numerous canals in the same region. It is expected to not be completed until after the midpoint of the decade.

    Charleston, Confederacy of American States

    The only news of any real significance in Charleston this year was the completion of the national railroad network that funding had been provided for last year. The completion of the railroad has helped spur a small industrial boom within some of the urban areas of the still largely agrarian nation; whether this growth is a localized event or the beginning of a long-term economic revival is uncertain, but it has helped alleviate some of the concern over the state of the country’s previously stagnant economy.

    Tampa, Florida

    Scheduled presidential elections were held in the small nation of Florida this year. The conservative incumbent president Samuel Williams, an ethnic Cherokee, came under fire from certain influential Floridian businessmen, who charged that he was in effect a lackey of New Orleans and was allowing the country to grow increasingly dominant over Florida’s internal affairs. While the majority of Floridians still hold a positive view of Louisiana, the charges incited further debate over the role of Louisiana in Floridian affairs, which came to dominate the election. Another issue was the increasing amount of settlement by Confederate citizens in the lands adjacent to the Floridian border. Several nationalist parties arose to posit a significant challenge to President Williams, but with the incumbent promising to increase funding for the Floridian army, he was able to win re-election by an extremely narrow margin, and will serve another term until 1856.

    Liberty, Costa Lina

    The main issue on the mind of President Cousineau’s administration in the Freedmen’s Republic of Costa Lina this year was immigration policy. To help facilitate increased cohesion amongst the diverse Costa Linan populace and immigrants, a commission was established to systematize a singular English-French creole language, already used as a lingua franca within the country, for further official use in the future, although nothing beyond the commission itself occurred in 1851. New quotas were set for immigration to the country; there are now very few limits on immigration by colored peoples, but there has been established a strict quota on white immigration. Funding was also provided for programs to naturalize desired immigrants and help integrate them into Costa Linan society. The programs have so far proven modestly successful. Somewhat popular amongst the majority of Costa Lina’s population, there has been some opposition from disparate conservative elements, and the policies have in particular further aggravated the already hard-pressed white minority in the country.

    Crisis in Tejas

    The fallout from last year’s attempted coup in Tejas reached a head early this year, when, in May 1851, American soldiers crossed the border, with the intention of removing the increasingly despotic Tejan president Pierre Dubois from office and restoring a democratic government to the country. The Americans had naval support from a New English fleet parked in the Gulf of Mexico, which established a blockade over the Tejan coast. Dubois quickly ordered the Tejan navy to engage the enemy, but after seeing reports of the gross mismatch in size between the prospective armadas, the Tejan naval command collectively decided to mutiny, effectively remaining neutral in the war.

    Only about two weeks after the initial invasion, the American army and multiple Latino and anti-Dubois militias converged upon the capital of Seville, and after only two days of fighting, the Americans and their allies secured the city. Seeing his forces outnumbered, President Dubois had fled the capital before the city could be surrounded, managed to evade pursuing American cavalry, and retreated to a stronghold in Francophone-dominated Eastern Tejas. Nevertheless, the anti-Dubois coalition forces quickly moved into the region to restore order, an easy if somewhat lengthy process. Pierre Dubois himself was captured by a militia in late July and publicly hanged. By September 1851, the bulk of the resistance had collapsed, and relative peace returned to the country.


    A Latino militia clashes with pro-Dubois forces in Seville

    A much-feared Louisianan counter-intervention, fortunately for the Americans and their New English allies, never came, preventing a potential pan-North American war from erupting, and allowing the Americans ample time to facilitate the establishment of an interim government in Seville by restoring the Tejan National Assembly. The interim government has already taken the initiative of removing all formerly pro-Dubois officers from the Tejan military, replacing them with new – largely Latino – ones. A new president has not been elected, and a majority of the interim government has been soured from electing a president after the chaotic experience of the Dubois presidency during the last two years. It appears that the crisis has passed.

    (American Republic: -1 Infantry Brigade)
    (Tejas: -3 Infantry Brigades, -1 Cavalry Brigade, -1 Artillery Brigade)

    Quito, Ecuador

    Elections were held in Ecuador this year. Months before the elections, the Conservative government had initiated an anti-corruption drive, launching investigations into the practice throughout the nation, and arresting a number of prominent officials on corruption charges. The Conservatives were able to trump their successes in fighting corruption during the campaign, gaining crucial support amongst lower-class rural voters who were growing concerned about the level of corruption. The drive was seen by some members of the upper class as an unabashed populist attack by the government, driving some of that formerly Conservative-supporting establishment into supporting the Liberal Party or other opposition groups. However, the Conservatives still emerged victorious.

    The anti-corruption drives continued after the elections, to additional success. The Conservatives also funded an initiative to hire geologists and engineers in the hopes of finding additional resource deposits, which has only paid off to a small extent thus far.

    Second Patagonian War

    Not even a decade after the conclusion of the First Patagonian War, or the La Platan Civil War as it had largely been referred to by printers in Buenos Aires, the Second Patagonian War has begun, with the La Platan army launching an invasion, officially to punish Cordoba for its army’s encroachment on La Platan soil the previous year. Unofficially, it was the arrival of a conflict both sides – and others – had been expecting for many years, with 1851 finally being the critical year.

    In August 1851, after months of escalating tensions, the bulk of the La Platan army quickly crossed into enemy territory, heading towards Cordoba, the country’s eponymous capital city. The Cordobans made a fighting retreat, allowing their rear enough time to further defend the city. The La Platans began trying to encircle the city, and their artillery moved in position to begin bombarding the city. The Cordobans mounted a counterattack to dislodge the La Platans from their positions, and after several battles in the outskirts of Cordoba through the course of September, the La Platan assault had been stemmed, and the La Platans retreated back into their own territory, albeit at great cost. But the La Platans regrouped, and counter-counterattacked beginning in late October and early November, and by December, the La Platans had once again been able to place the city under siege, this time significantly outnumbering the Cordobans.

    In the north, the La Platans were able to secure the large swathe of territory previously under loose Cordoban control due to the heavy native unrest in the region, and their military presence was enough to dispel any other revolts. The La Platan navy by the year’s end had sailed up around Cape Horn and up the west coast of Cordoba, where they soundly defeated the Cordoban fleet and placed the area’s major ports under blockade.

    (La Plata: -4 Infantry Brigades, -1 Cavalry Brigade; -1 Frigate)
    (Cordoba: -3 Infantry Brigades, -2 Cavalry Brigades; -4 Frigates)

    Events in the Middle East and Africa​


    Constantinople, Turkey

    In Turkey, a country whose small but burgeoning middle class has seen itself under increasing influence from European liberal republicanism, a popular movement emerged amongst that middle class demanding immediate political reform, which has gained traction amongst intellectuals, students, and some poorer Turks as well. First amongst the demands of this movement is the provision of representation in government to the Turkish people. Spontaneous protests calling for political reform, inspired by counterparts in Europe over the past several decades, have also popped up in city streets across the country. A court faction, made largely of nobility who seek to gain influence from potential reform, has formed, and pressure is on the reigning Sultan Ismet to do something.

    Cairo, Whaheydi Caliphate

    The court of the Caliph was largely quiet this year, with the exception of fanfare announcing that the cotton industry development program, incepted last year and conducted with Russian technical assistance, had been completed. Despite this, the already outspoken opposition to the Caliphate’s current relationship with Russia amongst certain court factions grew even louder, but the Caliph has refused to heed – and with some of the returns that have already come from the project, there appears to be good reason not to.

    Tehran, Persia

    A significant increase in investment by Russia firms in Persia was observed this year, corresponding with the lowering of tariff barriers between the countries and Persia’s cotton industry development initiative. While a select few Persians are growing richer off Russian money, and the country as a whole seems to be benefitting, certain elements within the court are less than pleased with the increased relationship with Russia; the Shah seems to be ignoring that faction. Additionally, the first class of Persian military men who have received some level training from the Russians and returned to their country have begun to make a splash in the ranks of the country’s officer corps.

    (Persia: +1 Army Development)

    Muscat, Oman

    As a motley coalition of international warships moved against pirate vessels in the northwest Indian Ocean, the pirates were driven further and further away from the lucrative trade routes and back into their havens along the coast of the Arabian Sea. Several desperate pirate captains took their ships to the Omani capital, Muscat, blockading it and demanding that Said II bin Sultan pay a large price to support the pirates; the Sultan refused, stating that there was no money left. It would likely have been a small matter for the Sultan to put down the pirates, were it not for the fact that the bulk of the military – supported by a number of displeased radical imams – was already displeased with the Sultan’s rule, and saw an opportunity for power. First the naval officers of the Sultan mutinied – those that did not had their ships sunken in the Persian Gulf – followed by large numbers of the army. There was a brief period of fighting as the military turned on itself, amidst which the Sultan was killed.

    Pandering to those radical imams, one pirate captain, who was crowned Zayid bin Sultan in the wake of the chaos, was able to cobble together a loose collection of interests to support him, consisting of other influential pirate captains, disgruntled military officers, and radical imams – some influenced by Whaheydism – by promising to continue unrelenting attacks. With an entire state now under effective pirate control, things may be getting more difficult for the anti-piracy forces in the Indian Ocean. However, various local tribal interests are displeased with the new state of affairs, and could make life difficult for the new government.

    (Oman: -2 Infantry Brigades; -4 Frigates)

    Tunis, Tunis

    The Tunisian bey’s focus this year was on expanding the port infrastructure of the city of Tunis, particularly the local naval base. The bey announced to his court that he intends to make Tunis someday the wealthiest port in the Mediterranean; no doubt an ambitious and lofty goal, but there was agreement that it could indeed be done. Money was spent on upgrading the city’s naval base, and was then spent on constructing warehouses and unloading equipment in the city’s commercial docks. There was certainly an increase in trade volume, although Tunis is still a far cry from even a secondary European port.

    Ceuta, Spanish Morocco

    The Spanish government made overtures to moderate Islamic clerics and similar-minded leaders in its Moroccan holdings this year, with government officials holding meetings with said leaders to discuss moving forward, working together to restore peace to the region, something denounced by the more radical imams. A law was passed by Madrid allowing Islam in Morocco as well as other religions the same protection as Catholicism enjoys in Spain. The moves have proven somewhat successful in quelling unrest and overt anti-Spanish sentiment amongst those clerics, and amongst the general populace as a whole, but the more radical clerics still hold a great deal of influence, and could potentially haunt the Spanish authorities in the future, but the colonial authorities have their eyes focused elsewhere.

    Marrakesh, Morocco

    As tensions showed themselves in Europe between the Spanish and the French after France’s moves to establish friendly relations with the Moroccan Sultan Abdullah II, several prominent nobles who had opposed the treaty with France were imprisoned after soldiers found evidence that showed they were plotting with Spain to overthrow the Sultan Abdullah. Using this event as a justification, the Sultan openly moved to suppress any perceived pro-Spanish sentiment in his court, a campaign which has proven effective in the upper echelons of the court, but the underlying sentiment remains.

    Ny Malmo, Danish Ny Skane

    The nascent Danish West African colony, only established a year ago, was officially chartered as the colony of Ny Skane by the Danish government in 1851. A fort, named Ny Malmo, was constructed adjacent to the original settlement at Ny Beddinge, and numerous other trading posts were constructed up and down the coast, continuing to make profits from trade. Missionaries have also begun to trickle in, but most of those have ultimately used the French posts, especially Port Anne, as bases instead.

    Port Anne, French West Africa

    The French possessions along the West African coast were expanded and existed ones improved. The fledgling settlement of Port Anne’s harbor infrastructure was expanded to facilitate trade and missionary activity; a number of French companies have begun to, albeit hesitantly and experimentally, send officials to Port Anne to examine the potential for expansion into the undoubtedly resource-rich heart of Africa. Several additional small trading posts and rudimentary outposts were constructed along points on the coast between Port Anne and the French holdings in the Ivory Coast; so far they have served as little more than coastal landmarks used by sailors in local waters.

    Spanish Congo

    In addition to continued expansion in its holdings elsewhere in Africa, Spanish traders and missionaries with government funding established a small settlement at the mouth of the Congo River, on the river’s north side, across the river from the northern end of the Portuguese holdings in Angola. The post has so far been marginally successful, with missionary activity beginning in earnest amongst the region still untouched by the Portuguese, although its initial settlers were somewhat decimated by disease. The dense jungles of the region have made any further progress inland nigh impossible.

    Kaapstad, Dutch Cape

    The eastern frontier of the Cape Colony flowed with blood this year, as the Dutch colonial authorities on behalf of Amsterdam conducted major campaigns against the Xhosa and Zulu peoples who had been sporadically raiding Dutch settlements in the region. The two sides have attacked each other with unprecedented ferocity, with the natives brutally assaulting Dutch settlements and the Dutch mercilessly slaughtering the natives, killing their cattle, and burning their homes, forcing them from their lands. The Dutch however always held the upper hand, and were able to expand their holdings, although at some cost; they proceeded to establish forts in the region, to facilitate the next wave of settlement. Behind the Dutch soldiers, with the natives partly cleared out, were civilian settlers, who built their own homesteads and towns. The threat of native attack is still ever-present.


    A depiction of one battle between a Dutch company and a Zulu warband

    To the northeast, however, the Dutch advances have had a rather unpleasant side effect. The leader of one particularly warlike local people, Mswati, has taken advantage of the European encroachment into his lands to unite several disparate groups, including Xhosa and Zulu migrating northwards, into a single state – Eswatini, named after himself – promising to keep his lands and people free from European oppression and brutality. Eswatini has proven not only a threat to the expansionist Dutch, but also to the Portuguese in Mozambique, as their frontier comes under increasing strife. But how long the diverse state can hold itself together is uncertain at best.

    (Netherlands: -2 Infantry Brigades
    (Eswatini: +Existence)
     
  3. SouthernKing

    SouthernKing crickety cricket

    Joined:
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    Events in Asia and the Pacific​


    Fort Krasnokidze, Russia

    The main result of Russian expansion into the Central Asian heartland was the subjugation and integration of much of the former Khanate of Kokand into Russian territory. Part of the under the command of esteemed Russian general Vasily Perovsky, Russian forces poured into the Khanate, first capturing the city of Ak-Mechet – renamed Fort Perovsky – followed by Sayram, Chimkent, Bishkek, and Almaty; Russian forts have been established in all of those cities. The Kokandi forces were nothing less than completely smashed whenever they attempted to meet the both numerically and tactically superior Russian forces in battle, and with the utter destruction of the Kokandi army, and the death of its Khan in battle, the Kokand Khanate has effectively ceased to exist as a unified state. The other remaining khanates in the region now look north with great concern, even as the Russians continue expanding aggressively from the northwest and from Fort Krasnokidze.

    (Russia: -4 Infantry Brigades, -1 Cavalry Brigade)

    Persian-Delhi Pact

    A watershed agreement was signed between the former rivals of Persia and Delhi this year, marking a significant warming in relations. The Persia-Delhi Pact, it is called, establishes a five-year long base non-aggression pact between Delhi and Persia, and a promise of maintaining at least cordial relations. Although there is little else substantial, the formerly high tensions between Tehran and Delhi have been almost instantaneously settled. While the agreement has its fair share of detractors in both nations, their respective monarchs have thrown their weight behind the pact as the way forward.

    Delhi, Delhi

    “A wave of modernization” is the only thing that can be described as having passed through Delhi this year. With the establishment of pro-business policies, such as low-interest loans and tax incentives to entrepreneurs, Delhi’s fledgling industrial sector saw significant expansion. Delhian officers began joining their counterparts from Persia and several European countries at Russian military academies. In close association with Russian firms, now able to enter Delhi more easily thanks to reduced tariff barriers, agriculture saw the introduction of mechanization, significantly increasing agricultural production.

    As all this activity occurred in the capital, in the northwestern region of Punjab, several cabals of radical Sikhs, fearing that the proposals at the religious conference last year would end their hopes for an independent Punjabi state, launched a moderate-scale revolt against the Delhian central government. The revolt lasted several months before the Delhian army was able to put it down relatively easily; most of the radical Sikh leaders involved have been eliminated, and the more moderate, peace-favoring Sikhs happy with the current progress of reforms have been able to fill in their power vacuums.

    Elsewhere, tension remains with traditionalist Islamic religious leaders antipathetic to the current modernization and association with the Russians, and those who claim that the Sultan has abandoned his roots and embraced modernization. The core of the military, formerly fiercely loyal to the Sultan and his predecessor, has started to see whispers of discontent.

    (Delhi: +1 Academia Development)

    Baroda, Baroda

    The elderly Maharaja Anand Rao II, the longtime ruler of the state of Baroda, passed away during this year’s summer monsoon season after an unfortunate illness. His son, the similarly named Anand Rao III, was crowned shortly afterwards, and in a sign of the times in Baroda, received his first salute from British guns. Greatly unlike his father, Anand Rao III is by all accounts a highly cultured man with a British education from childhood and is an Oxford alumnus. He has openly stated his admiration of the accomplishments of the Mysorean nation over the past half century. Many Barodans of influence are understandably quite reluctant to have a Western-educated man – there are other rumors that he is in fact a closet Anglican – rule over an Indian kingdom, but the new Maharaja does have his fair share of supporters.

    Mysore, Mysore

    Aside from continuing existing programs to peacefully encourage natively owned industrial growth in the country, in an effort to further establish Mysore’s position as a scientific and technological hub in Asia, the Maharaja has established an annual monetary prize, to be awarded to the creator of a single innovation deemed that year’s most significant or worthy. Additionally, the government has provided monetary encouragement for Mysorean academics and scientists to publish their work abroad, in European journals. While this has seen an impact in Great Britain, racial barriers mean that this has been virtually impossible thus far on the European Continent proper.

    Bangkok, Siam

    With neighboring Vietnam caught up in a chaotic war, the King of Siam thought it prudent to agree when the Danes approached him seeking an economic presence in the region in exchange for offers of military protection and economic aid. The Treaty of Pattaya, as it would ultimately be called, stipulated Danish guarantees of Siamese independence and provisions of economic and military assistance, while granting Danish subjects exclusive economic rights within Siam and exclusive use of the port of Laem Chabang As with any such case, the Siamese court has been thrown into a verbal civil war of sorts over the treaty, with a small but extremely vocal outright anti-Danish faction gaining a significant fraction of influence and popularity amongst the court, but the King remains unrelenting in his desire to keep Siam free and prosperous; he has stated publicly and repeatedly that this is not subjugation of any sort, but rather an alliance and an accord of friendship with the King of Denmark.

    Tu Duc’s War

    As the war in Vietnam entered its second year, the French under the local liaison, Charles Joseph, Comte de Flahaut, reestablished the deposed Tu Duc in Saigon as the “true” emperor of Vietnam, with the French authorities acting in an advisory capacity; to no one’s surprise, the comte de Fahaut has been the one truly making decisions in governance of the territory. Missionary activity has been suspended on orders from the French authorities; unruly Vietnamese have nevertheless brutally lynched several missionaries. The French navy established a blockade over the coast, but not before privateering traders were able to profit nicely by selling modern weaponry and other supplies to the Vietnamese; a number of those were still able to reach Vietnam via southern China. Several clashes between Vietnamese and French fleets all ended in easy French victories, and minimal French naval casualties. Following this, the French attempted to wrest control over the coastal cities. In the port city of Vinh, this was successful, but elsewhere, it was not; attempts by pro-French merchants to seize control of the city of Haiphong were put down after some fighting and the perpetrators executed.

    Meanwhile, the interior slipped further into chaos, as partisans and bandits fought other partisans and bandits. Local Khmer and Laotians rose up and secured control of parts of their respective regions; the Khmer did so with the aid of the French. The situation in the interior was further complicated by the entrance of the Siamese into the conflict Vietnam, as they launched an invasion of Laos in the intent of “protecting its border.” The local Laotian rebels that had sided with the French and any remaining Vietnamese in the area were indiscriminately put down by the Siamese.

    Through all of this, even with their progress, the French are finding that gaining the upper hand over the Vietnamese is increasingly difficult, with the Vietnamese obtaining ever more advanced weaponry from a plethora of sources and even adopting some of their enemies’ tactics. French morale has also begun to suffer, as disease takes its toll, and discontent has been seeded in the ranks. Simultaneously, the Vietnamese have also begun to suffer, as despite attempts at land reform, food supplies for their own armies are not as plenty as they once were, with the French raiding granaries and the blockade not helping.

    (France: -7 Infantry Brigades, -1 Artillery Brigade)
    (Vietnam: -8 Infantry Brigades; -7 Frigates; +1 Army Development)
    (Siam: -6 Infantry Brigades, -1 Artillery Brigade)

    Beijing, China

    With Korean money beginning to reach the Qing central government, the Qixiang Emperor, on the advice of some of his closest advisors, decided it was high time to begin reestablishing the Emperor’s authority over some of what he perceived to have slipped from his grip. To do so, he announced and began an anti-corruption drive in the military and some of the interior provinces, using that as a reason to have several influential bureaucrats and military leaders he labelled as “corrupt,” usually those which he felt were too powerful for the good of the state, removed from power and imprisoned. The drive has been successful to a degree, but has also revealed the expanding rot in the Chinese state, as a small but significant fraction of the targets have escaped prosecution.

    The Korean-managed operations in Manchuria continued expanding in size and scope, with an ever-increasing number of Chinese workers laboring in Korean-owned mines, logging camps, or farms, and productivity also on the rise. It is not the most honorable of labor, but for many Chinese in the region it is all the money they can find, even if the money may be Korean both in origin and in currency; many new shops in the region, often again owned by Koreans, are now only accepting Korean currency. Rumors are spreading in Manchuria that Chinese workers of Korean companies may be able to gain management positions in Korean companies if they learn the Korean language, although the truth remains highly dubious.

    Dejima War

    Already chaotic, the situation in Japan was further complicated through the course of 1851 as the fleets of a number of neighboring nations descended upon local waters, almost like vultures, ostensibly with the intent of protecting their respective trade. The bulk of the Russian navy was dispatched to the Kuril Islands, and the British stepped up patrols out of Hong Kong, as local authorities deemed the war to be a threat to British merchant activity, and the Koreans made their own moves into the region. Amidst the chaos, the Dutch set up a blockade around the islands. When they attempted to pursue several Japanese ships north, they instead encountered a pair of Russian vessels. An international incident erupted as the Russians and the Dutch fired upon each other, and a Dutch ship was sunken; no one was certain who fired first, both sides blaming the other. The Japanese fleet itself was annihilated by the Dutch blockaders. The Dutch similarly began destroying existing treaty ports, in an attempt to deter foreign trade.

    In Japan itself, the Dutch went on the attack again. However, even as they maintained superiority, they found themselves facing ever-better equipped Japanese forces, and a Japan increasingly united in defense from the invaders. Most Japanese who collaborated with the Dutch were seen and shunned as traitors, despite Dutch proclamations that collaborating daimyos retain their lands. The Dutch further went on the attack in Shikoku, where, despite high casualties, they were able to relatively quickly take the island. The Dutch then landed at the city of Osaka; the city was well-defended by the Japanese, but with heavy naval support, the city fell. The Dutch then met a large Japanese force in battle between Osaka and Kyoto; the Japanese inflicted heavy casualties, but the greater numbers of Dutch cavalry was able to outflank the Japanese and win the day. Kyoto came under siege; after about a month, the city fell, and both the Shogun and Emperor, who were unable to escape, were killed in the process as the Dutch entered.

    The Japanese armies had abandoned the island of Ezo early in the year; the Koreans then arrived in force, landing ground troops on the island. They then landed on Honshu itself, where with the bulk of the Japanese to the south fighting the Dutch, they were able to secure large swathes of the northern part of the island, including the port city of Niigata.

    Unfortunately, for the Japanese, all their attempts to defend were not enough. With no leadership, Japan effectively splintered. From their beachhead in Edo, the Dutch were able to seize most of central Honshu. However, most of Japan remains lawless territory, under only loose and tenuous control at best, divided between Dutch and Koreans.

    (Netherlands: -6 Infantry Brigades, -3 Cavalry Brigades, -3 Artillery Brigades; -2 Frigates)
    (Korea: -5 Infantry Brigades, -1 Cavalry Brigade, -1 Artillery Brigade)
    (Japan: -11 Infantry Brigades, -1 Cavalry Brigade, -2 Artillery Brigades, -8 Conscript Brigades; -8 Frigates; +1 Army Development; -Existence)

    Dutch Fiji

    In the isles of Fiji in the South Pacific, an arrangement was reached between the Dutch and cooperative local chieftains that purported to be the leaders of the archipelago, wherein a Dutch protectorate would be established over the island. The agreement also provided for the establishment of a Dutch coaling station and a rudimentary naval base, which has since been built on Viti Levu, Fiji’s largest island. Dutch business interests and missionaries have trickled into the newly gained islands; the former have begun to bring with them indentured laborers from Ceylon or the Dutch East Indies, and the presence of the latter in particular has incited tensions with the local Fijians. As of New Year’s Day 1852, Viti Levu is under secure Dutch influence, but the rest of the islands have resisted, with shifts in power bringing anti-Dutch chieftains to authority.


    Dutch missionaries at a newly established mission on Fiji

    Honolulu, American Hawaii

    An American frigate was dispatched to the Sandwich Islands, known to the locals as Hawaii, in order to claim the island chain for the American Republic. When the local monarch refused to cooperate, the gunboat simply bombarded the capital of Honolulu, before unloading a small number of its crew to capture the town, ending the Kingdom of Hawaii and bringing the island of Oahu under American control. The other islands in the archipelago have fallen to the rule of local chieftains, rather than the American newcomers, as the Americans did not have the manpower or willpower to secure the other islands.
     
  4. SouthernKing

    SouthernKing crickety cricket

    Joined:
    Dec 29, 2010
    Messages:
    6,914
    Location:
    Deva Loka
    Diplomacy

    To: Whahyedi Caliphate
    From: Yemen


    Your offers of protection are acceptable to us. In regards to piracy, we would like to request any assistance you may be able to provide in protecting our coasts and border against the usurping scum in Oman.

    To: France
    From: Morocco


    His Majesty the Sultan is interested in reforming the Moroccan educational system, and while he is not interested in introducing the Catholic aspects of the French system, he is interested in receiving some French support in the matter.

    To: The World
    From: Moderate Faction of the College of Cardinals


    It has become increasingly apparent to us that the current Papacy and its supporters are out of touch with the realities of the temporal world, and cannot be trusted to lead the souls of humanity forward. We also say with heavy hearts that it has also become increasingly apparent to us that the city of Rome, despite its storied history and obvious connections, is no longer a suitable site for the seat of the Holy See. Because of this, we are interested in “reestablishing” the Holy See elsewhere; creating an anti-Papacy, if you must absolutely call it that. We inquire whether any of our Catholic brothers are willing to host our wishes.

    OOC

    The PMs certain people wanted me to send will be sent tomorrow when I have more time.

    Education tech has been renamed Academia, if only because I like that name much better. Thanks J.K. Stockholme! I’ve also renamed “Technology” to “Development” and will remain with that name, as it makes more sense in context I think; there’s absolutely no difference save for cosmetics. The rules and front page will shortly be updated to reflect these changes.

    Saying “X EP into Economy” without telling me what exactly you’re doing with that funding doesn’t really help me (and, by extension, whoever you’re playing) very much. You don’t have to go into absurd detail; I’m even fine with (like what some of y’all have been doing) listing some economic policies and stating “X EP into these economic-related things,” but “X EP into Economy” (or similarly, “X EP into Education” or any such other) is simply too vague for me to do a lot with.

    In addition, it has been pointed out by certain people who know far more about economics than I do that a few countries’ economies are a bit wonky. Economic growth rates have been slightly adjusted to compensate for this fact. This kind of criticism is in fact very helpful, and much appreciated.

    The following countries have been NPC’d due to their respective players’ inactivity: Turkey (Amon Savag), Virginia (ChiefDesigner)

    Please inform me of stats errors, as always.

    ---

    Various people, especially Mosher: This turn was 1851, not 1852 (nor is it 1952, for that matter :p). So Polish elections aren’t until next year (aka the coming turn)

    Lord of Elves: I’ve combined Port Anne and the Ivory Coast into a single “French West Africa” in the stats since that seems to be what you’re going for, and also to ease maintenance for me. Correct me if you don’t want this.

    germanicus12: One of the countries paid you 15 EP more than accounted for; this has been added to your bank.

    Bair_the_Normal: Unfortunately, your country was destroyed; I’d love to have you continue as someone else if you choose to.

    ---

    Spoiler :


    Stats are up, I'll update the rest of the front page tomorrow, the deadline for 1852 is now Friday, March 14
     
  5. Bair_the_Normal

    Bair_the_Normal 全は禪

    Joined:
    Jan 31, 2012
    Messages:
    1,633
    Gender:
    Male
    Location:
    郊外界
    OOC: Eh, it was pretty predictable, considering just how poorly I played it. :p

    Congratulations to those who have conquered me, I guess.

    I'll think on it, though as always it is Serbia that cries loudest to me. Or La Plata.

    And I do commend Nuka on his prediction of my early switch, albeit not in the way he intended.
     
  6. Nuka-sama

    Nuka-sama See ya! It has been a fun decade!

    Joined:
    Jan 27, 2006
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    Gender:
    Male
    I'd like to petition for a color change to something like a light baby blue please :) The map looks incredibly confusing
     
  7. cpm4001

    cpm4001 Goggleman

    Joined:
    May 27, 2013
    Messages:
    2,000
    Location:
    Not here
    OOC: We seem to have sparked the Vietnam war about a century early. Do you think the American Republic would like to come and get involved, too?

    Anyway, I think I probably will end up switching nations, at least now that I won't be the first country into the Hall of Dead Nations (@Bair_The_Normal - you think you played Japan poorly? Look at how badly I mangled Vietnam!) SouthernKing, if the original player doesn't come back, mind if I hop to my secondary pick of Turkey? (I can hang on as Vietnam for another update if you'd prefer, though; I don't know what the proper 'etiquette' is for that sort of situation.)
     
  8. Mosher

    Mosher Mushroom dad

    Joined:
    Dec 11, 2010
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    6,088
    Location:
    New England
    Haha, whoops. I think I got two games confused. :lol:
     
  9. J.K. Stockholme

    J.K. Stockholme Right Opposition

    Joined:
    Nov 15, 2011
    Messages:
    1,180
    Location:
    Canada
    @SK: two errors; I believe the Freedmen's Republic's upkeep is 1 EP more than it should be (7 + 4 + 2 = 13, not 14), and the Freedmen's Republic's banked EP should be 5 (based on last turn's spending), rather than zero. Am I correct?
     
  10. Grandkhan

    Grandkhan Telvanni Master Wizard

    Joined:
    Nov 24, 2011
    Messages:
    2,677
    Location:
    Inside a mushroom
    Excellent update SK. An independent confederal Xhosa state in South Africa is actually a pretty cool development.

    Lots of diplomacy incoming, I don't have internet at home so I've got CFC access for maybe 1 hour every day.

    Also Bair you should take China - its important and it'd probably be more fun to have a player there.
     
  11. mrrandomplayer

    mrrandomplayer Hopeless Situation Warrior

    Joined:
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    Location:
    The land of prequel memes
    Nothing happened to Italy?
     
  12. Milarqui

    Milarqui Deity

    Joined:
    Dec 31, 2005
    Messages:
    5,226
    Location:
    Granada, Andalucía, España, Europa
    Great update! You do need to do something with the Netherlands and Mysore's colors, I keep getting them mixed up. Also, the Treaty of Olivenza isn't listed on the front page.

    Now, to plan something for the federalization of Spain, the colonies and the advancement of the technology in here...
     
  13. Immaculate

    Immaculate unerring

    Joined:
    Jan 22, 2003
    Messages:
    7,590
    From Russia,
    To World,


    In accordance with the precedents set by the Dutch and American Republic in the Pacific and many other nations across the globe, the Imperial Russian Navy hereby places the Bonin Archipelago, Mariana, Palau, and Caroline islands under its protection, to be defended by its navy and our armed forces and to be administered jointly by local chieftains and the colonial authority of the Russian Pacific Islands.

    Foreign business in the region should be coordinated through the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
     
  14. DuneBear

    DuneBear Warlord

    Joined:
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    238
    Location:
    Neither Here Nor There
    Great update SK! Looking forward to many more :)
     
  15. SouthernKing

    SouthernKing crickety cricket

    Joined:
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    Location:
    Deva Loka
    Thanks!

    My thoughts exactly. I'll change yours and probably Mysore's as well.

    I'm perfectly fine with you switching now, it's up to you though.

    Hehe, no problem.

    You're correct, I'm not quite sure what happened there. I'll make the necessary fixes.

    Unfortunately (or perhaps fortunately?) nothing important really happened there this year.

    I haven't updated the front page since before I started working on this update :p that is in fact what I'm doing now.
     
  16. germanicus12

    germanicus12 First Citizen of Rome

    Joined:
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    Ancient Rome
    Great update.

    Diplomatic responses will be answered in 1 to 2 days.
     
  17. Milarqui

    Milarqui Deity

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    Location:
    Granada, Andalucía, España, Europa
    Still can't see the treaty of Olivenza...
     
  18. GamezRule

    GamezRule Inconceivable!

    Joined:
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    Great Update. My military stats are wrong, though. I should have 14 cavalry and 21 artillery.
     
  19. SouthernKing

    SouthernKing crickety cricket

    Joined:
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    Deva Loka
    I do not know what you are talking about :mischief:

    Spoiler :
    I added it.


    Thanks, fixed.

    ---

    Do the colors on this map work for everyone?

    Spoiler :
     
  20. cpm4001

    cpm4001 Goggleman

    Joined:
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    Messages:
    2,000
    Location:
    Not here
    All but Korea's. Right now looking at east Asia is somewhat painful. Perhaps a different shade of blue?

    Also, I think I will switch over to Turkey here; though I think Tu Duc's War is winnable for Vietnam, it'll take a very long time and I'd honestly like to try playing as a country that's not at war!
     

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